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29.09.2013, admin
Green discoloration of the nail plate is the most common change in nail color of the fingernails. Interestingly, pseudomonas infections of the nail usually develop first on the dominant thumb.
Fortunately, the bond between the nail plate and nail bed is strong, and nail separation rarely occurs. You can help clients avoid pseudomonas bacteria infections by encouraging them to keep their nails at a moderate length and not to use them as tools.
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Infection of the big toe or hallux can occur suddenly and cause great discomfort and pain which can be debilitating.
Bacterial skin infections are common skin infections that can affect anyone, at any age, particularly those with weak immune system, elderly, obese and diabetics. Some other factors that can cause bacterial infections are poor hygiene, hot and humid climate, and intake of steroids.
Some common bacterial infections include Impetigo, Folliculitis, Cellulitis, Erysipelas, Furuncles and Boils or Carbuncles.
Cellulitis is another common bacterial skin infection that spreads rapidly to the soft tissues under the skin by bacteria entering through broken and dry skin. Anyone having skin wounds should clean the wound and apply antibiotic to prevent cellulitis. This skin infection is a form of cellulitis which affects the upper layers of patient’s skin. Mild folliculitis infections do not require treatment as they usually clear up on their own in few weeks, unless there is a severe infection. Furuncle or boils are skin abscesses which infects hair follicle and its surrounding tissues. They can occur in hair follicles of any part of body, but commonly they occur on face, neck, buttocks, armpit, or thighs.
Often different bacterial infections show similar symptoms; visiting a skin specialist can help you to get proper diagnosis.
People with certain medical condition like diabetes, HIV and obesity can contract bacterial skin infection easily. Visit your GP if your nails have changed in colour, texture, shape or thickness and you don't know why (you haven't injured your nails or been biting them). Brittle nails are often just a sign of ageing or long-term exposure to water or chemicals such as detergents and nail polish. A less common cause of crumbly nails is reactive arthritis, an unusual reaction of the immune system affecting the joints, muscles and other parts of the body following an infection. Green-black nails can be caused by overgrowth of bacteria called pseudomonas, especially under loose nails. Brown nails can sometimes be caused by thyroid disease, pregnancy, malnutrition and frequent use of nail varnish.
If the discolouration looks like a drop of oil under the nail plate or is the colour of salmon, you may have psoriasis of the nails. Fingernails that are half white and half brown (brown near the tips) can be a sign of kidney failure, where the kidneys stop working properly.
Half-and-half nails have also been seen in some people with AIDS and can be seen following chemotherapy. If most of the nail plate has turned white and it's not because the nail has become detached from the nail bed, it's likely to be either a fungal nail infection or a sign of decreased blood supply to the nail bed, known as "Terry's nails". Sometimes, the big toenails become so overgrown and thickened that they resemble claws and are almost impossible to cut with conventional nail clippers.
A loose nail should be cut back to where it's detached to allow the nail to become reattached as it grows. Illness, injury or cold temperatures can interrupt nail growth and cause nail grooves to form at the base of the nails. These grooves tend to only be noticed a few months later, when the nails have grown and the grooves have moved up the nails to become visible. Clubbing of the fingertips means the tissue beneath the nails thickens and the fingertips become rounded and bulbous. White spots or streaks are normal and nothing to worry about, but parallel white lines that extend all the way across the nails, known as Muehrcke's lines, are a sign of low levels of protein in the blood.
If you have dark skin, it's fairly common to find dark stripes running down your nails (linear melanonychia).
However, it's not something to ignore: dark stripes may sometimes be a form of skin cancer that affects the nail bed, called subungual melanoma. Generally, subungual melanoma only affects one nail. Also, it will cause the stripe to change in appearance (for example, it may become wider or darker over time) and the pigmentation may also affect the surrounding skin (the nail fold). If you have what look like red or brown little streaks underneath the nails, it's likely these are splinter haemorrhages – lines of blood caused by tiny damaged blood vessels. Just a few splinters under one nail are nothing to worry about and most likely due to injury of the nail. If one of your nails becomes destroyed and you don't remember injuring it, it's important to see your GP.


