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Send Home Our method Usage examples Index Contact StatisticsWe do not evaluate or guarantee the accuracy of any content in this site. Hard X-rays can penetrate solid objects, and their largest use is to take images of the inside of objects in diagnostic radiography and crystallography.
The roentgen (R) is an obsolete traditional unit of exposure, which represented the amount of radiation required to create one electrostatic unit of charge of each polarity in one cubic centimeter of dry air. The rad is the (obsolete) corresponding traditional unit, equal to 10 millijoules of energy deposited per kilogram. The sievert (Sv) is the SI unit of equivalent dose, which for X-rays is numerically equal to the gray (Gy). X-rays are generated by an X-ray tube, a vacuum tube that uses a high voltage to accelerate the electrons released by a hot cathode to a high velocity.
In crystallography, a copper target is most common, with cobalt often being used when fluorescence from iron content in the sample might otherwise present a problem. X-ray fluorescence: If the electron has enough energy it can knock an orbital electron out of the inner electron shell of a metal atom, and as a result electrons from higher energy levels then fill up the vacancy and X-ray photons are emitted.
So the resulting output of a tube consists of a continuous bremsstrahlung spectrum falling off to zero at the tube voltage, plus several spikes at the characteristic lines.
In medical diagnostic applications, the low energy (soft) X-rays are unwanted, since they are totally absorbed by the body, increasing the dose. To generate an image of the cardiovascular system, including the arteries and veins (angiography) an initial image is taken of the anatomical region of interest. A specialized source of X-rays which is becoming widely used in research is synchrotron radiation, which is generated by particle accelerators. The most commonly known methods are photographic plates, photographic film in cassettes, and rare earth screens. Before the advent of the digital computer and before invention of digital imaging, photographic plates were used to produce most radiographic images. Since photographic plates are sensitive to X-rays, they provide a means of recording the image, but they also required much X-ray exposure (to the patient), hence intensifying screens were devised.
Areas where the X-rays strike darken when developed, causing bones to appear lighter than the surrounding soft tissue.
Contrast compounds containing barium or iodine, which are radiopaque, can be ingested in the gastrointestinal tract (barium) or injected in the artery or veins to highlight these vessels. An increasingly common method is the use of photostimulated luminescence (PSL), pioneered by Fuji in the 1980s. The PSP plate can be reused, and existing X-ray equipment requires no modification to use them.
For many applications, counters are not sealed but are constantly fed with purified gas, thus reducing problems of contamination or gas aging. Some materials such as sodium iodide (NaI) can "convert" an X-ray photon to a visible photon; an electronic detector can be built by adding a photomultiplier.
The investigation of disease in humans has, understandably, been one of the primary focal points in medicine for thousands of years.
Adenomyosis generally affects scattered areas of the uterine wall, typically making the condition unsuitable for localized surgery. Adenomyosis is a benign uterine condition that involves the invasion of tissue and glands typically confined to the inner mucous membrane of the uterus (termed the endometrium) into the adjacent muscle layer of the uterine wall, the myometrium. Due to the nature of adenomyosis, which generally affects scattered areas of the uterine wall, the condition is not suitable for localized surgery. If pain is the predominant concern for a patient with adenomyosis, gonadotropin releasing agents are often prescribed as a form of medical therapy. In the United States, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death among both men and women. Carcinomas of the lung are generally classed into two fundamental types: small cell carcinomas and non-small cell carcinomas. Alveolar cell carcinoma frequently occurs as a single nodular mass, in which case the disease has a good prognosis.
Anthracosis is the term utilized to describe black lung disease before it has progressed to such an extent that symptoms of the disease are palpable. Anthracosis is the term typically utilized to describe black lung disease before it has progressed to such an extent that symptoms of the disease are palpable.
Though anthracosis is often asymptomatic, when the disease is allowed to progress into black lung disease (sometimes referred to as coal workers pneumoconiosis), the effects may be significant. Black lung disease was observed among coal workers as early as the seventeenth century, but the condition was not so-named until the 1830s.
Due to the adoption of regulatory measures by the United States Congress in 1969, working in the mining industry is not as hazardous today as it was formerly.
When severely affected by atherosclerosis, the flow of blood through the aorta can be hindered and oxygen deficiency (ischemia) or gangrene can develop. The thickening and hardening of the arteries known as atherosclerosis is a condition that usually affects the medium- and large-sized arteries of the body. Atherosclerosis is generally thought to result from the gradual build-up of cholesterol, fibrin, fatty materials, calcium, and other substances inside the arteries, where they form plaques. Cholesterol is essential to the human body because it is a key component of cellular membranes.
An astrocytoma is a primary tumor of the central nervous system that develops from the large, star-shaped glial cells known as astrocytes. Astrocytomas are the most common variety of glioma (tumor that arises from glial cells) and may be benign or malignant.
Treatment for an astrocytoma depends upon a number of factors, such as the state of health of the patient and the specific characteristics (size, grade, location, etc.) of the tumor. The appearance of basal cell carcinoma can vary significantly, which sometimes makes it difficult for individuals to recognize that they have the disease. The primary means of lessening ones risk of developing basal cell carcinoma is limiting exposure to sunlight.
Many men with benign prostatic hyperplasia experience urinary problems related to the condition. Part of the male reproductive system, the prostate gland produces and stores seminal fluids, releasing them into the urethra when semen emission occurs. Men with only mild symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia may elect not to undergo any treatment or to simply take a wait-and-see attitude, visiting the doctor regularly for monitoring until signs suggest a more active approach is needed. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancers. The vast majority of breast cancers originate in the glandular tissues of the breast and are classified as adenocarcinomas. Increased awareness of breast cancer has resulted in increased funding for many research programs dedicated to discovering potential causes of and cures for the disease. The primary manifestation of bronchiectasis is a chronic cough that brings up large quantities of phlegm. Several different investigative techniques may be used by medical professionals to aid in diagnosis of bronchiectasis, including chest x-rays, CT scans, sputum culture, cystic fibrosis testing, analysis of serum immunoglobulin, and skin testing for tuberculosis.
