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03.06.2015, admin
Be confident that your results are processed by AABB certified laboratories, in accordance with the recognised ISO 17025 standardisation. Bacterial vaginosis is one of the most common causes of vaginitis, and is often asymptomatic. We offer two accurate tests for bacterial vaginosis – a simple Gardnerella vaginalis urine test by PCR or a comprehensive DNA swab test for the three main causes of vaginitis. Our bacterial vaginosis tests costs just ?50 and contains detailed self-collection instructions as well as a full testing kit. BV can often be quite a painful infection – if it does show symptoms at all - that coats the walls of the vagina and can cause long-term problems if it is not treated as soon as possible. The BV Profile test is a DNA probe-based test for the identification of the three most common causes of vaginitis - Candida species, Gardnerella vaginalis and Trichomonas vaginalis. The BV Profile test is a much more accurate test than other swab tests as it ignores other infections or medications you may be taking at the time. The BV urine test is a simple PCR home sample collection urine test that checks for the presence of the Gardnerella vaginalis bacterium. Alternatively, you can choose to take a Full STI Profile test, which checks for the 8 most common STIs in a single, comprehensive test. The most effective treatment for bacterial vaginosis is metronidazole, as it targets the main symptoms of this condition such as pain, redness and inflammation. Bacterial vaginosis can lead to long-term health problems so it’s very important to regularly test for this infection before it is too late. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) – or gardnerella vaginalis – is a bacterial infection that affects mainly women, causing pain to the genital area.
BV is not necessarily a sexually transmitted infection, although it mainly occurs in women who are sexually active as it is passed from one infected person to another. The most common BV symptoms include an increased vaginal discharge and an unpleasant smell.
No, bacterial vaginosis is known to only affect women and is more common in women who have had a form of birth control implanted, such as an IUD. BeneVap is an adaptation of submerged combustion technology that was originally invented to melt snow piles. There is strong evidence to support relapse prevention strategies in the intermediate and long-termmanagement of patients with a history of recurrent Major Depressive Episodes. The definitions of relapse and recurrence of a major depressive episode (MDE) proposed by the MacArthur Foundation Task Force1 have been more or less universally accepted. There is a consensus that maintenance treatment should continue for a minimum of 6 months after achieving symptomatic remission and that the medication dose that was effective during acute treatment should not be reduced. Maintenance treatment beyond 2 years should be considered when factors such as older age, comorbid conditions, and other risk factors are present.7 There is also agreement that when the decision is made to discontinue an antidepressant, it should be done gradually to avoid discontinuation emergent symptoms.
Support for these guidelines on relapse prevention has steadily emerged over several decades. One of the first relapse prevention trials with a second-generation antidepressant compared responders to paroxetine who remained on the active treatment for 1 year to those who switched to placebo. Prevention of Recurrent Episodes of depression with VENlafaxine for Two years (PREVENT) was the first large trial to assess relapse prevention with an SNRI in patients with recurrent depression (defined as three or more prior episodes, two occurring within the past 5 years).15,16 The study employed a three-phase, double-blind, placebo-controlled methodology to examine two consecutive 1-year maintenance phases in which responders to venlafaxine ER were randomly assigned to remain on the medication or switch to placebo.
In a subsequent meta-analysis involving SSRIs, SNRIs, and other second-generation antidepressants, Hansen and colleagues (2008) evaluated 23 placebo-controlled and 4 comparative trials.
Agomelatine is a new antidepressant with a novel mode of action19 that has also been evaluated under relapse prevention conditions. In parallel with the pharmacotherapy evidence for relapse prevention, a number of studies have demonstrated the benefits of evidence-based psychotherapies, particularly CBT20 and MBCT.21 While there is some support for IPT as a maintenance therapy, the evidence is less robust. Despite the impressive evidence from these various controlled trials, adherence to relapse prevention strategies in natural practice trials is considerably less impressive.25,26 The investigators monitored, but did not control, the use of antidepressants during a 2-year follow up of remitted patients who had a history of recurrent depression and were candidates for maintenance antidepressant therapy.
Among the neurostimulation therapies, only electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has an adequate evidence base to provide guidelines for its use in relapse prevention.27 The main clinical dilemma following successful treatment of an acute depressive episode with ECT is the selection of optimal maintenance therapy.
There are several reasons why it is difficult to compare outcomes for individual antidepressants across the studies and meta-analyses discussed here.
