How to cure an upper respiratory infection in snakes,how do you get rid of the department of justice virus location,home remedies for infection in nose - For Begninners

03.12.2015, admin
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One of the main health problems in rabbit production systems is the occurrence of digestive disorders. The inclusion of fibre is another dietary intervention that can help to alleviate the occurrence of E.coli infections in young rabbits.
These changes to the diet are minor but could have a large impact in reducing the incidence of E.coli.
Body condition scoring is a common, subjective method used to assess the nutritional status of production animals which is correlated with reproductive efficiency. There were significant correlations between body condition score, body weight and fertility. In rabbits, modifications in dietary composition may be associated with reproductive benefits. Adjusting the time to weaning may also help the doe to recover the energy lost during lactation.
Poor body condition and receptivity can be major sources of culling and mortality with rabbit does.
A research team from Hungary set out to explore the effect of litter size and birth weight on kit mortality, rate of gain and live weight during growth in two experiments using Panon White rabbits.
To ensure there was no effect on litter size, any rabbits which died up to 21 days of age were replaced with rabbits of the same age and weight. In Exp1 where rabbits of different birth weights within litters were raised Is Bigger Always Better? In both experiments the mortality rate increased as litter sizes got larger, which is precisely what the farmer had indicated to me.
The trial also showed kit birth weight significantly affected mortality rates – especially with kits of low birth weights.
Rabbits in commercial production systems are rather sensitive to digestive diseases, especially when they are exposed to stressful situations (i.e.
Nowadays, natural substances are being used with an increasing frequency in food animal production. The research on the use of probiotics in commercial rabbit production is limited in comparison to other livestock species such as pigs. The addition of probiotics to breeding doe diets can shorten the re-mating interval from 15 days to 10 days, and can improve productivity by 10 rabbits per doe per year (Nicodemus et al, 2004). The weaning period is a very crucial time for rabbits as this time can be associated with stress and an increased sensitivity to diseases. OFAC Issues Specialist Leslie Ballentine advises that in all cases, your local police should be notified and a police report should be made. By notifying police, Ontario Rabbit and OFAC, a common denominator may be identified and a profile could be compiled.
If a break-in does occur, it does not take long to make the necessary phone calls, notify the right people and work together to stop break-ins on farm.
Pododermatitis- also known as sore hocks and bumblefoot- can be a problem in a commercial rabbitry.
Rabbit growers should be aware that the most common signs of pododermatitis are sores covered by scabs, inflammation, bruising or raw bleeding spots. Affected rabbits should be given a resting board in the wire cage or if on a hard surface they should be given soft dry bedding to rest on.
Pneumonia is mainly transmitted by nasal secretions, direct nose to nose contact or sneezing. Perhaps there are too many rabbits in the barn and the ammonia or humidity levels get out of control. You may wish to send samples away to the University of Guelph for testing to ensure his is the bacteria you are dealing with. The following is a systematic method of examining a rabbit starting at the head and working back. Next, hold the rabbit securely and carefully belly up so that you can examine the back legs and feet. Ear mite or ear canker is a very common infection in most rabbitries and is economically important because of the loss of condition and poor reproductive performance that this infestation can cause. Therefore if you must have other animals in your rabbitry, it is very important that you have them checked often for ear mites and treated if necessary. Ear mites can be readily treated using commercially available ear mite drops which are generally a combination of mineral oil and an appropriate insecticide. Any new stock that is purchased from outside sources should be quarantined and treated for ear mites before entering the main population of the rabbitry.
Collection program for obsolete pesticides, animal health products and used sharps: Coming to a community near you this October! As part of this project, farmers will be able to bring their obsolete agricultural pesticides, unused animal health products and used sharps (needles, syringes and scalpel blades) to a series of 16 collection sites across the province for safe and environmentally responsible disposal. Agricultural pesticide products should have a PCP number on the container, although in cases where the label is no longer present or it is unknown which particular pesticide was in the container, the product should be labeled “pesticide unknown” when it is brought to a collection site. The program is available to all farmers as long as the products brought in for collection meet the above-noted requirements. Collection sites will not accept pesticides and animal health products in aerosol containers, medicated feed, premise disinfectants, or any household or human use items.
