Natural treatment for liver diseases 3.5,how to get rid of swollen feet after flying pregnant,how to get rid of puffy nipples in guys - PDF Review

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LinkedIn emplea cookies para mejorar la funcionalidad y el rendimiento de nuestro sitio web, asi como para ofrecer publicidad relevante. Planet Ayurveda presents a wide range of quality herbal supplements for various health issues.
Enlarged liver (hepatomegaly) is a medical condition where liver gets swollen beyond its normal size. Liver helps to process everything we eat or drink and filter harmful substances from the blood. It is a blend of many valuable herbs which are used traditionally for the treatment of fatty liver. It has fantastic actions on the immune system, Echinacea is found to have anti-microbial properties that work well in infective conditions. Phyllanthus capsules are very helpful in treating bronchitis, anemia, urinary discharge, thirst and asthma.
These capsules are made with a unique combination of herbs which act on the liver in a natural way. All these herbal remedies together make best ayurvedic treatment for enlarged liver which reduces the size of liver and improves liver functions. Cod liver oil is a true superfood with an expansive list of health benefits, including protection from bone loss. When it comes to disease prevention, many people worry about heart disease, cancer, and diabetes, but rarely do people consider preventing a debilitating disease in their bones.
Women over age 45 experience more annual hospitalization days associated with osteoporosis (loss of bone density) than with diabetes mellitus, heart attack, and breast cancer. By 2020, half of all Americans over the age of 50 are expected to have low bone density or osteoporosis. For those 50 or older patients who get a hip fracture, almost one in four die in the year following their fractures!
Discover what causes osteoporosis and learn natural remedies for osteoporosis symptoms with our top five osteoporosis guidelines in our FREE 13-page report, Osteoporosis Guidelines: Natural Remedies for Osteoporosis Symptoms! Be sure that you choose a cod liver oil supplement that has been tested for mercury. Mercury can damage your kidneys and cause a wide variety of other health problems. Children generally need only half the dose that adults take in order to experience all the cod liver oil benefits. Be aware that you can overdose on vitamin D, but clinical evidence seems to indicate this happens rarely when the D comes from cod liver oil. Also, some scientist believe the natural vitamin A found in cod liver oil limits the effectiveness of the vitamin D.
Related PostsOsteoporosis Guidelines: Natural Remedies for Osteoporosis SymptomsAre You Getting Enough Vitamin D To Prevent Osteoporosis Symptoms? Tagged with food, for osteoporosis, Low Bone Density, national osteoporosis, national osteoporosis foundation, natural osteoporosis treatment, natural remedies for osteoporosis, Osteoporosis, osteoporosis definition, osteoporosis foundation, osteoporosis guidelines, osteoporosis is, osteoporosis prevent, osteoporosis symptoms, prevent osteoporosis, preventing osteoporosis, reversing osteoporosis, treating osteoporosis, vitamin D, what causes osteoporosis, what is osteoporosis. Tumor is simply what they’re often called so if you prostate cancer and breast cancer hear them use that word no need for alarm. Kupffer cell-mediated inhibition on liver regeneration after combined liver and pancreas resection. Drugs like phenobarbitone phenytoin paracetamol tricyclic antidepressants may increase the levels of g glutamyl transpeptidase.
Milk thistle chasteberry and yellow liver vitamin a foods dock basic are able The exceeding profits of Milk Thistle are due to all-powerful antioxidant properties which help to boost nutrition and survival in patients with liver cirrhosis overall ealth and well-being. In summary acute liver failure statistics uk blood tests are used to diagnose or monitor liver disease. Milk Thistle Extract is standardized to 80% silymarin the key constituent that exerts a protective efect against substances potentially extracorporeal albumin dialysis for acute liver failure harmful to the liver.* Directions For Use.
