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19.03.2015, admin
The Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013 report gives a first-ever snapshot of the burden and threats posed by the antibiotic-resistant germs having the most impact on human health.
Quickly clobbering a cold with a certain antibiotic might help kids who are prone to severe respiratory tract infections, a new study suggests. Doctors generally are advised not to prescribe antibiotics for routine viruses like the common cold. As many as one-quarter of preschoolers suffer from recurrent wheezing in their first 6 years of life, according to background information in the new report. Researchers have found they can knock out a cold bug before it progresses to a more serious respiratory illness by giving kids an early, heavy dose of azithromycin, according to findings published Nov.
It's important to try to prevent these wheezing episodes from occurring in the first place, said lead author Dr.
Kids who received the maximum dose of azithromycin at the first sign of a cold had a 36 percent lower risk of progressing to a severe lower respiratory tract illness, compared to kids treated with an inactive placebo, the study results showed. Doctors often treat repeated respiratory illnesses with corticosteroids, such as prednisone, intended to help open up the airways. Antibiotics are used to treat some cases, but they normally aren't deployed until the child is either very ill or has been wheezing for days on end, Bacharier explained.
To see if using an antibiotic earlier would benefit these kids, Bacharier and his colleagues randomly assigned 607 children with a history of respiratory illness to receive either azithromycin or a placebo as soon as they displayed cold symptoms. The kids who got azithromycin -- known to many by the brand names Zithromax and Zmax -- received the highest U.S. Of 92 observed cases of severe respiratory illness, only 35 occurred in the azithromycin group compared with 57 in the placebo group, the investigators found.
But Cohen, co-author of an accompanying journal editorial, said it will be tough for pediatricians to draw any general lessons because the researchers applied very narrow and specific guidelines to the kids included in the study.

In this study, researchers found azithromycin-resistant bacteria both in kids who were and kids who were not treated with the antibiotic.
Future research will be needed to figure out what that means for the children, Bacharier said. The information presented on this website is not intended as specific medical advice and is not a substitute for professional medical treatment or diagnosis.
Antibiotics fight these infections either by killing the bacteria or making it difficult for the bacteria to grow and multiply. Antibiotic resistance occurs when bacteria change in a way that reduces the effectiveness of drugs, chemicals, or other agents designed to cure or prevent infections. But for especially vulnerable children, one antibiotic in particular -- azithromycin -- might thwart more serious illness, researchers said. Leonard Bacharier, clinical director of allergy, immunology and pulmonary medicine at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Both groups had equal numbers of respiratory infections, but there was a significant difference in how far their infections progressed, the study authors said. In fact, some are actually helpful, including the majority of bacteria that live in our intestines (guts).
Antibiotic resistance can cause illnesses that were once easily treatable with antibiotics to become dangerous infections, prolonging suffering for children and adults.
Viruses, on the other hand, are microbes that are even smaller than bacteria that cannot survive outside the body's cells. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria can spread to family members, schoolmates, and co-workers, and may threaten your community. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are often more difficult to kill and more expensive to treat.

In some cases, the antibiotic-resistant infections can lead to serious disability or even death.Although some people think a person becomes resistant to specific drugs, it is the bacteria, not the person, that become resistant to the drugs. Every time a person takes antibiotics, sensitive bacteria (bacteria that antibiotics can still attack) are killed, but resistant bacteria are left to grow and multiply. This is how repeated use of antibiotics can increase the number of drug-resistant bacteria.Antibiotics are not effective against viral infections like the common cold, flu, most sore throats, bronchitis, and many sinus and ear infections.
Widespread use of antibiotics for these illnesses is an example of how overuse of antibiotics can promote the spread of antibiotic resistance. Others have learned how to pump an antibiotic back outside of the bacteria before it can do any harm.
Some bacteria can change their outer structure so the antibiotic has no way to attach to the bacteria it is designed to kill.After being exposed to antibiotics, sometimes one of the bacteria can survive because it found a way to resist the antibiotic. If even one bacterium becomes resistant to antibiotics, it can then multiply and replace all the bacteria that were killed off.
That means that exposure to antibiotics provides selective pressure making the surviving bacteria more likely to be resistant. As a result, FDA released a proposed rule in December 2013 to require manufacturers to submit data supporting the efficacy and safety of antibacterial soaps and body washes.
This proposed rule does not affect hand sanitizers, wipes, or antibacterial products used in healthcare settings. Antibiotic use, appropriate or not, contributes to the development of antibiotic resistance.

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