This program is co-ordinated by AGCare with financial support from CropLife Canada and the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs.
Designated volunteers will be available at each site during the collection period to receive product and answer questions. A person who strains his voice, yelling at asporting event gets a sore throat not only from the muscle strain, butalso from the rough treatment of his throat membranes. These disorders can cause diarrhea, increased veterinary costs, decreased growth and increased mortality.
One serotype causes yellow diarrhea in suckling rabbits and is associated with high mortality. The benefits of a diet high in fibre are that it increases caecal activity causing an increased production of volatile fatty acids which leads to a decreased pH. This method is widely used for livestock, such as ewes, cows and sows, because it is less labour intensive than body weighing.
Body condition scoring is a simple, rapid and non-invasive method and does not cause stress on the female rabbits.
One method to improve body condition is to provide ad libitum a diet with a high percentage of fibre. Early weaning of litters has been proposed as a way to both reduce doe body energy output by decreasing the lactation period and ensure better coverage of kit nutritional requirements by separate kit and dam feeding. The owner said that he would just as soon not have such large litters because of the higher mortality rates associated with them.
Panon Whites were developed at the Kaposvar University in Hungary by reciprocal crossing of New Zealand White and Californian rabbits.
In other words litters in Exp2 contained either all low, all medium or all high birth weight kits. By Brian Tapscott, Alternative Livestock Specialist, OMAFRA together, the mortality rate up to 3 weeks of age was 13.3%, compared to only 10% in Exp2 where litters were homogenized for birth weight (Table 2). There is additional interest in using natural alternative products that allow for the maintenance of high production and a reduction in morbidity and mortality. Several studies exist nevertheless, which access the effects on growth, feed conversion, reproduction, mortality, caecal activity and digestibility.
A study which compared probiotic and non-probiotic fed rabbits from the fourth day post weaning to day 88 of age reported a significantly higher average daily gain and feed conversion ratios (Kritas et al. The name of the officer and the incident number should be kept on file at the farm along with a written report of the incident(s) for future reference. Remember, we are here to help in your time of need so please do not hesitate to contact the Ontario Rabbit office with your questions. However, if the rabbits are obese they do exert more pressure on the feet possibly causing the condition to occur.
For example, if your rabbits are overweight reducing feed intake will reduce size therefore reducing pressure on the feet. Dave has been selecting replacement stock from seasoned does that have not had any trouble with sore hocks.


The more seasoned rabbit growers know all too well the signs and symptoms of Pasteurella multocida (P. This includes the sinuses which show up as a sneezing, runny nose (commonly called snuffles and the most common form of P.
Most does carry the bacteria, for the most part the does can manage it, the problem is with the kits and fryers.
In severe cases Pasteurella can cause neurological damage to the rabbit and cause, circling to one side, and severe tilting (wry neck) of the head.
If you have not sent samples away, consult with your veterinarian and they will be able to suggest effective medications. The rabbit should be on a table or other flat surface covered with a towel or mat so the rabbit can sit comfortably without sliding around.
If the teeth are maloccluded, try and determine if it is genetic or due to pulling on cage wire. Clear, watery discharge is normal but thick, white or yellow discharge signals infection (probably pasteurella).
If there are any lumps under the chin that seem to be just under the skin, these are abscesses which will get larger and eventually burst open.
Ear mites are parasitic insects and are able to spread from one rabbit to another, especially from does to kits.
The brownish discharge which is present in most cases can be examined under a microscope and the mites identified. Ideally all rabbits should be treated once a day for three days, then every other day for three treatments, finishing with a once weekly treatment for three weeks. This drug is very effective but does have a meat withdrawal time which is extremely long and therefore cannot be used on rabbits used for meat purposes.
Acceptable animal health products should have a label that contains a Drug Identification Number (DIN). Product is collected on a first come, first serve basis until the secure collection totes are full. More than 270,000 kilograms of obsolete product have been collected in Ontario during previous collection campaigns in 2001 and 2005.
