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The term metabolism refers to the utilisation of a substrate such as organic material by micro-organisms.
In the absence of oxygen, other compounds may serve as an oxidant, such as nitrate, nitrite, sulphite and sulphate. Certain micro-organisms are capable to metabolise organic material In the absence of an oxidant, a process called fermentation. It results in a rearrangement of the electrons in molecules of the metabolised compound in such a fashion that at least two new molecules are formed. Airborne bacteria emissions from oxidation ditch with rotating aeration brushes were investigated in a municipal wastewater treatment plant in Beijing, China.
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Recent Total Maximum Daily Load restrictions for industrial Waste Water Treatment Plants have Paper Mills concerned about the release of nutrients from the benthic layer in an Aeration Stabilization Basin (ASB). Environmental Business Specialists specializes in optimizing ASBs biological health to maximize biological uptake of nutrients in the aerated zone.
EBS can provide all these services as part of our commitment to helping clients better utilize our products to improve water quality.
Get access to wastewater info, workshops, seminars, customized on-site training, and online wastewater courses.
137Cs encourage the isolation of bacterial species resistant to radioactive nuclides and could accumulate such nuclides. The increases of environmental concern over the accumulation of the long term impact radioactive nuclides e.g.
Natural or synthetic ion exchangers, such as zeolites, montmorillonites, silicotitanate, molybdophosphates, phosphotungstates, hexacyanoferrates and others have been used for large scale separation of cesium from low and intermediate level radioactive waste effluents [7-12][7]. The removal of 137Cs using marine green algae Enteromorpha torta collected from western Alexandria coast was studied [20].
In a study on radioactive cesium ingestion by people in areas of Ukraine and Russia contaminated by the Chernobyl accident, a strong relationship was found between the extent of mushroom consumption and whole body radioactive cesium content at all study sites. Binder incubator model WTB-720 was used for incubation of bacterial agar plates and slants. The activity of the collected hazardous liquid sample was determined using high pure germanium detector.
The identification of bacterial isolates was carried out using Biolog (GEN III) instrument which is automated system for bacterial identification. The water sample collected from low level radioactive waste solutions at Hot Lab Station was mixed thoroughly.
The identification of bacterial isolates was carried out using Biolog GEN III in Cairo Mircen, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain-Shams University. The pure bacterial slants were eluted with sterilized 5ml distilled water and transferred to 500 ml conical flasks containing 150 ml nutrient broth, then incubated in environmental orbital shaker at 37 ?C for 24 h. Sodium alginate gel (4%) was prepared by dissolving 4 g in 100 ml distilled water with gentle stirring overnight. A mixture of PVA and sodium alginate gel was prepared where; 6 g of PVA was dissolved in 100 ml distilled water at 90 - 110 ?C with gentle stirring, then 4 g of sodium alginate was added and left overnight with stirring at 60 - 70 ?C. The immobilized biomass beads were prepared by mixing the desired biomass weight thoroughly with the certain gel volume before cross linking and injection into the caustic solution, then the same above previous steps were followed. In batch experiment the free biomass or the exact gel volume of control or immobilized with studied bacteria was mixed with 10 ml 137Cs solution in 25 ml conical flask. The analysis of the hazardous liquid waste showed the presence of 60Co in the liquid waste (Figure 1), so the isolated bacterial species will be radioactive resistant bacteria. The support selection is one of the crucial decisions in preparation of the immobilization process [29].
The ability of reusing the biosorption system and its efficiency through different cycles was studied for three cycles. AcknowledgementsThe authors wish to express their thanks and recognition to the Head and staff members of the Radiation Protection Department for their kind help and cooperation during the progress of this work. Invariably part of the metabolised organic material is transformed to chemically stable end products, which is an energy releasing process. In this case the catabolic process will be the oxidation of organic material by oxygen, also called aerobic respiration. Microbial samples were collected at different distances from the rotating brushes, different heights above the water surface, and different operation state over a 3-month period (April, May, and June) in order to estimate the seasonal variation and site-related distribution characteristics of the microorganisms present. These nutrient releases increase the residuals of nitrogen and phosphorous at the back end of the Aerated Stabilization Basin.
