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10.08.2014, admin
Upper respiratory tract infections range from common, benign processes, such as nasopharyngitis, to uncommon, potentially lethal processes, such as epiglottitis. Upper respiratory tract infections typically occur after insults to host defenses—such as allergic rhinitis, chemical irritation, trauma, and, especially, viral respiratory tract infections— that impair ciliary function and produce increased volumes of thin secretions and mucosal edema that block the narrow channels draining the sinuses and middle ear.
Although infections of the paranasal sinuses are common, they are greatly overdiagnosed by patient and physician. Nosocomial sinusitis occurs as a complication of nasotra-cheal intubation or, less often, the use of nasoenteric feeding tubes.4 Unexplained fever may be the presenting symptom, and computed tomography scanning is often required for diagnosis if the patient cannot localize the pain. Frontal sinusitis produces pain and tenderness over the lower forehead and purulent drainage from the middle meatus of the nasal turbinates.
Acute sinusitis The diagnosis of acute sinusitis can usually be established on clinical grounds. Because of technical difficulties in obtaining valid cultures, the bacteriology of sinusitis has been incompletely defined.
The respiratory system supplies the body with oxygen and disposes of carbon dioxide.  There are four processes involved with respiration. Internal respiration is the gas exchange that occurs at the capillaries and intercellular tissues.
So this structure is our bronchial tree, and it branches, branches, branches, smaller, smaller, smaller that fill up the lung.  Bronchi branch to become bronchioles. The composition of the tissue is going to change as we go from big tubes to smaller and smaller branches. When you’re gearing up for fight or flight (sympathetic shit) what are you going to need in terms of oxygen? Under the parasympathetic stimulation, the ACh is released which constricts the airways in case you don’t need so much air (rest and digest). As we move into this microscopic level, if we had kept columnar cells, it would take too long for oxygen to diffuse.
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The ArmAid is a gnarly self-massage tool for your forearms and here is my video review of it! When you breathe in, air enters your nose or mouth and goes down a long tube called the trachea.
Oxygen follows this path and passes through the walls of the air sacs and blood vessels and enters the blood stream. Also known as the windpipe, this is the tube which carries air from the throat into the lungs. The trachea divides into two tubes called bronchi, one entering the left and one entering the right lung.
Tertiary bronchi continue to divide and become bronchioles, very narrow tubes, less than 1 millimeter in diameter. The diaphragm is a broad band of muscle which sits underneath the lungs, attaching to the lower ribs, sternum and lumbar spine and forming the base of the thoracic cavity.
At the top of the respiratory system, the nostrils act as the air intake, bringing air into the nose, where it’s warmed and humidified. We inhale and exhale air about 22,000 times per day and in the process, transport about 300 cubic feet of air. At the bottom of the pharynx, this pathway divides in two, one for food (the esophagus, which leads to the stomach) and the other for air.
At its bottom end, the trachea divides into left and right air tubes called bronchi, which connect to the lungs. The breathing process is aided by a large dome-shaped muscle under the lungs called the diaphragm. When you breathe in, the diaphragm contracts downward, creating a vacuum that causes a rush of fresh air into the lungs. The opposite occurs with exhalation, where the diaphragm relaxes upwards, pushing on the lungs, allowing them to deflate. Not to be confused with bronchitis, bronchiolitis is an inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest branches of the bronchial tree.
In bronchitis, a common disease of adults and teens, the membranes lining the larger bronchial tubes become inflamed and an excessive amount of mucus is produced. Caused by over 200 different viruses that cause inflammation in the upper respiratory tract, the common cold is the most common respiratory infection.
Caused by an abnormal growth of cells in the lungs, lung cancer is a leading cause of death in the United States and is usually caused by smoking cigarettes. This condition occurs when the blood pressure in the arteries of the lungs is abnormally high, which means the heart has to work harder to pump blood against the high pressure. The 90-percent mark for common respiratory illnesses indicates how long they can be expected to last: By this number of days, 9 out of 10 untreated children get better. As a parent, you should always have your child evaluated if you feel something more serious may be going on. The information contained in these topics is not intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, it is provided for educational purposes only.
Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified healthcare provider before starting any new treatment or discontinuing an existing treatment. Supplement - The information and materials presented here in HouseCalls Online are meant to supplement the information that you obtain from your physician.
If you're taking medications, they could influence how you experience various symptoms.