Other project partners include Ontario Farm Animal Council, Canadian Animal Health Institute, Ontario Veterinary Medical Association and Ontario Agri Business Association.
When a stuffy-runny nose, sneezing, and generalized aches and pains accompanythe sore throat, it is probably caused by one of the hundreds ofknown viruses.These are highly contagious.
There are two main syndromes that are responsible for digestive infections, epizootic enteropathy and colibacillosis.
This drop in pH causes an increase in feed intake and growth while reducing sickness, death and susceptibility to E.coli infections (Gidenne and Licois, 2005).
The high nutritional needs of the rabbit doe are not completely satisfied by feed intake, the energy balance is negative and the body fat deposits are mobilized causing a poor body condition and subsequently poor fertility.
Although this type of diet has a low digestible energy, it could improve feed intake during first lactation due to the enlargement of the digestive tract. It is recommended to discuss any management changes with your veterinarian before implementing them in your rabbitry. I decided to see what research there was looking at litter size, birth weight and mortality.
The theory was that bigger kits in litters would have a competitive advantage over the smaller kits in terms of nursing.
The rabbits were weighed weekly up to 6 weeks of age and then every other week until they reached 10 weeks of age. This suggests that homogenizing litters decreased mortality rates ~3.3% during the early suckling period. These studies have shown that the addition of probiotics to the feed or water supply can result in increased growth, increased average daily gain, increased slaughter weight and improved feed conversion (Maertens et al.
Some studies report increased mortality with probiotic use, while others show a significant decrease (Maertens et al. The probability of seeing a response depends on several factors including the level of management on the farm, the amount of stress to which the rabbits are exposed and to which the normal bacterial populations are challenged or damaged during the period of stress.
Any suspicious activity should be reported to the Ontario Rabbit office and to the Ontario Farm Animal Council (OFAC) with as many details as possible. Make sure the barn is locked when nobody is around and you have security lights that are motion activated.
When the hair is gone it leaves the skin exposed and when the rabbit sits it creates a pressure on the skin.
Severely affected rabbits may become anorexic, debilitated and eventually die if this condition is not attended to as soon it is detected. If a secondary infection is present you should wash the infected area every day with warm, soapy water and dry thoroughly.
Those rabbits should be examined to see if there is hair loss, thickening of the skin, swelling, redness and if there are scabs present. If rabbits are housed on a wet surface, which includes wet resting boards or wet bedding, the feet can become softened predisposing the hocks to infection.
If housing is not as clean and dry as it should be then simply increasing cleanliness and having drier surfaces for the rabbits will go a long way to reducing the chances of having sore hocks. At each breeding he takes a good look at the doe first to make sure that it is okay to breed her back. The does have constant contact with the kits and fryers and are spreading the bacteria to the young. If ventilation is not working optimally for the number of rabbits in the barn this can lead to a big problem especially in the spring and fall when temperatures are fluctuating. If you are able to trim overgrown teeth ( a pair of side-cutters works fine ), trim them on a regular basis so that the rabbit can eat properly. Rabbits will use the inside part of the front paws to wipe their noses which leaves the fur crusty and yellow.
Check for sores on the bottom surface of the feet, or thinning fur that could become sore hocks. Such checks also will help you become more confident in your ability to make the right choice of which rabbits to keep and which to cull.
Ear mites have a 21 day cycle from egg to adult, so it is therefore important to carry out the full treatment schedule in order to eradicate all of the hatching eggs. If you know in advance that you will have a large volume of product to bring in, please call AGCare at 519-837-1326 so that we can make appropriate arrangements for additional collection boxes.
A pilot project collecting just animal health products and used sharps was held at six collection sites in Ontario last fall.
This information should not be used in place of a call or visit to a competent health-careprofessional. Colibacillosis is caused by a highly pathogenic strain of Escherichia coli (Boulier and Milon, 2006).
Dietary fibre has a critical role to play in maintaining gut health and gut motility, all while preventing disease. Although more research is required to assess the effectiveness of these diets, the future outlook is promising. The body condition and energy balance of female rabbits appears to be correlated to short and long term reproductive efficiency.