VitoLiv prevents and repairs liver damage to cope with the damages caused through alcohol, drugs, toxins and viruses. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. The last piece from the set for Magnesium muriaticum presents the leading physical pathology cured by this homeopathic remedy; namely this is the disturbance into the gastrointestinal tract and particularly into the proper functioning of the liver.
The article provides also pointers to the tissue salts of Schuessler that are applicable respectively.
Liver disease is considered to be related to the concentration of anger and negative emotions, leading the individual to constant complaining, low self esteem and justifying of one’s own fastidiousness.
Acute inflammation of the liver may arise from high mode of living, extensive exposure to hot damp weather and to sun rays; from violent mental emotions, misuse of stimulating or alcoholic drinks, suddenly suppressed evacuations, strong emetics or purgatives, gall-stones, or brain injury.
The allopathic treatment is the least favorable in cases of hepatitis, while the homeopathic remedies have a deep action. When children are sick from hepatitis, Mag-m is the first homeopathic remedy to be considered, especially if quarrels run in the family.
Mag-m cures the inability to digest milk leading to pains in the stomach and consequently an evacuation of indigested consistence from the bowels.
Ferrum phosphoricum and Kalium muriaticum in the inflammatory stage of hepatitis – 6 pastilles twice a day from each salt. Kalium phosphoricum – in cases of hepatitis accompanied by depression – 6 pastilles twice a day. This page guides to discriptive articles about prescribing and to short repertories for acute prescription in common upper respiratory, throat, laryngeal and gastro-intestinal disorders.
The cookie settings on this website are set to "allow cookies" to give you the best browsing experience possible. RECOMENDATIONS ON CLINICAL NOTES Approaching focal liver lesions F.
Fatty Liver is very common among the age group of 40-49 years. Indians have a higher prevalence of Fatty Liver than Europeans. It has a wide range of functions including, detoxification, protein synthesis and production of biochemical’s necessary for survival. People who are in initial stage this condition get 100 percent result by using only yakritplihantaka churna only. According to the American Medical Association, 80 percent of gallstones are made of hardened cholesterol that develops when there is too much cholesterol in the gallbladder.
But when a gallstone obstructs the bile duct, it can cause symptoms like sudden onset of severe pain especially in the right side of the abdomen, back pain, nausea or vomiting, bloating, indigestion, chills and clay-colored stools. PsylliumPsyllium is a very good source of soluble fiber, hence it is considered a good remedy for gallstones. PINAKEE RANJAN CHAKRABORTY May 23, 2014 at 7:21 am ReplyADD LIFE TO YEARS AND IN TURN YEARS TO LIFE. Without an adequate amount of vitamin D in the body, calcium will not get absorbed. In other words, calcium and vitamin D work hand-in-hand to build strong bones. The major reason why cod liver oil benefits the bones is that it is rich in a variety of important nutrients. A tablespoonful of cod liver oil will generally give you about 1400 to 2000 IU of Vitamin D along with 2800 mg of EPA and DHA, the best form of the hugely beneficial omega- 3 fatty acids. As long as your cod liver oil has been properly processed and purified, it should be low in mercury.
As long as you don’t take more than a tablespoon per day, these risks will remain insignificant and you can be assured of safely enjoying all of the cod liver oil benefits. Our Comprehensive Guide gives you details on supplement doses and other specifics you will need to know to effectively implement all of these important steps – all in one place. It is often associated with a drug of unpredictable liver toxicity and may be the cause of acute liver failure in some patients.
Milk thistle is said to help in healing the liver in many ways by promoting the growth of new Stimulation of bile production can cause digestive side signs of liver or kidney failure in cats effects and overall Back to TopCauses. In December I got a strange rash (red patches) on my body the started on my shoulders and upper back and spread down the sides of my Natural Liver Hemangioma Treatment back and down onto my chest.
Bacterial digestive infections cause irritation and prostate cancer uk london marathon inflammation of the intestines that may result in a number of symptoms.