Paronychia is the name for inflammation of the nail fold, which is the skin and soft tissue that frames and supports the nail.
Paronychia can be acute, where it develops over a few hours, or chronic, where it lasts more than six weeks. Acute infective paronychia usually starts after a minor injury to the nail fold, such as from nail biting, picking or manicures. Acute paronychia is often caused by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, although any number of germs can be involved.
Sometimes, acute paronychia is caused by the cold sore virus, in which case it's known as herpetic whitlow.
Acute paronychia can completely clear in a few days with treatment, but if it's not treated or doesn't respond to treatment, it can become long-term (chronic).
To settle chronic paronychia, both the skin damage and the colonisation with germs needs to be addressed. It can take months for chronic paronychia to clear, and after that up to a year for nails to grow back to normal.
You may be referred to a dermatologist for further investigation of the underlying skin disease or for contact allergy testing, and for treatment advice. Yellow-green, green, and green-black discolorations of the nail plate are caused by pseudomonas bacteria, which can grow in the cleft between the nail plate and nail bed at the base of the nail. Right-handed persons are most likely to develop the green discoloration on their right thumbnail, while lefties are more likely to develop it on their thumbnail. It is only when the nails are compromised that the nail plate and bed partially separate and infection develops at the site of separation.
Also recommend that clients wear rubber gloves with cotton inserts to do wet work such as washing dishes.
Pratibha Patel is a podiatrist located in Chicago, Illinois in the Edgebrook (60646) neighborhood. Patel provides individualized treatment plans for podiatric ailments such as ingrown toenails, foot pain, plantar warts, bunions and toenail fungus.
It is best to see a podiatrist or foot doctor who can properly diagnose and treat your toe infection.
The infection can range from merely annoying minor infection to life threatening condition, if neglected and not treated timely.
Amongst the many species of bacteria (more than 200 species) that live in our skin, most bacterial skin infections are mainly caused by two harmful bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and a form of Streptococcus, if barriers of the skin are breached by them. Those with weakened immune system, elderly, diabetics, and people with fungal infection have greater risk of developing this infection. Wound should be covered with bandage and regular dressing of the wound should be done to prevent cellulite infection. Symptoms can disappear within a week but affected person must complete the course of antibiotics prescribed by the physician from 10-14 days. Its symptoms are quite similar to cellulitis, but mostly the infection occurs in the areas with blocked lymphatic system. Any part of our body with hair can have folliculitis, especially the part which gets excessive sweating or has ingrown hair or tight clothing that causes friction. Diabetic people are more at risk due to poor blood circulation and increased sugar level that inhibit white blood cells to fight the infection.
They're often a sign of a fungal nail infection or injury, but can sometimes indicate a more serious underlying disease.
Nails can be strengthened by taking biotin (vitamin B7) supplements, by wearing gloves for all wet work and by frequently applying moisturising cream to the nails.
If you have a combination of symptoms affecting different parts of your body, your GP might consider this condition. This can be treated by applying antibiotic eye drops underneath the nails or soaking the affected nails in an antiseptic solution or vinegar. The link is not fully understood, but one theory is that kidney failure causes chemical changes in the blood that encourage melanin (a skin pigment) to be released into the nail bed. It's also possible that kidney failure causes an increase in the number of tiny blood vessels in the nail bed.
This nail disorder is known as onychogryphosis ("ram's horn nails"), and is seen in older people or as a response to long-term pressure on the nails. However, if you haven't injured your nail, a loose nail is often caused by over-manicuring the nails and cleaning under the nails with a sharp object. It takes about four to six months for a fingernail to fully grow out, and 6-12 months for a toenail.