Apart from differences in trial methodology, patient variables have also been shown to influence relapse. It is also known to be one of the most common reasons for women to seek help about unidentified sexual health problems. Common symptoms of this STI include a change in the odour of the menstrual blood or a grey-white vaginal discharge. It allows you to test for early detection of these three pathogens from a single swab sample, for a low price, and is an ideal test for home sample collection.


This test kit includes its own specific swab with full detailed instructions for sample collection.
All you need to do is a provide a small urine sample is the tube provided in the kit and return this sample back to our laboratory.
This treatment can also be used in cases of adult acne where the skin on the face becomes inflamed.
Getting treatment for BV is simple and effective when the infection is in its early stages.
BV can also be contracted simply through an imbalance of the normal bacteria in the vagina. They can eliminate water that is too saline for reverse osmosis or too dirty for mechanical vapor recompression.
But our BeneVap machines can be used to reduce the volume of wastewater or completely eliminate it – leaving only a slurry concentrate.
Water vapor forms inside the bubbles and is evacuated at atmospheric pressure from the concentration vessel. They can be operated on a variety of fuels – natural gas, methane, propane, fuel oil or waste oil. Most placebo-controlled relapse prevention trials have evaluated the benefits of different antidepressant therapies (tricyclic, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, and agomelatine) over 6-month to 3-year durations.
High-risk patients should be monitored regularly for early signs of recurrence after discontinuation of antidepressants. In a landmark relapse prevention trial, the Pittsburgh group evaluated the benefits of a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) or IPT alone or in various combinations.12 Results of the survival analysis demonstrated a robust effect for imipramine at an average dose of 200 mg daily and a modest effect for IPT. There was a significantly lower rate of relapse and longer survival time in the paroxetine group.14 This was followed by a large systematic review of relapse prevention in which Geddes and colleagues (2003)4 identified 31 randomized trials (published or unpublished up to August 2000) involving patients who had responded to an antidepressant during acute treatment and were randomized to continue on the drug or switch to placebo.
There were no differences in relapse and recurrence rates in the 4 head-to-head comparative trials.
For example, Schramm and colleagues (2007) reported a short-term (3- month) advantage for IPT over clinical management for relapse prevention in hospitalized depressed patients with MDD.
Only 42% maintained continuous antidepressant treatment, 38% received antidepressants intermittently, and 20% were without maintenance antidepressant therapy throughout the trial.
In general, antidepressant treatments that failed prior to the use of ECT are not effective in subsequent relapse prevention.
Aside from differences in duration of various studies, there is a lack of consensus on what constitutes a relapse. Lam RW, Kennedy SH, Grigoriadis S, et al; Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT). Parikh SV, Segal ZV, Grigoriadis S, et al; Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT). Bockting CL, ten Doesschate MC, Spijker J, Spinhoven P, Koeter MW, Schene AH; DELTA study group. More recently, BV has become a global concern due to its increasing association with sexually transmitted infections and ascending genital tract infection.One third of women will experience bacterial vaginosis (gardnerella vaginalis) at some point in their lives. Once collected the sample is stable for 3 days, which means that it is safe for you to post to the lab for testing as soon as you provide the sample.
They are used to reduce the volume or eliminate produced water from oil and gas production, landfill leachate and industrial wastes. The mass of solution never reaches boiling point during the process – so the concentration vessel is never pressurized. The operating parameters can be altered for varying water quality or volume reduction targets. Evidence-based psychotherapy studies, mainly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), with and without pharmacotherapy, have also been carried out.
These definitions provide a basis for comparative studies to examine relapse prevention across different treatment modalities (eg, pharmacotherapy, electroconvulsive therapy, or cognitive therapy) or within one modality (eg, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) vs serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) antidepressants).
According to the CANMAT guidelines, evidence to support maintenance therapy for longer than 2 years has a less established evidence base, but certain risk factors, including earlier onset of depression, continuing psychosocial adversity, older age, and comorbid medical or psychiatric conditions, are indicators for extended maintenance treatment.6 In the NICE guidelines, patients who have relapsed despite adequate antidepressant maintenance treatment are considered candidates for combined medication and psychological interventions, particularly cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) or mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT).
Although this analysis included trials out to 36 months, most (58%) lasted 6 or 12 months and the majority (81%) involved TCAs or SSRIs.