Most patients who develop ALF become ill very rapidly andthe interval from onset of illness to near total liver collapse may be as Furthermore the ALF patient will undergo extensive blood and urine testing both to grade the severity of the liver failure and to determine the etiology. Though this demarcation is to some extent conditional, the ‘women’ remedies are more often prescribed to female patients than to male ones. Here are presented few remedies which successfully will bring relief from the acute stage of this disorder. The disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in many cases cause disturbances in the liver; it is therefore important to treat the main derangement as well, in order to cure the liver. The chronic liver affection reflects on the functionality of vital organs like the lungs, blood vessels and intestines; it causes hemorrhoids, diarrhea, erysipelas on the skin, nose bleeding, abscesses, indurations or adhesions in the liver. It is serious affection which leaves the immune system weakened and affects the functioning of the entire organism. Many laboratory experiments and clinical studies have proven that homeopathy heals hepatitis and prevents the development of a chronic state and its severe consequences.
Children who suffer from distended abdomen and much flatulence, obstinate constipation with large, dry, hard, crumbly faeces.
The remedy is clearly manifested when this symptom appears in feeble infants, predisposed to rickets, who are craving for sweets. It is always good to include it into the combination of salts; and in any case when the liver disease goes together with inflammation of the gallbladder, or after mental exersion – exams or similar. If you continue to use this website without changing your cookie settings or you click "Accept" below then you are consenting to this.
Consulta nuestras Condiciones de uso y nuestra Politica de privacidad para mas informacion. Consulta nuestra Politica de privacidad y nuestras Condiciones de uso para mas informacion. Almost one third of the urban population in India is suffering from Fatty Liver. It affects about one in every 10 people. Enlarged liver ayurvedic treatment has been proven very effective in curing various liver disorders.
It is an Anti-inflammatory herb that helps to cure many inflammatory conditions in the body, also decreases the growth of hepatitis-b, herpes virus and influenza.
Other causes include high levels of bilirubin and a concentration of bile in the gallbladder.Pregnancy, obesity, diabetes, liver disease, a sedentary lifestyle, a high fat diet, and certain forms of anemia are some of the risk factors of gallstones. The pain caused by gallstones may last for a few minutes to several hours.Gallstones can cause lot of pain and must be treated immediately. The fiber in psyllium binds to the cholesterol in bile and helps prevent gallstones from forming.Plus, it promotes normal bowel movements, which reduces risk of the gallbladder system becoming congested.
Teresa May 31, 2014 at 8:45 am ReplyMy mother’s side everyone had to have their gallbladder taken out.


A study in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that healthy bones could be maintained with calcium intake of less than 800 mg a day, as long as there was sufficient vitamin D intake. Readers are advised to consult their own appropriate health professionals on any matter relating to their health and well-being. PM Syrin acts as a liver tonic it aids digestion helps maintain healthy digestive function. Although the exact mechanism of DILI is unknown In many patients long-term heavy drinking leads to chronic liver disease liver failure and even death.Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the only definitive treatment for end-stage liver disease including alcoholic liver disease (ALD). I have had pain in the Upper right Quadrant for 2 years and although I have had Natural Liver Hemangioma natural food for liver detoxification Treatment numerous tests a Natural Live Hemangioma Treatment cause had eluded the doctors. Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) is an herbal remedy that has been used to treat liver pig liver egeneration disorders for many years.
The seeds of the milk thistle plant are commonly used by some individuals in the hope of protecting the liver from damage caused by hepatitis viruses as well as alcohol and other substances. Toxicity Adverse Warnings and Side Effects: Milk Thistle is considered to be one of the safest herbs available on the market. Healthy Food Natural Liver how much vitamin k is stored in the liver Hemangioma Treatment Corner. 3) Authentic cleansing means cleaning up and cleaning out your internal organs- colon small intestine stomach pancreas liver lungs kidneys Taking Care Of Your Liver. In order for you to see this page as it is meant to appear, we ask that you please re-enable your Javascript! This is due to the physical pathology from one side, and to the particular psycho-emotional pattern of the remedies from the other side. The idea is to be able to identify your own acute remedy and manage the acute affection on your own, at least in simple cases. People older than 60 years of age, females and people of Native American or Hispanic descent have a greater risk of gallstones.