After kindling, the doe increases its feed intake by 60-75%, but this is still not sufficient to cover the energy demands of lactation, especially with large litters. Several strategies concerning rearing, feeding, management aspects could improve in reproduction of the rabbit does, thus increase the profitability of your rabbitry. The kits were individually weighed and identified immediately after kindling, before they could nurse. The premise was that if all kits within a litter were of similar size, that they would all have a similar chance to nurse.
However, as public perception about healthy food is having a great impact on farm management practices; new alternatives to antibiotics are needed for the future.
There are concerns from an increasing number of consumers about the side effects and antibiotic resistance that using antibiotics can cause and many producers are trying to phase out the use of antibiotics, especially in animals raised for meat because of these growing concerns. Overall, the inclusion of probiotics in a feeding program appears to have a positive impact on growth and production, especially during the summer months when temperatures can reach a maximum. It is advisable to consult with your veterinarian as to whether including probiotics in your feeding program may be a worthwhile investment for your rabbit operation. Sometimes you may think your barn break-in may be an isolated event and it is not worth reporting but this is not the case.


By collecting information in one confidential central place OFAC can help law enforcement to piece together patterns and evidence. You can use topical zinc and iodine ointments or an antibiotic ointment on the affected area however if the rabbit is debilitated or abscesses are present, injectible antibiotics should be used. Other possible causes are lack of movement in a small cage, abrasions from rough, irregular or wire floors, poor sanitation, and in some cases where rabbits repeatedly thump their hind feet.
Regular checking of feet will help with prevention catching the problem before it becomes out of control.
The tear ducts become clogged with dried discharge, causing excess tearing and subsequent scalding of the skin around the eyes and face. One tip is to check the fans regularly to ensure they are working well and brush the dirt and hair off of them. If the air in the rabbitry is not fresh enough for you to spend the day in think about the rabbits. These rabbits may be either culled or the animal isolated so that when the abscess bursts other animals are not infected.
If the rabbits nose was clear but the paws are dirty then it more than likely has snuffles. The dosage is 400 micrograms per kilogram, administered by subcutanmeous injection under the skin.
This year’s expanded program is being run on a trial basis in conjunction with a feasibility study looking at long term, sustainable collection options for these products. You should consult a health care professional before adopting any of the suggestions inthis document or before drawing inferences from it.Any decision regarding treatment and medication for your condition should be made with the adviceand consultation of a qualified health care professional.
Coliform bacteria (mainly E.coli) are normal inhabitants of the intestinal tract of many animals. In the past, studies have shown that medium chain fatty acids have antimicrobial properties. High starch diets are usually not completely digested in the rabbit small intestine due to rapid transit time and because it is very easily digestible. There are a number of management practices that can help increase doe fertility, and thus increase the production of your herd.
Their evaluation of the body condition score of 487 lactating rabbit does before artificial insemination (11 days post partum) was based on feeling the bone protrusions and muscle fullness of the loin and rump regions and the hind-leg muscle fullness.
Over an entire reproductive cycle the doe gets 20% of its energy from its own body fat instead of from its feed (Fortun- Lamothe, 2006). Feed restriction during rearing increased uniformity of body weight among does and avoided excessive body fat and stimulated feed intake in first gestation. One option for reducing the need for antibiotics is the use of probiotics as an alternative treatment strategy. It is therefore a good idea to consider some alternatives for antibiotic use in your rabbitry.
Through the provision of an exogenous source of bacteria, it is possible that these good bacteria can become established in the intestinal tract, thereby reducing the chance for harmful pathogenic bacteria to also become established.
Other times the owner knows that someone was in the barn and nothing appears to be missing but what happened? If you are worried about your livestock you could also install a security camera in the barn. Regular toenail clipping and ensuring the cages are large enough for the size of rabbit so there is adequate area for exercise will also help with prevention of pododermatitis. Dave is very concerned about sore hocks because the doe would rather lie on her babies to relieve the pain than to lay on the cage wire. If this is a big problem on your farm you may wish to investigate an early weaning program so that you can reduce the amount of contact the doe has with the kits. If one or both eyes are enlarged or cloudy the animal may be suffering a form of glaucoma common to rabbits which may be genetically transmitted.