When bronchogenic carcinoma, or primary lung cancer, was first described in the mid-1850s, it was thought to be a relatively rare occurrence. Bronchogenic carcinoma often does not present any palpable signs until the disease is already well advanced. Bronchogenic carcinomas are usually classified into two basic groups: non-small cell carcinomas and small cell carcinomas (sometimes called oat cell carcinomas).
Young children and the elderly are particularly susceptible to bronchopneumonia, but anyone may contract the disease. Bronchopneumonia, or bronchial pneumonia, is a type of pneumonia that originates in the bronchioles of the lungs, which are the smaller ducts of the bronchial tubes.
Symptoms of bronchopneumonia are similar to other types of pneumonia and may include fatigue, a productive cough, fever, chills, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. Infants and the elderly are particularly susceptible to bronchopneumonia, but anyone may contract the disease. Uremia is a condition in which urea and other nitrogenous substances accumulate to an abnormally high level in the blood.
Hemangiomas are benign vascular tumor-like growths that usually present themselves at birth or soon thereafter. Often better known as port-wine stains, capillary hemangiomas, which are associated with atypical aggregations of the capillaries, are common pink to dark purple birthmarks that exhibit distinct boundaries and a smooth surface.
Hemangiomas often do not pose any health problems, but they are sometimes prone to ulceration and bleeding. Many cavernous hemangiomas are not treated when they are first observed because more than 90 percent disappear on their own by the time the patient reaches puberty. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a type of leukemia that primarily affects adults over the age of 50, though the acute form of the disease is chiefly a childhood malady.
In the United States, more than 17,000 cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia are diagnosed annually. The likelihood that an individual will contract pneumonia depends upon many different factors, as does the severity of the disease when it does occur. Pneumonia is characterized by inflammation of the lungs and may be caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, and other agents, as well as exposure to certain irritants and irradiation. Treatment for pneumonia varies depending upon the cause, with antibiotics being the primary therapy utilized for bacterial and mycoplasma forms. When inflammation of the lungs is persistent or recurs periodically after treatment, the condition is generally referred to as chronic pneumonia rather than simply pneumonia. Colon cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the United States and is a leading cause of cancer-related death.
Highly developed countries have higher rates of colon cancer than other parts of the world.
Each year in the United States about 50,000 people die from colon cancer, making it one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in the country.
The vast majority of colon cancers arise from the glandular cells lining the wall of the organ, in which case they are classified as a special type of carcinoma known as adenocarcinomas.
In addition to diet, a number of other risk factors for developing colon cancer have been identified. As is generally the case with cancers, colon carcinoma is easiest to treat and is associated with the best prognosis whenever the disease is diagnosed early in its development. Routine screening for colon cancer is often recommended for individuals 50 years of age or older. Several subtypes of adenomas have been described, which chiefly are differentiated from one another by microscopic observation of the manner in which the cells of the growths are organized. The portion of the large intestine that extends from the cecum to the rectum is referred to as the colon. Though the exact causes of villous adenomas and other colonic polyps are not known, there are several known risk factors for the growths and steps that may be taken in order to reduce the likelihood of developing them. Many individuals who have been diagnosed with coronary atherosclerosis take medications to help hinder further progression of the disease. Coronary atherosclerosis is one of the most pressing medical problems in the United States. The development of coronary atherosclerosis is a gradual process that usually begins in childhood and slowly progresses throughout life as an increasing amount of cholesterol, fatty substances, and other materials build up in the arteries, forming plaques. Today diabetes is counted among the leading causes of death and disability in the United States. When regions of the kidneys begin to be less efficient at filtration, other parts work extra hard in order to compensate. All you need is to mix the following ingredients and apply, gently rub into the affected area, rinse, and dry well, try it once or twice a day. Disclaimer: All content on this website is for informational purposes only and should not be considered to be a specific diagnosis or treatment plan for any individual situation. This process produces an emission spectrum of X-ray frequencies, sometimes referred to as the spectral lines. The intensity of the X-rays increases linearly with decreasing frequency, from zero at the energy of the incident electrons, the voltage on the X-ray tube. A second image is then taken of the same region after iodinated contrast material has been injected into the blood vessels within this area.
The contrast compounds have high atomic numbered elements in them that (like bone) essentially block the X-rays and hence the once hollow organ or vessel can be more readily seen. In modern hospitals a photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP plate) is used in place of the photographic plate.
The image gallery presented in this section attempts to illustrate, through use of the brightfield microscope, many of the pathological conditions that are readily observed in stained human specimens. The actual incidence of adenomyosis is unknown due to the fact that the condition is often asymptomatic and is very difficult to diagnose, estimates ranging widely from 20 to 65 percent of the female population.
Instead, a complete hysterectomy is usually the treatment of choice, estimates indicating that the procedure is 80 percent effective in eliminating common symptoms of adenomyosis. However, studies indicate that shortly after such therapy is halted, symptoms of adenomyosis return in full force. The popularity of smoking tobacco throughout the twentieth century is usually considered accountable for the prevalence of the disease, cigarettes having been linked to about 90 percent of lung cancer cases in men and 80 percent in women. Small cell carcinomas account for about 20 to 25 percent of all cases of lung cancer and are usually more aggressive than non-small cell carcinomas.
As many as 60 to 70 percent of people treated for this form of the disease are completely cured of the cancer. The condition typically develops gradually over the course of many years and is characterized by black spotting or marbling of the lungs. Shortness of breath and severe coughing are usually among the earliest symptoms of the damage to the lungs, and labored breathing, phlegm production, and wheezing are also common. In earlier periods, the affliction was known by various other appellations, such as black spittle or miners asthma.
The measures, which were a significant step forward in the cause of occupational safety, included new guidelines for average dust levels allowable in mining zones and a program to distribute disability benefits to individuals that acquired black lung disease through exposure at work.