Biological health can be analyzed by various tests done at EBS in addition to a Microscope Examination. Bacterial species isolated from hazardous liquid wastes at Hot Laboratories Centre were investigated for their removal of 137Cs from waste solutions. The effect of different activities on the uptake of 137Cs using control CA and CA-immobilized B. IntroductionAs an abundant fission radionuclide, 137Cs has been paid considerable attention due to its gamma radiations, a long half-life of 30 years, high water solubility and labilization.
However, one disadvantage for the application of ion-exchangers relates to the competitive interactions of other monovalent cations, in particular Na? and K? in waste effluents, which can considerably block Cs? adsorption [5]. Also, saprotrophic and mycorrhizal basidiomycetes can accumulate radioactive cesium and these organisms may form a major pool of radioactive cesium in soil; grazing of fruit bodies by animals may lead to radioactive cesium transfer along the food chain [21]. Stock solutions were prepared by dissolving distinct amount in one liter distilled water, then other concentrations were prepared by dilution. The biomass production was done using Lab Line Orbital Environmental Shaker model (3527-1).
In three Petri dishes, 1 ml of water samples was taken and mixed with 10 ml nutrient agar under sterile conditions.
The instrument analyze the ability of the cell to metabolize all major classes of biochemical's, in addition to determining other important physiological properties such as pH, salt, lactic acid tolerance, reducing power, and chemical sensitivity [23]. Each conical flask was used to inoculate three one liter conical flasks containing 200 ml of nutrient broth.

The gel mixture was injected into 100 ml caustic solution composed of 2 % CaCl2 and saturated boric acid with ratio (1:1). The beads were washed thoroughly with distilled water and kept in refrigerator for use [27].
The experimental conditions were adjusted with pH value of 6 - 6.5, the temperature was 25 ± 3 °C and stirring was 120 rpm. The total activities of the sample for the two beaks of 60Co were 9729 Bq and 12406 Bq at channels 1173 and 1332, respectively. The support criteria such as; physical characteristic, possibility of microbial growth, biodegradability, solubility and increasing biosorption capacity are very important parameters [30].
Results showed in (Figure 4) Indicated that the increase in beads numbers increased the uptake percent.
The concentration of bacterial aerosol was analyzed by culture methods, while their dominant species, genetic structure and diversity were assayed using bio-molecular tools. Well-aerated sections inhibit settling, which in turn keep bacterial cells in suspension moving towards the effluent. The biosorption capacities of the free and immobilized biomass were studied using batch experiments at optimum conditions.
It has been shown that hazardous quantities of 137Cs will remain in the environment for centuries, with long lasting severe harm for human health and organisms [Science, 237, 633-634, 1987.">1, Rhodococcus erythropolis CS98,” J. Hence, sorbents with better selectivity are required for Cs? removal from solutions containing large amounts of Na? and K?. The biosorption was fast and pH-dependent, and Langmuir isotherm equation indicated that the biosorption of 137Cs was a monolayer adsorption implied that R. In the present study the bacterial species; Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus licheniformis isolated from low level radioactive waste solutions were examined for their removal efficiency of 137Cs. Cesium-137 solution was prepared by labeling 100 ppm CsCl solution with certain volume of 137Cs to obtain the desired activities. The produced biomasses were harvested using cooling centrifuge, then washed with distilled water and kept frozen till use [24]. The formed beads were left in CaCl2 solution for one hour with gentle stirring, then washed thoroughly with distilled water and kept in refrigerator for use [20]. The process was repeated until the 20 ml were dried, then the glass watch was measured using High Pure Germanium Detector.