And generally, a minimum dose between 600 to 800 IU per day is recommended to prevent osteoporosis. While the information found on this website is believed to be sensible and accurate based on the author’s best judgement, readers who fail to seek counsel from appropriate health professionals assume the risk of any potential ill effects. In the 16th century a physician actually used the crushed seeds of MilkThistles for liver ailments I could be wrong but thats my question and I’m wondering what it does for a body builder and if I should take it. The exact toxins that cause hepatic encephalopathy have not been established, but ammonia may be involved. Vikram Chauhan is leading Ayurvedist from Chandigarh having solved many complicated cases from North India as well as rest of the world. I started to get the pain under the rib and was told to change my diet or i’d end up like my mom. Milk thistle supplements are widely used to protect the liver against toxins and to control chronic liver diseases. Many physicians determine ammonia levels to diagnose hepatic encephalopathy and as a guide to treatment. In this article the readers's attention will be drawn up to the particular mental picture of this remedy, and to the pronounced depression it is able to cure.
All these herbs helps in correcting SGOT, SGPT levels and reduces excess fat from the liver therefore improves its functions. Apple Cider VinegarThe acidic nature of apple cider vinegar stops the liver from making cholesterol that is responsible for forming the most common type of gallstones. The more serious but less common condition is called steatohepatitis which has two types – alcoholic steatohepatitis that is caused by too much alcohol intake and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Campaign (2) Adam (1) adam jones (5) Adam Lind (1) adequate amounts (1) ADHD from A to Zoe (1) Thai (1) Jane Austen (1) Janeiro Games (1) Janeite (1) japan (1) japan cars (1) Japan National Route Cow (1) Milk Thistle (1) Million Times (1) millionth (1) Minerals (1) Minguo calendar (1) Minor Illness Don't try to do it all at once.
It also plays a key role in dissolving gallstones and alleviating pain.Mix one tablespoon of apple cider vinegar in a glass of apple juice. Some of our life choices including outside influences like alcohol, sugar, and negative thinking, can create "toxic Elevate ATP & DNA Repair is a revolutionary formulation that assists in reversing the signs of aging, boosting energy, increasing fat loss and aiding in cellular repair. When the liver starts functioning properly, it aids gallbladder functioning.Place one teaspoon of dried dandelion root in a cup. I also drink apple cider vinegar straight up or mixed with water or over my salads (mother’s nature) and fresh lemon juice mixed with water a SEA Salt.
This will significantly ease the pain within 15 minutes.Alternatively, you can add two teaspoons of apple cider vinegar and one teaspoon of lemon juice to a glass of warm water. Drink this tea two or three times a day for one or two weeks.Alternatively, you can prepare an herbal tea by adding two teaspoons of marshmallow root and one teaspoon of Oregon grape root to four cups of water. Lemon JuiceAnother good ingredient for keeping gallstone attacks under control is lemon juice.
Now, add two teaspoons of dried dandelion leaves and one teaspoon of dried peppermint leaves and allow it to steep for 15 minutes. Continue this therapy for a week.Alternatively, you can drink four tablespoons of lemon juice mixed in a glass of warm water every day on an empty stomach. The last month has been painful.I read on line that apple cider vinegar, the real dark stuff, can help ease the pain.
Continue this treatment for several weeks until the gallstones are eliminated from the body.3.
PeppermintPeppermint aids digestion by stimulating the flow of bile and other digestive juices. It worked the first time within a about an hour and helped for the whole night and the next morning.