The largest blood vessel, the aorta, which extends form the left ventricle of the heart and supplies oxygenated blood to all of bodys tissue via its many branches, is no exception. Many scientists believe that these plaques develop at sites of arterial injuries, which have long been assumed to be related to high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, and other known atherosclerosis risk factors. However, too much cholesterol in the blood appears to enable the substance to become inappropriately deposited on the walls of the arteries, contributing to atherosclerosis. Most frequently astrocytomas occur in the brain, especially in the frontal and temporal lobes of the cerebrum, but occasionally they appear along the spinal cord. Like all brain tumors, astrocytomas are very serious and are usually described by the medical community based upon their grade.
Thus, a number of medical examinations and tests are carried out before any specific plan of action is developed.
The goal of such treatment is to excise as much of the growth as possible without afflicting any damage to adjacent areas of the brain. The disease is often the result of cumulative damage to the skin by the sun or other radiation, but its occurrence is also sometimes related to exposure to certain chemicals, such as arsenic, burns, scarring, or even vaccinations. In the United States alone, an estimated 900,000 people develop basal cell carcinoma each year, and by most accounts, that number will continue to grow as the Earths protective ozone layer becomes increasingly compromised. Thus, any non-healing or recurring sore is usually reason enough to visit a medical professional. However, since the majority of an individuals lifetime exposure to the harmful rays of the sun is acquired during childhood and the latent period between intense exposure to sunlight and the onset of basal cell carcinoma is 20 to 50 years, preventative measures are best begun in ones youth.
The disease is often the result of cumulative damage to the skin by the sun or other radiation, but its occurrence is also sometimes related to exposure to certain chemicals, such as arsenic, burns, scarring, and even vaccinations. The gland is located directly below the bladder and surrounds the upper part of the urethra. As the prostate enlarges, the gland places increasing pressure on the urethra, often resulting in difficulty beginning or ending urination, an inability to completely empty the bladder, decreased urine flow, and frequent urination. Approximately one in every ten women in the United States will develop the disease at some point during her lifetime.
Both the lobular tissues, which produce milk, and ductal tissues, which are involved in the transfer of the milk to the nipple, are considered glandular tissues and, therefore, may give rise to adenocarcinomas. Consequently, breast cancer has been much better characterized than many other types of cancer.
Most malignancies develop around the time of menopause, about 75 percent of cases involving women 50 years of age or older. Over the course of the twentieth century, however, the proportion of the population affected by bronchogenic carcinoma rose tremendously, and today the disease is the leading cause of cancer-related death among both men and women in the United States. Thus the disease, which is most common among individuals between the ages of 45 and 70, has a very poor prognosis. Of the two, small carcinomas, which account for about 20 to 25 percent of all cases, are the most aggressive. The contagious infection is caused by a variety of bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms. The skin of individuals with the disease may also take on a bluish hue in advanced cases when enough oxygen is not available to the blood. Pneumococcal vaccinations are recommended for individuals in high-risk groups and provide up to 80 percent effectiveness in staving off pneumococcal pneumonia. Symptoms of uremia often initially include fatigue, loss of appetite, edema, excessive thirst, and decreased concentration, and progression of the condition may lead to a rapid pulse, anemia, diarrhea, convulsions, discoloration of the skin, coma, and even death. The abnormal dense collections of blood vessels may occur in the muscles, internal organs, and mucous membranes, but are most familiar along the surface of the skin.


Cavernous hemangiomas, which are more likely to receive injury due to their elevated form, should be treated with special care in order that such events are avoided. When problems arise from the growths or when treatment is desired for cosmetic reasons, however, several different therapeutic techniques may be employed. The chronic form of the disease is insidious and progresses slowly, whereas acute lymphocytic leukemia leads to rapid death after its onset if left untreated. Oftentimes the disease follows a bout of the flu or a common cold, and the symptoms of pneumonia are frequently similar to those of these less severe illnesses, which can make it difficult for many individuals to realize that something more serious is wrong. Risk of the disease is particularly elevated for the elderly and for very young children whose immune systems are still in an immature state. Bed rest and the ingestion of lots of fluids are usually recommended for other varieties of the illness, though over-the-counter medications may also be used to provide symptomatic relief. Chronic pneumonia also tends to develop more slowly than other types of the illness, often over the course of several weeks.
In 2000 alone, nearly 50,000 Americans died from the disease, which is highly curable if detected and treated early. This is believed to be due in large part to the customary diet in these countries, which generally includes significant amounts of red meat and fat and little fiber. When symptoms do develop, they generally are manifested as disorders of digestion and waste eradication. A digital rectal exam and an occult fecal blood test are usually the initial techniques utilized, while more advanced examinations involve sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy, both of which employ a flexible tube-like instrument to inspect one or more parts of the colon. Colon cancers can also originate in other cell types, such as those that comprise the connective tissue that supports the colorectal wall or those that are specialized for producing hormones. Genetics is thought to be particularly important, those with a close family member diagnosed with the disease being three times more likely than others to develop colon cancer. Unfortunately, symptoms of colon cancer do not usually appear until the disease is significantly advanced, and even then are generally non-specific so that individuals may not immediately seek medical attention.
This procedure generally consists of a fecal occult blood test, which can reveal the presence of blood in fecal material even when it cannot be detected by the eye, and flexible sigmoidoscopy, which involves the use of a tube-like instrument to inspect the rectum and lower colon. In some cases, tumors can be removed through colonoscopic means, but most commonly surgical resection is needed.
The chief function of the colon is to extract moisture from indigestible matter prior to its excretion. Villous adenomas are usually sessile polyps that have an architecture predominantly characterized by the presence of finger- or frond-like projections. When they do occur, however, they may include abnormal bleeding, cramps, abdominal pain, constipation, or diarrhea. The prevalence of adenomas increases with age and the growths are more common among individuals living in certain regions of the world, primarily highly developed nations such as the United States and Great Britain.