Samples of 1ml were taken at different contact times 15, 30, 60, 120 minutes, to determine the solution activity, and then the removed 137Cs could be calculated. This explained by increasing surface area for control and immobilized beads, in addition of increasing biomass weight for the immobilized beads [31]. A second process, occurring simultaneously with catabolism is anabolism, the process of synthesis of new cellular mass. It is concluded that the organic material represents both an energy source and a material source for the micro-organisms, as is displayed in Figure 2.3. This fermentation is characterised by the fact that the end products are methane and carbon dioxide. Results showed that total microbial concentrations were highest in June and lowest in April. Development and calibration of real-time PCR for quantification of airborne microorganisms in air samples. Settling and quiescent zones allow bacterial cells to settle out and over time these cells are buried by additional cell sedimentation.
Recently, more and more attention has been paid to the use of biological technologies for the removal of Cs radioisotopes from radioactive waste effluents, owing to their good performance, low cost and large available quantities. The gel injected into the caustic solution (0.5 N Na OH) and left for five minutes with gentle stirring.
The activity of 137Cs solutions was determined by counting 1ml sample for 300 seconds using Multichannel Analyzer (MCA) at channel of 662 Kev. The accumulated beads (control or immobilized) were washed with 10 ml (0.1 N) HCl for 10 min and then with distilled water [28].
The reuse experiments indicated that elution after first cycle was lower than that after the second cycle which followed by decreasing in biosorption percent of the second cycle.
Depending on the type of micro-organisms involved, the source material for synthesis may be organic material (heterotrophic micro-organisms) or carbon dioxide (autotrophic micro-organisms). The ratio between bacterial mass and its COD value is determined, which allows the yield coefficient for heterotrophic growth to be calculated.
The particularity is that methane cannot be further reduced and carbon dioxide cannot be further oxidised, so that anaerobic digestion is the most complete of all fermentation processes. The mechanical rotation caused remarkable variation in concentration and diversity of culturable airborne bacteria before and after the rotating brushes. Physical forces drive the release of nutrients back into the Aeration Stabilization Basin; diffusion, temperature, and sediment disturbances are the main physical controls for benthic nutrient feedback. The effects of the immobilized weight, beads numbers and initial 137Cs activity on the removal efficiency were studied. Several types of microorganisms and plants have been applied for the removal of Cs [2,5,6,13-18].
It was observed that the equilibrium reached in three hours and the maximum biosorption of 134Cs was occurred at pH 7 for all sorbents. The formed beads were transferred to 100 ml 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution with gentle stirring for 20 minutes, then washed with distilled water and kept in refrigerator for use [26]. The instruments were first calibrated with point source and each measurement was done in triplicate.
However, increasing the elution percent after the second cycle improved the biosorption ability to about 50% of the first cycle. Nitrifiers, responsible for the transformation of ammonium to nitrate, are an example of autotrophic bacteria. Addition of nitrogen is generally in the form of ammonia; and phosphorous is generally in the form of polyphosphates or phosphoric acid. The biosorption capacity decreased with the increase in biomass weight for both bacterial strains [20].

Bacterial community polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis indicated that diversity decreased gradually with increasing height above the water surface but remained relatively constant at the same height.
In the aerated portion of the Aeration Stabilization Basin, bacteria consume and store soluble nutrients incorporating them into organic materials or storing them in vacuoles.
Anaerobic bacteria in the sediments continue to cycle nutrients in various forms, both releasing inorganic nutrients into the pore spaces as old cells die and in turn incorporating the released nutrients back into organic matter by new cell growth. It has been noted that in a biological metal removal process using living cells, the low toxicity of Cs? was regarded as an advantage, even though the radiolytical effect for both radioisotopes (134Cs and 137Cs) might be an important drawback of this type of approach. The washed beads were added to new 137Cs solution to start the second cycle and the previous two steps were repeated to perform the third cycle. The results indicated that the elution after the first cycle was lower than that after second and third cycles, consequently the biosorption of the second cycle was lower than the first and the third cycles. Nutrient optimization in addition to engineering controls and careful monitoring can be used to control nutrient residuals at the effluent.