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The proximity of upper airway structures to the central nervous system and the presence of abundant vascular channels connecting the two account for some of the most severe complications.
Acute sinusitis is characterized by nasal congestion, purulent nasal discharge, fetid breath, facial pain that typically increases when the patient stoops forward, and, often, fever and other systemic symptoms.
Nose blowing propels nasal fluid into the sinuses, potentially introducing viscid fluid and bacteria that can lead to sinusitis.3 Nasal polyps, deviation of the nasal septum, or hypertrophied adenoids may predispose to purulent sinusitis by obstructing sinus drainage.
Frontal sinusitis and maxillary sinusitis are most common in adults; ethmoiditis is most common in children. They are uncommon pathogens in acute infections but are common pathogens in chronic sinusitis and otitis, as well as in abscesses, soft tissue infections, and periodontal infections; aerobic pathogens participate synergistically in most of these processes. Such fungi as As-pergillus, Mucor, and Rhizopus species produce invasive sinusitis in patients with leukemia or poorly controlled diabetes10,11 and, occasionally, in normal hosts.10 In immunocompromised patients, sinusitis may also be caused by Candida, Alternaria, Pseudomonas, Nocardia, Legionella, atypical mycobacteria, and certain parasites. Remember the cilia in the nasal cavity pushes down toward the pharnyx while the cilia in the larynx pushes UP to get stuff into the pharynx to then go in the stomach.
You know how hard it is to blow up a balloon, so we wouldn’t want to have to deal with these sacs collapsing. Sanjay, but as I read on Tortora, there’s no cartilago anymore on the bronchiolus, so I think the diagram was correct. There is also a small flap of cartilage called the epiglottis which prevents food from entering the trachea. It also helps protect the trachea by producing a strong cough reflex if any solid objects pass the epiglottis. Tiny hairs called cilia protect the nasal passageways and other parts of the respiratory tract, filtering out dust and other particles that enter the nose through the breathed air. These two openings of the airway (the nasal cavity and the mouth) meet at the pharynx, or throat, at the back of the nose and mouth. The epiglottis, a small flap of tissue, covers the air-only passage when we swallow, keeping food and liquid from going into the lungs.
Within the lungs, the bronchi branch into smaller bronchi and even smaller tubes called bronchioles. Your heart then pumps it through your body to provide oxygen to the cells of your tissues and organs. Your blood then carries the carbon dioxide back to your lungs, where it is removed from the body when you exhale. Often triggered by irritants in the air such as cigarette smoke, asthma involve contraction of the muscles and swelling of the lining of the tiny airways.
Bronchiolitis affects mostly infants and young children, and can cause wheezing and serious difficulty breathing. In emphysema, the lungs produce an excessive amount of mucus and the alveoli become damaged. There are many different types of cough and many different causes, ranging from not-so-serious to life-threatening. Affecting primarily the respiratory and digestive systems, CF causes mucus in the body to be abnormally thick and sticky.
It starts in the lining of the bronchi and takes a long time to develop, so it’s generally a disease in adults.
Pneumonia causes fever and inflammation of lung tissue, and makes breathing difficult because the lungs have to work harder to transfer oxygen into the bloodstream and remove carbon dioxide from the blood. According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, low levels of certain nutrients have been linked to lung diseases. The first article in the series included a picture of my wife, fitness coach Kathie Lamir, who exemplifies a healthy body. Caution: Patients with severe or worrying symptoms should be examined even if still within the typical duration.
A cough can last nearly four weeks, during the course of a viral upper respiratory infection. Close attention should be given to young infants, especially those born prematurely and children with chronic disease (such as asthma, diabetes, heart disease, compromised immune system). Talk with your healthcare provider about any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
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These regions are normally teeming with a variety of microbial flora, and many potential pathogens can temporarily colonize these epithelial surfaces without causing true infection [see Table 1]. In addition, the numerous fascial planes of the head and neck provide potential spaces where infection can become sequestered. In most patients, acute sinusitis responds well to medical therapy; in a few persons, however, chronic sinusitis may result. Cigarette smoke and overuse of topical decongestants impair ciliary action and alter the mucous blanket, predisposing to sinusitis. Sinus punctures reveal that the most common pathogens in acute sinusitis are Haemophilus influenzae, pneumococci, streptococci, and Moraxella catarrhalisF Staphylococcus aureus has been isolated in nasal cultures from some patients with acute sinusitis, but the organisms are probably contaminants rather than the true causative agents.