The condition, which is characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of the coronary arteries, is a key contributor to countless heart attacks, strokes, and aneurysms, as well as many cases of ischemic heart disease and peripheral vascular disease. Some, such as a family history of cardiovascular disease and being a member of the male gender, cannot be changed.
The class of drugs known as statins, which effectively reduce elevated cholesterol levels, have been especially useful in the battle against the condition and other forms of heart disease. As plaques thicken, the flow of blood through the arteries is reduced, which can prevent enough oxygen from reaching the heart.
In 2002, 6.3 percent of all Americans were reportedly diabetic, with more than a million new cases being diagnosed each year. As blood passes through them, urea, toxins and other waste products are separated from the substances the body needs to retain (water, electrolytes, protein, etc.) and concentrated to form urine, which can then be excreted.
Consequently, diabetes-related kidney damage may not be noticed until almost all functionality is lost.
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The spectral lines generated depend on the target (anode) element used and thus are called characteristic lines. These two images are then digitally subtracted, leaving an image of only the iodinated contrast outlining the blood vessels.
Photographic film largely replaced these plates, and it was used in X-ray laboratories to produce medical images. In the pursuit of a non-toxic contrast material, many types of high atomic number elements were evaluated. After the plate is X-rayed, excited electrons in the phosphor material remain "trapped" in "colour centres" in the crystal lattice until stimulated by a laser beam passed over the plate surface. Electrons accelerate toward the anode, in the process causing further ionization along their trajectory.
Coli in Germany, or the outbreak of cholera in Haiti after the earthquake of 2010 are examples of bacterial diseases. When symptoms do occur, they typically consist of abnormal bleeding, cramping, and a distended, tender uterus. However, depending on the severity of the specific symptoms and the reproductive intentions of the patient, other treatments may be recommended. When abnormal bleeding is the primary problem for the patient, a progesterone intrauterine contraceptive device may be the preferred method of treatment.
Only in very rare instances do small cell carcinomas ever appear in people who have never smoked cigarettes or other tobacco products. Even before treatment many individuals diagnosed with such localized alveolar cell carcinoma do not experience any palpable symptoms or only incur minimal symptoms.
The dark pigmentation associated with anthracosis primarily is caused by excessive exposure to carbonaceous material, which may stem from soot, diesel exhaust, coal, or other sources of carbon-containing dusts. Over time, as particles increasingly overwhelm the lungs, scarring and thickening of the lung tissue can occur, which is sometimes followed by the development of progressive massive fibrosis, a particularly severe form of the disease that continues to progress even when exposure to carbon comes to an end. Despite a long-time awareness that the condition was related to working in coal mines, little was done to stem the occurrence for many years. Though most cases of this disease and anthracosis continue to occur among miners, morbidity and mortality related to carbonaceous dust particles has declined steadily over the last several decades. However, some researchers have suggested that atherosclerosis-initiating injuries may also stem form chronic inflammation of the arterial walls.
Consequently, limiting dietary intake of cholesterol is generally cited as one of the best ways to slow the progression of atherosclerosis.
No one knows what causes the tumors, which may affect anyone of any age but occur most often in middle-aged men. The grade of a tumor can generally be determined by observing the tumor cells under a microscope. These often include computerized tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and angiograms. Of course, in many instances, certain factors may make it impossible to successfully remove an entire tumor, in which case follow up treatment of either chemotherapy or radiotherapy may be necessary. A slow-growing form of cancer, basal cell carcinoma is usually treatable with simple surgery. Individuals with blue or green eyes, fair skin that tends to burn rather than tan, and blonde hair are among those that are most likely to acquire the disease. The most simple and effective means of avoiding too much sun are limiting outdoor activities to hours when the suns rays are less intense (generally before 10 a.m. A slow-growing form of cancer, basal cell carcinoma is usually readily treatable with simple surgery.
During adolescence the gland usually matures and reaches a size comparable to that of a walnut.
In the most severe cases, complete blockage of the urethra occurs, which may lead to kidney damage.
For example, drugs such as alpha blockers and finasteride may be used alone or in conjunction with one another to relax prostatic smooth muscle and decrease the size of the prostate gland. The most common variety of adenocarcinoma is known as infiltrating ductal carcinoma, a tumor that usually manifests itself as a single hard lump not easily movable.
Researchers have linked the disease to specific genetic mutations in the genes designated HER2, BRCA1, BRCA2, and p53. The disease can strike at any time, however, and it is widely recommended that all women over the age of 20 perform a monthly self-examination of the breasts. For example, obstructions, such as those posed by foreign objects (often accidentally ingested during childhood) or tumors, can prevent the elimination of fluid emissions from the bronchi, resulting in their expansion. The excessive production of phlegm is a result of infection in the lungs, which is a habitual problem for individuals with the condition, partially due to damage to of the cilia that normally help clean out the lungs. Generally this plan emphasizes the need to manage infections and phlegm production so that secretions do not block the airways and complications do not develop. The increase in popularity of cigarette smoking following World War I is generally considered accountable for the sudden rise in lung cancer cases and deaths. When symptoms do appear, they heavily depend on the exact location and extent of the disease, but often include coughing, wheezing, chest pain, shortness of breath, bloody sputum, frequent respiratory infections, and weight loss or loss of appetite. In previously healthy individuals that acquire the illness, Streptococcus and Staphylococcus infections are among the most common causes, but individuals whose pulmonary defense systems are already weakened from another ailment, such as chronic bronchitis, are more likely to be infected by Klebsiella or Pseudomona bacteria. Influenza vaccinations are also frequently of use in decreasing one’s susceptibility to pneumonia, since the flu precedes pneumonia development in many cases. Uremia is characteristically related to the inability of the kidneys to expel wastes via urine, but the underlying cause responsible for the limited function of the important organs can vary greatly. Hemangiomas of the skin are usually classified into three basic groups: capillary hemangiomas, immature hemangiomas, and cavernous hemangiomas. Immature hemangiomas, which characteristically endow the skin with a reddish nubbed appearance, commonly are informally referred to as strawberry marks. Small hemangiomas can sometimes be successfully treated with corticosteroid injections, but surgery is often necessary for larger growths. The reason for such a drastic difference in the courses the diseases take is apparently related to the cells that they affect. Other risk factors for the disease include being middle-aged or older, Caucasian, or related to Russian Jews or Eastern European Jews.