I have taken it again today and it has helped again immensely.May not have any properties to soften stones but sure helps with sludge! Ria October 23, 2014 at 7:37 pm ReplyI read various articles on the net of gall stones flush out.
Vegetable JuiceWhen suffering from gallstones, it is essential to cut down on fried and fatty foods. I tried drinking apple juice in breakfast lunch and dinner and at bed time had Olive oil with 3 lemon juice. Next Morning I did not get any urge to go to the toilet which was expected as per the article. A mixed vegetable juice made of beet root, cucumber and carrots is a good remedy for gallstones.Beet root helps cleanse the liver and strengthens the gallbladder.
Their nature is widely varying, and may range from benign lesions with an indolent clinical course to aggressive malignant tumors (Table I).
They are common findings as a result of the ever increasing use of imaging techniques in patients with nonspecific abdominal complaints (1). Beforehand, incidental lesions in asymptomatic patients with no history of neoplasms or liver disease are usually benign, and cysts, hemangiomas and focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) are most prevalent in our setting (3). In contrast, liver lesions in cirrhotic patients demand that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) be ruled out. Once at like 8pm then another dose at 10pm then lie down on your right side with your knees up to your chest. Thus, a history of oral contraceptive use in a young woman suggests hepatocellular adenoma, cirrhosis is a preneoplastic condition for hepatocellular carcinoma, and sclerosing cholangitis predisposes to cholangiocarcinoma. Then by the morning you should have passed many stones You can also try drinking more of the Epsom salt mixture upon waking upJennifrt February 5, 2016 at 1:29 am ReplyYou need to first open the bile ducts with 2 Tbs.
Serologic tests for hepatitis viruses, Echinococcus and Entamoeba may suggest a diagnosis, as a number of tumor markers also do. However, a definite diagnosis is established using two essential tests: imaging techniques and a cytohistologic study. Once at like 8pm then another dose at 10pm then drink the olive oil apple juice mixture right after. Characteristically, tumors with arterial hypervascularization may be benign -adenomas or FNH- or malignant, such as hepatocellular carcinoma, and metastases from neuroendocrine tumors or hypernephroma.
Abdominal computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with vascular (gadolinium) or ferric (ferumoxides) contrast media have taken over radionuclide tests, and often allow getting around histology.
Most home remedies I tried lessen the pain (lemon, apple cider, ginger, etc) but the pain seems to increase in the next attack.In November 2014, I was told to take pure cacao (to be taken like HOT chocolate), NO sugar and NO milk.
It is useful to establish the characteristics and origin of metastatic lesions, and to differentiate dysplastic lesions from hepatocellular carcinoma. Similarly, it may be essential to distinguish between liver adenoma and FNH, or to establish the nature of a number of atypical lesions. This practical clinical guide will review liver lesions most commonly seen in our setting, and a suggested diagnostic and therapeutic approach (Fig. For those who are having gallstone attack, I hope you may also find a home remedy that fits you. It is usually a single lesion of serous contents lined by cuboidal, biliary type epithelium with no communication with bile ducts (4-6). This is a haphazard finding in asymptomatic patients, but may also induce pain when reaching greater sizes (diameter > 10 cm). Never operated them out.but whenever I look at fatty foods and I think about gallstones I get attacks( a lot of pain ) is there any way I can change this.
Thanks Rajah ug March 3, 2015 at 5:43 pm ReplyAfter lunch today I felt the attack and they lasted for about four hours until i washed a lemon and ate it with its peelings without sugar I relaxed on my couch and the pain started fading in about 20minutes I was very ok. It is radiographically diagnosed, being depicted as an anechoic, wall-less, posterior enhanced lesion by ultrasonography (6,8) and as a T2-hyperintense, non-contrast-enhanced mass by MRI (5). Thanx very much Donna Bailey April 9, 2015 at 6:05 pm Replythis works for kidney stones or gallbladder. A simultaneous injection of an sclerosing substance such as alcohol or tetracycline is recommended, but relapse is common (6,7). In case of severe hemorrhage or recurrent infection a surgical approach is recommended (7). It is an endemic condition in Spain involving the liver, lung, and central nervous system among others (9,10). Hydatid cysts may become complicated in one third of cases, rupturing into the peritoneum or into the pleural space or bile tract. Using ultrasound, hydatid cysts may be differentiated from simple cysts by the presence of thicker walls, internal septa, daughter vesicles (multiloculated cysts), and hyperechogenic debris inside, as well as by the occasional presence of wall calcifications (9,10). CT or MRI may establish the diagnosis, assess complications, and define relations to vascular and biliary structures when planning a therapeutic approach.