So the airways widen.  The adrenal medulla releases epinephrine and norepinephrine which are smooth muscle relaxants. The inner membrane of the trachea is covered in tiny hairs called cilia, which catch particles of dust which we can then remove through coughing. Irregular rings of cartilage surround the bronchi, whose walls also consist of smooth muscle. Bronchioles end in tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide actually takes place. The resulting narrowing of the airways prevents air from flowing properly, causing wheezing and difficulty breathing, sometimes to the point of being life-threatening. Some of the more common causes aare the common cold, asthma, sinusitis, seasonal allergies and pneumonia.
The mucus can clog the airways in the lungs and make a person more vulnerable to bacterial infections.
Symptoms include a persistent cough that may bring up blood, chest pain, hoarseness, and shortness of breath.
Common causes of pneumonia are influenza and infection with the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae. It recommends eating foods rich in vitamins A, C and E and the minerals zinc, potassium, selenium and magnesium. This can seem like an eternity when your child coughs more at night, often to the point of vomiting.
Nothing contained in these topics is intended to be used for medical diagnosis or treatment.
We will not provide the e-mail addresses of doctor(s) in the local practice to users of their site without the doctor(s)' permission. If you have any concerns regarding the security of information, please do not provide any information to RemedyConnect, Inc. In addition, local immunologic defenses attempt to deal with organisms that have breached the mechanical barriers; such defenses include abundant lymphoid tissue, secretory IgA antibodies in respiratory secretions, and a rich vasculature that can rapidly deliver phagocytic leukocytes. Furthermore, because the upper airway is narrow, infection in the neck may compromise the patency of the airway itself.
Chronic sinusitis is characterized by purulent discharge, usually without fever, that persists for weeks or months. Contributing factors may include rapid changes in altitude, trauma, in-tranasal foreign bodies or tumors, cocaine abuse, and such systemic processes as cystic fibrosis and Kartagener syndrome (situs inversus, bronchiectasis, and sinusitis).
The trachea is surrounded by 15-20 C-shaped rings of cartilage at the front and side which help protect the trachea and keep it open.
The trachea is also lined with cilia, which sweep fluids and foreign particles out of the airway so that they stay out of the lungs.
Among the most serious causes of cough are tuberculosis (TB) and whooping cough (pertussis). Elevating the head of the bed at night, running a cool mist humidifier at night (that is cleaned regularly), warm tea or lemon water with honey (if your child is over 12 months of age), and Ibuprofen as needed for discomfort. Their site is restricted to use by whomever they wish, and they may deny access to their site to one or more prior users.
As a result, the microbiology laboratory faces the challenge of isolating potential pathogens from the normal mouth flora, and the clinician faces the challenge of distinguishing between the carrier state and active infection. Finally, immunosup-pression renders persons vulnerable to unusual pathogens and unusual complications.
Factors that predispose to chronic sinusitis include inadequately treated bacterial infections, long-term impairment of mucociliary clearance, obstruction of sinus drainage, and allergies and asthma.
Patients with eth-moidal sinusitis complain of retro-orbital pain and may have pain, tenderness, and even erythema over the upper lateral aspect of the nose. Radiologic studies are essential in the diagnosis of severe, refractory, nosocomial, or complicated cases of sinusitis but are not necessary in routine cases.
They are not complete circles due to the position of the esophagus immediately behind the trachea and the need for the trachea to partially collapse to allow the expansion of the esophagus when swallowing large pieces of food. In unusual cases, doctors may change their private site's access code and arrange for us to e-mail the new access code to approved users. A respiratory epithelium, composed of ciliated columnar cells, goblet cells, and mucous and serous glands, lines the paranasal sinuses, the middle ear, and the airway below the epiglottis. The anterior ethmoidal cells drain through the middle meatus, whereas the posterior cells drain through the superior meatus. Isolated sphenoid sinusitis, which occurs in only 3% of patients with sinusitis, is often misdiagnosed.
Because these areas are inaccessible for routine culture, it is often necessary to diagnose and treat infections on the basis of clinical findings and statistical probabilities [see Table 1] rather than on the basis of bacteriologic data derived from an individual patient.
This disorder has traditionally been considered to cause pain at the occiput or vertex; in fact, frontotemporal, retro-orbital, or facial pain is more common.

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