Patients with bacterial or viral pneumonia typically experience a cough that will not go away and may have difficulty breathing, fever, chest pain, fatigue, muscle pain, and chills.
Similarly, anyone who has a compromised immune system due to other diseases, such as HIV or AIDS, or to certain medications are also more likely to develop pneumonia. An array of microorganisms, including several types of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and helminths, as well as other non-infectious causes may be responsible for an individual developing the disease. An estimated 95 percent of all colon cancer cases involve the glandular tissue present in the colon wall, which is normally active in the secretion of materials to lubricate waste products before they are excreted. A similar reasoning is often utilized to explain the rise in colon cancer rates in the United States since mid-twentieth century, the diet of the average American coming to include larger amounts of beef and fatty foods since that time. Among the most common symptoms of the disease are diarrhea, constipation, pain in the abdomen, appearance of blood in the stool, and appetite loss.
A biopsy is sometimes performed in conjunction with these procedures in order that abnormal tissue can be tested for the presence of cancer cells.
Various inherited conditions, the most notable of which are familial polyposis syndrome and familial colon cancer, also greatly increase the disease risk, as do the presence of benign polyps in the colon. Diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain, and appearance of blood in the stool are typically among the first signs that something is wrong. Individuals known to be at high risk for the disease may also be advised to periodically undergo the more extensive examination known as a colonoscopy, in which the condition of the entire colon can be assessed. Similar to other parts of the body, the tissues of the colon may give rise to various types of abnormal growths. Polyps in the rectum are occasionally palpable by rectal examination, but more often require examination via endoscopy to be discovered. Some studies suggest that regional differences in colonic polyp rates are related to dietary differences, the growths most commonly being associated with high-fat diets low in fiber and excessive alcohol intake. Currently, more than 5 million Americans know that they are afflicted with coronary atherosclerosis, but many more are also subjected to the condition though they are unaware of it.
In fact, prevastatin, lovastatin, and similar cholesterol-lowering drugs are sometimes prescribed to individuals with several risk factors for coronary heart disease who have not yet developed the disease as a means of primary prevention. Plaques are also problematic because they can rupture, which leads to the formation of blood clots.
Even more disturbing is the fact that a large percentage of the people believed to be diabetics are not aware they have the disease.
When symptoms begin to develop, they may include fluid accumulation, upset stomach, insomnia, weakness, loss of appetite, and loss of concentration. Always consult with your own doctor in connection with any questions or issues you may have regarding your own health or the health of others. The radiologist or surgeon then compares the image obtained to normal anatomical images to determine if there is any damage or blockage of the vessel.
In more recent years, computerized and digital radiography has been replacing photographic film in medical and dental applications, though film technology remains in widespread use in industrial radiography processes (e.g. For example, the first time the forefathers used contrast it was chalk, and was used on a cadaver's vessels. This process, known as a Townsend avalanche, is detected as a sudden current, called a "count" or "event". Note that several of the images in this gallery might not depict every aspect of the pathological condition under which they are catalogued.
Again, if the use of the device is discontinued, the symptomatic relief provided by the device also ends. Also known as bronchoalveolar carcinoma, alveolar cell carcinoma instead appears to be most likely to develop in individuals whose lungs have been scarred by other diseases, such as scleroderma, tuberculosis, or fibrosis. Non-small cell carcinomas often grow and spread more slowly than small cell carcinomas and are usually further subdivided into several subtypes of cancer. Alveolar cell carcinoma is also known to occur, however, in a diffuse form that is associated with a significantly bleaker prospect of recovery, especially if it has metastasized to distant areas. Pollution and smoking are also known to contribute to anthracosis, and the condition is present to some extent in many residents of urban areas.
Other complications can include cor pulmonale (an increase in size of the right ventricle of the heart), emphysema, and chronic bronchitis. Some writers, such as the late nineteenth-century French naturalist mile Zola, did attempt, however, to bring increased attention to the injurious effects of black lung disease on the mining population. According to the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, in the early 1970s a federally administered radiography-screening program of active coal miners found evidence of black lung disease in more than 10 percent of the individuals tested. Atherosclerosis is also the primary underlying cause of heart attacks, strokes, and aortic aneurysms, which are blood-filled dilations of the vessel wall. Although there is significant debate regarding the issue, viral and bacterial infections could cause such inflammation and are, therefore, currently under investigation as possible factors that contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. Avoiding tobacco smoke, increasing physical activity, losing weight, and maintaining healthy blood pressure are other methods that individuals concerned about atherosclerosis can take to combat the disease.
Symptoms of an astrocytoma, similar to other brain tumors, often depend on the precise location of the growth. High-grade tumors are characterized by a greater presence of abnormal cells and more rapid cell growth than low-grade tumors. In some cases, a biopsy may also be performed, but since this entails a medical operation, it is usually avoided if not deemed truly necessary. High-grade tumors are especially difficult to eradicate via surgery, and in some cases surgery may not be recommended at all due to position or widespread invasion of the brain tissues. However, if the cancer has invaded surrounding tissues or metastasized to more distant parts of the body, a very rare occurrence for basal cell carcinoma, then treatment becomes much more complex and the prognosis is significantly worse. Men have traditionally been much more likely to develop basal cell carcinoma than women, but over the last few decades the risk for the female portion of the population has increased to such an extent that the gap in incidence between the sexes is beginning to shrink. The cancerous nodules may exhibit a waxy, translucent, or pearly appearance, may feature a central depression or a raised border, and may periodically bleed and crust over. The dimensions of the gland generally remain unchanged for several decades, but in most older men, the prostate begins to enlarge as the size of its cells increases, a process commonly referred to as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or hypertrophy. The symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia are similar to those of several more serious problems, including prostate cancer, and should, therefore, be quickly brought to the attention of a medical professional.