If the problem is thought to be genetic then make a note on the records of both the rabbit and its parents in order to ensure the problem is prevented in future generations.
This excess of starch results in rapid growth of microbes and of pathogenic bacteria are present. This problem is even greater in does with their first litter because they consume less feed and are also still growing while they are lactating.
These results could indicate that a fibrous diet provided ad libitum during the rearing phase allows a regulation of body fat mobilization, helping doe recovery in their second reproductive cycle.
The practice of early weaning should be limited to primiparous does where metabolic stress is less likely to happen.
Probiotics are live cultures of harmless bacteria or yeast species that could help to balance the intestinal microflora for the benefit of the animal. One study in particular, found that probiotic use decreased the mortality in the summer months by 17% (Kustos et al.
Be sure to clean and disinfect the cages of afflicted animals thoroughly and inspect the wire for any rough spots. This increases his overall herd mortality, increases his cost of production and reduces the number of fryers he has ready to go to market. It is wise not to keep breeding stock from these rabbits and to mark your records accordingly in order to stop the genes being passed on. This document maycontain inaccuracies, typographical errors, or other errors.Liability DisclaimerThe publishers, authors, and any other parties involved in the creation, production, provision ofinformation, or delivery of this document specifically disclaim any responsibility, and shall not beliable for any damages, claims, injuries, losses, liabilities, costs or obligations including any direct,indirect, special, incidental, or consequential damages (collectively known as “Damages”)whatsoever and howsoever caused, arising out of, or in connection with, the use or misuse of thedocument and the information contained within it, whether such Damages arise in contract, tort,negligence, equity, statute law, or by way of any other legal theory. Digestive problems caused by enteropathogenic bacteria are responsible for much of the death and illness seen in rabbitries and play a large part in the economic losses incurred.
This results in excess secretion of fluids into the digestive tract, as well as a decrease in fluid absorption leading to severe diarrhea.
Probiotics can also be used in order to promote the development of good bacteria in the caecum, preventing E. One study by Skrivanova et al (2008) demonstrated that feeding weaned rabbits a diet containing caprylic and capric acids led to reduced E. Another study (Arias-Alvarez et al., 2008) reported similar findings with rabbits fed a high lignin diet having significantly higher feed intakes prior to and during pregnancy. Similarly, in another study (Sakr et al., 2010) early weaning at 25 days post -partum seemed to improve body energy stores of primiparous does. Probiotics promote microbial colonization that will have competitive growth against harmful pathogenic bacteria. The hock is the lower part of the back leg that touches the ground when the rabbit is sitting.
This loss of fur could also be caused by fur mites (Cheyletiela) also called walking dandruff. Typically, infection leads to death within a few days or stunted and unthrifty rabbits, if they survive (Boulier and Milon, 2006). Therefore, inclusion of a high fibre diet is a very important aspect in proactively preventing the onset of enteric disease in your rabbitry. Although, this was not well reflected on the ovarian status at 32 days post-partum, which was similar regardless of weaning time and it could be performed later. Probiotics have also been shown to improve lactation in does, resulting in higher litter weaning weights and reduced kit mortality (Pineheiro et al. These results are supported by the outcome found by Abdel-Samee (1995) which indicated that probiotic use can decrease the negative impacts of heat stress. In addition to this protocol many does now receive a floor mat after their 4th or 5th litter to reduce the chances of getting sore hocks. The many benefits from a diet high in fibre can include improving the resistance of the rabbit to E.coli infections. The condition is compounded by water and urine, high humidity, excess body weight or injury. The favourable effect of a diet high in fibre was shown in a study by Gidenne and Licois (2005).
The natural characteristics of milk in protecting young animals against numerous pathogenic viruses and bacteria have been known for many years. The infections were experimentally induced and compared to two diets, one low in fibre and one high in fibre.



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