This occurs in more than 77% of black people over the age of 20, and in most cases is perfectly normal. However, if many nails are affected, these splinters may be a sign of lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, an infection of the heart valves (endocarditis) or another underlying disease. It's most common in people who often have their hands in water or chemicals, such as cleaners, bartenders, canteen staff or fishmongers. The affected nail folds are swollen and may be red and sore from time to time, often after exposure to water. These germs thrive on previously damaged skin, without necessarily starting the skin damage in the first place. Pseudomonas bacteria ordinarily does not thrive on the skin and under nails because skin that is dry and cool inhibits the growth of microorganisms.


When the hands are removed from water and dried, residual water evaporates from the nail bed through the nail plate. How frequently the hands are immersed in water and how often the nails are traumatized are two important factors. Patients wait several weeks or months before seeking treatment which further increases the infection in the toe. The toenail acts as a foreign body as it grows inward into the skin causing inflammation, swelling, and pain. Though our skin is designed in such a way that they work as a shield against these bacterial infections, yet if there is any cut, burn or breakage in the skin, bacteria is able to enter the body and cause damage.
Precaution like proper hand wash with antibacterial soap and cleaning of the cut should be done to prevent infection. Diabetic people need to keep their skin moisturized and as a precaution protect their feet and hands by wearing gloves and proper footwear. Cellulite commonly appears on legs and arms but children usually have cellulite infection on either head or neck. Infection caused by staphylococci can come up just by even one follicle being irritated by shaving or any other reason. They appear as red blisters in the beginning and eventually change into pustules and increase in size. Right and timely treatment will reduce the risk of spreading the treatment to other parts of the body.
Person suffering from HIV or AIDS and other weak immune system disorder are also vulnerable to bacterial infection easily because the body has less capacity to fight infection.
Regular chiropody can help, but sometimes the nails need to be removed by a podiatrist or doctor. Sometimes, there's an underlying skin condition such as eczema or psoriasis or another medical condition such as diabetes or HIV.
The nail plate gradually becomes thickened and ridged as it grows, and may become yellow or green and brittle. Conditions have to be just right for bacteria to grow and produce the pigment pyocyanin, which causes the green discoloration. Whether picking up tiny objects or buttoning clothing, our nails enable us to grasp objects and make fine manipulations.
It is much easier to pry open a can with a long tool, such as a screwdriver, than with a small one, such as the edge of a coin.
Evaporation allows nails to stay dry, which discourages the growth of pseudomonas bacteria and yeast (including the common candida albicans). In order to alleviate the pain and induce healing, it is best to remove the ingrown portion of the toenail. Severe infection of cellulite must be treated at hospital without delay, as infection can spread to other parts of the body and even reach the brain. Scratching the area and then touching some other person’s skin without washing hands properly or sharing towels with others can pass on the infection to others.
Where there is damage in the hair follicle bacteria enters deeper into follicle tissues and subcutaneous tissue. Practicing good hygiene and avoiding direct contact with the infected person can help to prevent it from spreading.
Each time nails perform these functions, counter-pressure is applied between the thumbnail and one of the other four fingernails.
The longer instrument affords greater leverage and applies greater pressure with the same amount of effort as applied with a shorter object. People who have their hands constantly in water and wear artificial extensions are at highest risk for developing a nail infection. Local anesthesia is administered to the big toe and a minor surgical procedure is performed to remove the ingrown portion of the toenail. For severe infection, consulting a skin care professional will help to get the best course of treatment and prevent the infection from getting worse.
Consequently, the thumbnail is subject to more frequent trauma throughout the day than any other digit. Dressings remain on the big toe for 24 hours, after which patients are instructed to perform warm water soaks and application of topical antibiotic. If the boil is too large, a skin care specialist is needed to surgically drain the pus and provide relief to the patient. As a result, there is a tendency for the nail to separate from the nail bed on the thumbnail of the dominant hand, creating the ideal warm, damp environment for bacterial growth. For fungal or bacterial infections, treatment includes oral antifungal or antibiotic medications to heal the infection.
For infections caused by diabetes or circulation, a thorough history and physical exam which includes x-rays and blood work is performed to better assess the infection.
The treatment plan entails wound care, proper management of diabetes, and even a referral to specialist such as a vascular surgeon.



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