Individuals that are not responsive to the typical medications, however, may require a more invasive form of treatment, such as balloon dilation of the urethra or any of several different surgical techniques, including transurethral incision of the prostate (TUIP), transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), or open prostatectomy. Nearly 80 percent of all cases of breast cancer diagnosed are infiltrating ductal carcinomas. Knowledge of these mutations, which can be both inherited and acquired, may eventually lead to new ways to prevent and treat the disease. Most medical societies also suggest that women 40 and older receive mammograms on an annual basis. Following initial dilation, the tubes continue to swell with accumulated materials even after the obstruction is removed. However, other signs of infection, including fever, fatigue, and pain, are often absent from bronchiectasis patients, though in some cases their conditions can worsen and lead to pneumonia if medical treatment is not received. Some means of keeping the condition under control include administration of expectorants, bronchodilators, and antibiotics. Cigarette smoke contains hundreds of known carcinogens and has been linked with bronchogenic carcinoma by some members of the medical field since at least the late 1940s, but the Surgeon General of the United States did not declare that smoking cigarettes is a cause of lung cancer until 1964. Occasionally, bronchogenic carcinoma is asymptomatic and is discovered incidentally during a chest x-ray or other exam.


Non-small cell carcinomas tend to spread more slowly and are usually further classified into three distinct types of tumors: squamous cell carcinomas, adenocarcinomas, and large cell carcinomas. When any of these microorganisms find their way into the body through the respiratory system, they are disseminated through the bloodstream and settle in the bronchiolar epithelium, causing acute inflammation that extends into the surrounding alveoli. Other types of treatment frequently provided to individuals with bronchopneumonia are dependent on the causative agent. Vaccinations are often credited with significantly decreasing the threat of pneumonia, as are antibiotics.
The condition may originate from, for instance, kidney damage associated with various diseases, such as diabetes mellitus or glomerulonephritis, or from a blockage of urine related to an enlarged prostate gland or kidney stones. These growths, which are comprised of localized groups of dilated small blood vessels, usually begin to recede after the first year of life and frequently have disappeared completely by the time the child is ready to begin school. Depending on where the growth is located, a hemangioma can also interfere with various functions of the body. Individuals who have one or more hemangiomas that are swiftly growing or are chronically ulcerated may be prescribed oral corticosteroids, which can slow growth and control inflammation.
The acute disease involves abnormal proliferation of immature lymphocytes in the bone marrow called lymphoblasts that are unable to mature and rapidly interfere with normal blood cell production.
A family history of the disease also increases the likelihood that an individual will develop chronic lymphocytic leukemia. When the disease is caused by mycoplasma or fungi, however, few symptoms are usually present, and those that are tend to occur in relatively mild forms.
Other factors associated with increased risk include smoking, drinking, drug abuse, and exposure to various toxic fumes or chemicals. Many of the microorganisms that cause chronic pneumonia are only endemic to certain areas, a fact that often aids in narrowing down the identity of the causal agent.
Such cancers typically develop from benign tumors called adenomas and are referred to as adenocarcinomas. Other factors that may play a role in the onset of colon cancer include age (older individuals are more susceptible), physical inactivity, a personal history of chronic inflammatory bowel disease, and a family history of colon cancer, which is sometimes associated with Gardner syndrome or familial adenomatous polyposis. Fatigue, shortness of breath, jaundice, and accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity (ascites) may also occur, but usually not until the disease is well advanced. A special type of x-ray called a double-contrast barium enema is often used to produce initial images of any growths present, and other advanced imaging techniques (CT scans, MRI, etc.) are generally exploited during staging of the disease. In some other parts of the world, such as Asia and Africa, colon cancer is much less common, a fact often attributed to the Western diet, which tends too be high in fat and low in fiber.
Benign polyps, which can become malignant over time, are consequently often removed if they come to the attention of a medical professional. Later, jaundice, fluid accumulation in the abdomen (ascites), and shortness of breath may develop as well. Diagnosis of colon cancer often initially involves the same techniques utilized for screening purposes, but a biopsy is needed to confirm the presence of cancer cells.
Radiation therapy and chemotherapy are often used as adjuvants to surgery, but are occasionally the primary means of treatment, especially in individuals that are unable to undergo surgery for health reasons. According to current estimates, the risk of a villous adenoma undergoing malignant transformation is as high as 25 percent overall, and is even greater for growths larger than 2 centimeters in diameter. Thus, individuals who are at an elevated risk of developing colonic polyps are generally advised to undergo regular screening in order that adenomas and other benign tumors may be detected before they grow to significant sizes, in which case they are associated with a higher rate of malignant change.
Indeed, even individuals whose coronary arteries have narrowed as much as 50 percent from coronary atherosclerosis may not experience symptoms of the condition. For instance, cigarette smoking, obesity, and physical inactivity are all associated with an increased incidence of coronary atherosclerosis, and are dynamics that can be readily modified through personal efforts.
However, most practitioners initially recommend dietary therapy, in hopes that pharmacologic treatment will not be necessary.
If these clots block the vessels of the heart, a heart attack ensues, but if they break away and clog a blood vessel that circulates blood to the brain, then the result is a stroke.
Without being diagnosed, the glucose levels of diabetics are likely allowed to remain out of control, which can lead to cardiovascular complications, kidney disease, blindness, and ketoacidosis, which increases the ketones and acid content of the blood, eventually resulting in nausea, vomiting, coma, and even death in severe cases. The high levels of glucose in the blood characteristic of diabetes requires extra work from the kidneys, which attempt to filter the sugar out, resulting in the sweet smelling urine that is commonly associated with the disease. Usually by the time such signs appear, the damage to the kidneys is so extensive that dialysis or a kidney transplant is required. When the film is developed, the parts of the image corresponding to higher X-ray exposure are dark, leaving a white shadow of bones on the film.