Among the placebo-controlled trials, the duration of randomized follow up in 12 studies was less than 1 year, and 1 year or longer in the remaining 11 trials.
However, this difference was not maintained at 1 year.22 Frank and colleagues (2007) also evaluated the potential preventative role of IPT at different frequencies in a large sample of women with recurrent unipolar depression who achieved remission with either IPT alone or in combination with an SSRI. Overall, based on a standardized minimum effective dose criterion, only 26% of patients received an antidepressant at or above the recommended guideline doses.


However, results from two large collaborative studies, the Consortium for Research in ECT (CORE)28 and the Columbia University Consortium,29 support a combination of nortriptyline and lithium for relapse prevention.
Conceptualization and rationale for consensus definitions of terms in major depressive disorder. Antidepressant monotherapy versus sequential pharmacotherapy and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, or placebo, for relapse prophylaxis in recurrent depression. Agomelatine prevents relapse in patients with major depressive disorder without evidence of a discontinuation syndrome: a 24-week randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial. Relapse prevention with antidepressant drug treatment in depressive disorders: a systematic review.
Evidence-based guidelines for treating depressive disorders with antidepressants: a revision of the 2000 British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines.
Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) clinical guidelines for the management of major depressive disorder in adults. Paroxetine is better than placebo in relapse prevention and the prophylaxis of recurrent depression.
Prevention of recurrent episodes of depression with venlafaxine ER in a 1-year maintenance phase from the PREVENT Study. The Prevention of Recurrent Episodes of Depression with Venlafaxine for Two Years (PREVENT) Study: outcomes from the 2-year and combined maintenance phases. Meta-analysis of major depressive disorder relapse and recurrence with second-generation antidepressants.
Long term treatment of depression with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and newer antidepressants. The novel melatonin agonist agomelatine (S20098) is an antagonist at 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C receptors, blockade of which enhances the activity of frontocortical dopaminergic and adrenergic pathways.
Moderators of continuation phase cognitive therapy’s effects on relapse, recurrence, remission, and recovery from depression. An intensive treatment program of interpersonal psychotherapy plus pharmacotherapy for depressed inpatients: acute and long-term results. Randomized trial of weekly, twice-monthly, and monthly interpersonal psychotherapy as maintenance treatment for women with recurrent depression. Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) Clinical guidelines for the management of major depressive disorder in adults. Continuation electroconvulsive therapy vs pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention in major depression: a multisite study from the Consortium for Research in Electroconvulsive Therapy (CORE). Effect of concomitant pharmacotherapy on electroconvulsive therapy outcomes: short-term efficacy and adverse effects.
Efficacy of continuation ECT and antidepressant drugs compared to long-term antidepressants alone in depressed patients.
Although not always transmitted as an STI through sexual intercourse, this infection is most common in sexually active women and is not known to affect men in general. BeneVap machines are equipped with a burner control unit to ensure safe operation and a programmable logic controller to handle operational tasks. Although there are considerable variations inmethodologies,metaanalyses and guidelines support maintenance treatments with both antidepressants and psychotherapies. MBCT is also recommended for people who are currently well, but have experienced three or more prior episodes of depression.7 Similar conclusions are reached in the BAP guidelines, which suggest the addition of CBT to medication for patients with residual symptoms or those with additional risk factors for relapse. The authors concluded that continuing treatment with an antidepressant reduced the odds of relapse by 70%, with an average of 41% of patients receiving placebo and 18% on antidepressant experiencing a relapse. Bacterial vaginosis usually occurs when the delicate natural balance of bacteria in the vagina is disrupted, which usually occurs as a result of an STI, too much sex during a “honeymoon phase”, scented soaps or strong detergents. In general, patients with risk factors for recurrent episodes of depression should remain at the same dose of antidepressant medication for at least 2 years.
The same group also concludes that interpersonal therapy (IPT) is not recommended as a sole maintenance treatment, although it may be a useful adjunct to antidepressants in patients with recurrent depression.5 Psychotherapy is not recommended as a sole treatment to prevent recurrence in the WFSBP guidelines,9 although these guidelines are considerably older than others and did not have access to literature in the past decade. Patients require frequent monitoring with an emphasis onmodifiable risk factors for relapse, including comorbid disorders and treatment adherence. Those who relapse despite adequate medication therapy may benefit from additional CBT or MBCT. It is important to address individual patient factors in the long-term management of Major Depressive Disorder.



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