Reused experiments for the control CA and CA- immobilized bacteria beads were studied for three cycles.
Bioaccumulation of 137Cs by Immobilized Bacterial Species Isolated from Radioactive Wastewater. The fate of radioactive cesium in the environment has heightened considerably in recent years in the wake of the Chernobyl accident in 1986 [4]. However, the increase in the immobilized biomass decreases the uptake capacity of the immobilized system [Nature and Science, 8(11), 214-221, 2010.">20, Cunninghamella elegans,” J.
Studies on the factors improving the biosorption of the immobilized system cleared that, the increase in the beads numbers for both control and immobilized CA-beads resulted in increase of 137Cs uptake percent.
Pathogenic species such as Moraxella nonliquefaciens and Flavobacterium odoratum were isolated from the bioaerosols.
The elution percent increased after the second cycle followed by increase in the removal percent. The distribution of released 137Cs and 134Cs is related to the chemical properties of Cs+, which generally dictate a high degree of mobility and bioavailability.
Due to the serious health risks involved, exposure of sewage workers to airborne microorganisms caused by brush aerators should be monitored and controlled. Evaluation of the environmental impact of microbial aerosols generated by wastewater treatment plants utilizing different aeration systems. The studied CA-immobilized system could be used for more than one cycle with removal efficiency of about 50 % of the first cycle.
Direct biological cesium accumulation from the environment occurs readily in lower organisms and primary producers, e.g. Also, the percent uptake by immobilized dead Cunninghamella elegans beads was slightly higher than alive one.
Cesium accumulation by higher animals results predominantly from consumption of contaminated food stuffs, although direct inhalation absorption from the environment may also occur. Animal viruses, coliphages, and bacteria in aerosols and wastewater at a spry irrigation site.
Thus radioactive cesium continues to be re-circulated in biological systems, for many years, following a pulse of contamination [J.
Characterisation of the microbial 16S rDNA diversity of an aerobic phosphorus-removal ecosystem and monitoring of its transition to nitrate respiration. Mucoid nitrate-negative Moraxella nonliquefaciens from three patients with chronic lung disease. Long-term monitoring of the succession of a microbial community in activated sludge from a circulation flush toilet as a closed system. Determination of emitted airborne microorganisms from a BIO-PAK wastewater treatment plant. Improvements in the positive-hole correction for multijet aerosol impactors collecting viable microorganisms.
Distribution characterization of microbial aerosols emitted from a wastewater treatment plant using the Orbal oxidation ditch process. Assessing genetic structure and diversity of airborne bacterial communities by DNA fingerprinting and 16S rDNA clone library. Identification of acetate- or methanol-assimilating bacteria under nitrate-reducing conditions by stable-isotope probing. Microbiological and biochemical characterisation of dairy and brewery wastewater microbiota. The Annals of the University Dunarea de Jos of Galati Fascicle VI-Food Technology New Series, II(XXXI), 23–30.Palmer, C.
Detection of Legionella species in reclaimed water and air with the environAmp Legionella PCR kit and direct fluorescent antibody staining.
Pulmonary infection due to the dassie bacillus (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex sp.) in a free-living dassie (rock hyrax—Procavia capensis) from South Africa. Determination of enterobacteria in air and wastewater samples from a wastewater treatment plant by epi-fluorescence microscopy. Infective endocarditis caused by Moraxella nonliquefaciens in a percutaneous aortic valve replacement. Effect of the aeration system on the levels of airborne microorganisms generated at wastewater treatment plants. Biodegradation potential and bacterial diversity of a petrochemical wastewater treatment plant in Iran. The type 4 pilin of Moraxella nonliquefaciens exhibits unique similarities with the pilins of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Dichelobacter (Bacteroides) nodosus. Reclassification of Flavobacterium odoratum (Stutzer 1929) strains to a new genus Myroides as Myroides odoratus comb.

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