Occasionally the pain associated with adenomyosis may radiate to other nearby areas, especially the lower back. The progression of this variety of carcinoma can be very slow, and patients with the disease often have a better prognosis than people with other kinds of lung cancer. One subtype of non-small cell carcinoma is adenocarcinoma, which accounts for approximately 35 percent of all cases of primary lung cancer diagnosed in the United States and is characterized by its development in the lining or inner surface of an organ.
Patients with diffuse pulmonary involvement often experience marked symptoms, such as the production of copious sputum, dyspnea, chest pain, chronic coughing. Historically, however, anthracosis and its more severe manifestation, black lung disease, are best known as occupational illnesses that occur most commonly in coal miners. There is no cure for anthracosis or black lung disease, and treatment generally involves providing symptomatic relief. Nevertheless, it was not until 1943 that individuals afflicted with the disease could gain disability compensation in England, and more than two decades would pass before similar benefits could be readily obtained in the United States.
A similar program carried out in the late 1990s discovered such evidence in less than 2 percent of the active miners screened.
For those who are unable to sufficiently reduce their risk for atherosclerosis via dietary and lifestyle changes, a number of medications are available that can slow the disease and reduce the chances that heart attack, stroke, or another medical emergency related to the disease will occur. For instance, if the frontal lobe is affected, mood swings and changes in personality may occur, whereas a temporal lobe tumor is more typically associated with speech and coordination difficulties. The brisk pace of high-grade tumor cell growth allows these tumors to quickly invade the central nervous system, making them much more difficult to treat than low-grade brain tumors.
Following testing, a number of different treatments may ensue, but the first priority is generally to relieve any excess intracranial pressure, which can be achieved either by administration of steroids to reduce swelling or through the application of a shunt to drain fluid that has built up around the brain. Individuals that do not elect to undergo surgery typically undertake a combined treatment of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. If basal cell carcinoma is detected early, as it usually is since it can generally be easily observed along the surface of the skin, where it is most often found in locations that receive the greatest amount of exposure to the sun, then the five-year survival rate for the disease is nearly 100 percent. This statistical change is usually attributed to women spending more time outdoors than ever before. In addition to the typical nodules, basal cell carcinoma can also have the appearance of bluish-gray cystic lesions, pink to red papules or scaly patches, or increased brown or black pigment, especially in dark-skinned individuals. If one is physically active outdoors, it is important to remember that sunscreen will need to be periodically reapplied, usually about once every one-and-a-half hours. According to recent estimates, more than 50 percent of men between the ages of 50 and 60 experience benign prostatic hyperplasia, and over 90 percent of those 70 to 90 years old have developed the condition. Several tests and procedures, including a digital rectal exam, prostate specific antigen blood test, rectal ultrasound, urine flow analysis, and cystoscopy, can enable the doctor to rule out other possibilities and make a definitive diagnosis of the condition. The various treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia are associated with a number of risks and side effects, which can include serious conditions like incontinence and impotence. Such emphasis on detection is reflective of the fact that while breast cancer cannot be readily prevented, early discovery of the disease can greatly reduce the risk of developing advanced cancer, which is generally much more difficult to treat. Bronchiectasis is also frequently associated with pneumonia, whooping cough, measles, or other infections that can inflame and weaken the walls of the bronchi.
Bloody sputum associated with bronchiectasis is also sometimes observed, a consequence of ruptured blood vessels located near the distended walls of the bronchi. Also, since the symptoms of bronchiectasis can become amplified if the patient smokes or is exposed to high levels of air pollution, medical professionals generally advise patients to avoid smoking and highly polluted areas.
In 1966, health warnings on cigarette packages began appearing, and in 1971, ads for cigarettes were finally taken off American television, though cigarettes continue to be one of the most heavily marketed products in the world. In recent years, several large-scale studies have been carried out to determine if regular chest x-rays or sputum analysis would be beneficial for smokers or other individuals at high risk for lung cancer. The squamous variety of the disease tends to remain localized for longer periods of time than other types of lung cancer and, consequently, is often easier to treat successfully. An x-ray of the chest of a patient with bronchopneumonia often reveals a scattering of heterogenous opacities, rather than the homogenous opacity characteristic of lobar pneumonia, due to the involvement of multiple sites in the lungs. Antibiotics are effective against many bacterial forms of the illness, but not viral pneumonias. In the first half of the twentieth century before antibiotic drugs were developed, approximately one-third of all people who contracted pneumonia died of the disease.
Some cases of uremia have also been associated with abnormal red blood cells, such as echinocytes, which are often better known as burr cells.
Diagnosis typically only entails a physical examination, but CT scans or MRI scans are sometimes recommended in order that the extent of the growth can be better assessed. The cavernous hemangioma is the rarest of hemangioma types and also generally the most problematic since the reddish-blue birthmarks are usually significantly raised from the surface of the skin and do not vanish as quickly as immature hemangiomas. For instance, cavernous hemangiomas located around the eye or on the eyelid sometimes inhibit vision. In cases where a hemangioma has shrunk but not completely disappeared, laser therapy can be utilized to cosmetically improve the skin. Diagnosis usually only entails a physical examination, but CT scans or MRI scans are sometimes recommended in order that the extent of the growth can be better assessed. In chronic lymphocytic leukemia, however, lymphoblasts are allowed to mature, but the number of lymphocytes produced exceeds the normal amount and other components of the blood are slowly crowded out.
Unlike other leukemias, chronic lymphocytic leukemia does not appear to be related to overexposure to benzene or radiation. Inhabitants of certain locales also experience an increased risk of contracting pneumonia from agents that are endemic in those areas.
A variety of procedures are typically carried out, however, to aid in diagnosis, including sputum smears and cultures, skin testing, serologic testing, and, often as a final resort, invasive diagnostic methods, such as biopsy or translaryngeal aspiration.
Overall, larger adenomas are more likely to develop into malignant growths than smaller adenomas. Due to the generally slow development of symptoms, most adenocarcinomas of the colon have grown several centimeters in diameter by the time they are successfully diagnosed. Statistics indicate that in countries whose inhabitants are increasingly eating like Americans colon cancer rates are rising.
