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Claviceps purpurea - wikipedia, free encyclopedia, Claviceps purpurea is an ergot fungus that grows on the ears of rye and related cereal and forage plants. Several lineages developed various patterns of fenestration, all aimed at same biological goal.
The earliest known amniote is the sauropsid Hylomonus, but their total-group sister taxon, the synapsids, must have been present.
The interval from the Late Carboniferous to Early Triassic saw synapsids dominating the world's land faunas. The impedance matching ear evolved independently several times in the history of Tetrapoda. Recall that in Osteichthyes, Meckel's cartilage ossifies into a number of bones, including a tooth-bearing dentary. Including Casea and Cotylorhynchus (above) Pennsylvanian age large herbivores with a very broad flat torsos and improbably small heads.
The lower posterior edge of the jaw is developed into a thin flange that would vibrate freely when the jaw picked up sound vibrations from the ground. The teeth behind the canines, specialized from slicing prey, are distinctly different from those in front, specialized for nipping or holding prey. Following a mid-Permain gap in the terrestrial fossil record, we start to pick up members of a synapsid group that is more highly derived along the trends that we discussed before, Therapsida. During the middle and late Permian, therapsids replaced the more basal synapsids as the dominant land fauna, both as predators and as herbivores.
These were synapsid herbivores that had evolved a unique mechanism for cropping plant material. Dicynodonts occurred over wide size range (woodchuck to hippo), and during late Permian and early Triassic and were locally the most abundant vertebrate fossils in many localities. Synapsid trends in specialization of post-dentary bones and enlargement of infratemporal fenestra are evident.
The early Triassic saw major changes in dominant land faunas, due largely to the replacement of synapsids by archosaurs as the major large land animals.
The post-dentary bones were weakly attached to the dentary, bore little load during chewing.

The bones of the palate begin to fold under the choanae to form a secondary palate separating the oral and nasal cavities. In the early Triassic, cynodonts had been major land predators and dicynodonts were the major herbivores, but by the Middle Triassic, all of that had changed.
Infratemporal fenestra enlargement: This really was maximized in the early Triassic and has not progressed since. By the Middle Jurassic, any synapsid you saw would be difficult to distinguish from a mammal, and many were proper early mammals. Constraining the history of endothermy; Endothermy (warm-bloodedness) is considered a characteristic feature of mammals. Because of how these characteristics are distributed among living vertebrates, we think of tachymetabolic and homeothermic as going together, but that is an oversimplification. Of course this begs the question: Where does the ability quickly to metabolize glucose come from? Fundamentally, these abilities are determined by separate and distinct functions of the body, however there are some connections between them. Anaerobic respiration: Is relatively inefficient and yields toxic byproducts such as lactic acid, along with energy, but can proceed in the absence of oxygen. Aerobic respiration: Over three times as energy-efficient and without toxic byproducts, but requires significant amounts of oxygen. Vertebrates "prefer" to respire aerobically, but can add on anaerobic respiration during intense activity. Resting metabolic rate: The base rate at which an organism metabolizes glucose while at rest. Aerobic scope: The factor to which an organism can elevate its activity levels over the resting state without slipping into anaerobic respiration. Digest efficiently by reducing food to small bites before digestion or employing chewing or gizzards to grind food up. Eating more food: Once digestion is efficient enough to yield more energy, one can hunt more effectively and capture more food.
Thus, whenever a creature requires rapid metabolism, it also needs to keep its body within a narrow temperature range. Metabolic heat: If your resting metabolic rate is high enough, you warm yourself by burning glucose.

Respiratory surfaces: The combination of panting - moving large volumes of air across the moist linings of the oral cavity, pharynx, etc, facilitates evaporative cooling, especially when combined with specialized evaporative cooling structures like nasal turbinates - scroll-shaped bones in the nasal cavities of mammals.
Would this approach to cooling have had any effect on other aspects of metabolism that we have discussed? Thus, adaptations for maintaining constant body temperature and adaptations for rapid metabolism tend to be mutually reinforcing. Animals that have mastered that challenge of dumping excess heat may evolve integumentary systems like fur or feathers to limit the loss of metabolic heat through the skin.
Somewhere between the first synapsid and the first mammal, the transition from ectothermy to endothermy occurred. Dry skin: Frogs and salamanders have little ability to elevate their body temperatures above ambient levels, even by ectothermic means, because of their need to keep their skin moist to facilitate cutaneous breathing. Posture: For Dimetrodon, there was little difference between standing tall and sprawling flat.
Cynodonts similar to Morganucodon very close to the ancestry of mammals definitely had proper fur.
The overall picture is that non-therapsid synapsids were ectothermic in the style of lizards. In mammals, ventilation is aided by a muscular diaphragm and the separation of food and air in the mouth.
This is easy for sea creatures, but a real challenge for land animals that inhabit environments with variable temperature ranges. Big connection: animals with glucose "to burn" can choose when to become active regardless of external temperature, thereby increasing their ability to capture more glucose. Did fur originate as an insulating body coat, or did it first appear as whiskers in burrowing therapsids? Cynodonts managed to hang on but were literally diminished by adding a new trend: miniaturization.

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