The irritable bowel disease known as ulcerative colitis, which is characterized by inflammation and ulceration, is also known to increase colon cancer risk in individuals in which it is a chronic occurrence.
Typically colon cancers are several centimeters in size by the time symptomatic evidence and testing result in a diagnosis.
A number of imaging techniques, including x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) scans, are commonly used during the staging of the cancer. The side effects of these forms of therapy can be intense because they target all rapidly dividing cells, not just cancer cells.
Often when they are benign and arise from a mucus membrane, they are referred to as polyps. They are, however, the least frequently appearing variety of adenomatous polyp, accounting for only about 5 percent of the growths.
Screening techniques that are commonly utilized include stool specimen tests for occult blood, which is blood that cannot be seen by the unaided eye, and flexible sigmoidoscopy, which involves the insertion of a tubular instrument into the anus in order that the lower portion of the colon can be visualized. Such lifestyle-related risk factors are under personal control and can be modified to help reduce the possibility of growths forming in the colon.
Nevertheless, these individuals are at a heightened risk for a number of related problems, most notably heart attacks, one of the leading causes of death in the country.
Similarly, the risk factors of high blood pressure and high LDL cholesterol levels are closely associated with diet and exercise and can, therefore, frequently be controlled as well.
Blood clots associated with plaques can also reduce the blood supply to other parts of the body, which can limit movement and eventually lead to gangrene.
With the proper medical attention, diabetics are usually able to effectively manage their disease through diet, exercise, and in some cases, insulin injections or oral medications. Over time, all of the extra strain on the kidneys can cause significant damage, eventually interfering with their ability to properly filter the blood.
Photographic plates are mostly things of history, and their replacement, the "intensifying screen", is also fading into history.
Approximately 80 percent of the time adenomyosis occurs in women that also have another pathologic condition of the uterus, such as endometriosis or the growth of fibroids or polyps. A variant of adenocarcinoma is alveolar cell carcinoma, which originates in the epithelia of alveoli, the small, capillary-rich air sacs of the lung that are the site of oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange. Frequently, however, many of the initial signs of a tumor, which stem from increased pressure in the cranium, are the same for all tumor types and locations, and may include headaches, nausea, and adverse changes in eyesight.
In children, the majority of astrocytomas that occur are classified as low-grade, but in adults most of the tumors are of the high-grade variety. The borders of basal cell carcinomas may be either well- or poorly-defined depending on the specific type of the disease. Researchers do not yet completely understand the cause of this physiological change, but it is widely thought that elevated levels of the female sex hormone estradiol and increased manufacture of dihydrotestosterone, a derivative of the male sex hormone testosterone, contribute to the condition. In recent years, the month of October has been designated by many charities and health organizations as a time to increase awareness of breast cancer, an event that is most commonly associated with the pink ribbons many individuals wear in order to symbolically recognize the struggles of men and women faced with the disease. Over the course of several infections, the walls of the tubes can deteriorate to such an extent that the elastic and muscle fibers they contain are damaged to such an extent that dilation occurs.
In the most serious cases of bronchiectasis, lung resection may be necessary if other less invasive modes of treatment prove ineffective. The findings of the studies, however, suggest that though such screening sometimes results in earlier detection of cancer, the overall survival of patients does not seem to improve in association with early detection. Most common in the United States, however, is adenocarcinoma, which has usually invaded nearby tissues or metastasized by the time it is recognized. Bed rest, use of a humidifier, and plenty of fluids are generally recommended for all cases of the disease. Today, more than 95 percent of all patients recover when they receive proper medical treatment. In rare instances, hemangiomas are related to certain syndromes, which, if suspected, may lead to additional testing. The blood vessels present in a cavernous hemangioma are encapsulated in a connective and fatty tissue framework. Also, the lymphocytes that are produced are not as adept at fending off infections as healthy lymphocytes, making patients more susceptible to a number of other conditions. For instance, a serious form of lung infection caused by a fungus common in the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys is most likely to affect individuals living in either of those regions. Colonic polyps are extremely common and are estimated to occur in about half of all people greater than 60 years of age. There also appears, however, to be a genetic factor involved in polyp development that cannot be changed. Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood sugar levels, is another important atherosclerosis risk factor.
The metal silver (formerly necessary to the radiographic & photographic industries) is a non-renewable resource. Bacteria are single-celled organisms without a nucleus or chlorophyll, are everywhere in the water in our bodies on earth, in any species of plant or animal. Though the cause of adenomyosis is unknown, other risk factors appear to include childbirth, tubal ligations, Caesarean sections, and termination of pregnancy. The most advanced astrocytomas (grade IV) are usually described as glioblastoma multiforme. The lowest-grade astrocytomas, which are sometimes known as pilocytic gliomas, have a five-year survival rate of approximately 70 percent, but the outlook for patients with higher-grade tumors is significantly less propitious. In some instances, the cancer may be easy to confuse with scar tissue upon initial examination.
Some inherited conditions, especially cystic fibrosis, are known to be linked to bronchiectasis as well. Large cell carcinomas only account for approximately one-tenth of all cases of bronchogenic carcinoma, but the cancer has a propensity to grow more rapidly than other types of non-small cell carcinomas. Nevertheless, pneumonia is still a highly destructive force, together with influenza ranking as the seventh leading cause of death in the United States. As many as 75 percent of polyps found in the colon are classified as adenomas, tumors that originate in glandular tissue or exhibit a glandular structure.
Individuals afflicted with diabetes mellitus can keep their condition in check in order to help decrease additional risk of coronary heart disease. Thus it is beneficial that this is now being replaced by digital (DR) and computed (CR) technology. Although adenomas are benign, they are prone to malignant change and may become cancerous over time if not removed. Where photographic films required wet processing facilities, these new technologies do not. Through wounds, damaged tissue through sexual contact , through foods or drinks harmful bacteria can enter our body.



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