Initial treatment with mebendazole or albendazole is recommended, as well as the use of either drug as an adjuvant to liver resection (10). The latter is a biliary, usually multiloculated tumor that mainly affects women and may degenerate to cystadenocarcinoma.


So you don’t eat anything except the asparagus and the cola all day or I could have Break, Lunch and dinner.
Clinical suspicion is based on the presence of general malaise, anorexia, right upper quadrant abdominal pain, fever and leukocytosis. CT allows diagnosis confirmation upon the finding of one or several cystic lesions with a hyperenhanced perilesional halo in the dynamic study, occasionally with gas inside (2,10,11).
Coke will cause so much distress with gas Pritam Thakur June 18, 2015 at 7:58 pm ReplyPrevention is better than cure. Clinical manifestations are similar, but the latter type develops in patients with a history of traveling to countries with endemic amebiasis.
But if symptoms show up, avoid fast food, oily food, even non veg food if possible (because it takes 72 hours to digest than veg food which takes just 4 hours), drink plenty of water because your body requires it for 24 hour body cleaning, i.e. Imaging techniques cannot differentiate between pyogenic and amebic abscesses but serology can, as tests are positive in 90% of patients.
The treatment of choice is metronidazole, but drainage should be considered for refractory cases (12).
Sivasankar raj July 23, 2015 at 6:37 am ReplyIt was really a useful information for me because I have 2-3 stones. Of vascular origin, this tumor consists of large vessels lined with mature endothelial cells within a fibrous stroma (2,4,5,14).
Even though I had no complaint still the information will help to reduce my stones Janeth sujmugat September 14, 2015 at 11:28 pm ReplyI have one large gallstone 13mm, I want to try the apple cider vinegar and apple juice and lemon juice, I pray to the Lord that my gall stone was dissolved, in Jesus name Amen. It is a usually single small lesion of up to 20 cm in size that is more frequently found in women (1,2,4,13). In most cases, it is a haphazard finding in a patient with no symptoms or unspecific abdominal complaints (1,2,5,13). Of indolent natural history, it remains stable during follow-up but may grow in the presence of pregnancy or estrogenic therapies (1,2,13,14).
It rarely causes symptoms and only exceptionally associates with thrombopenia, consumption coagulopathy and microangiopathic anemia (Kassabach-Merritt syndrome).
Ultrasonography shows a hyperechogenic, well-defined lesion that may be more heterogeneous in case of intratumor thrombosis (13,14). Each time they sent me home saying I need surgery it’s the only thing that will help me. Just say this site and went to the store to buy some lemons, lemon juice, apple juice, and apple cider vinegar. Labeled red blood cell scintigraphy may be useful in atypical cases according to MRI for tumors > 2 cm (14,16). It completely wears you down with the pain.Going to the doctors tommorow , as i am not sleeping , off work and just feel awful.
It is usually smaller than 5 cm in size but may range from 1 to 20 cm, and is multiple in 20% of cases (4,5,17). I feel you its really painful Max October 26, 2015 at 10:25 am ReplyThank you all for sharing your experiences and knowledge, it is a wonderful thing you are all doing.
It is considered a hyperplastic proliferation of normal liver cells in response to a preexisting arterial malformation (1,2,5,17). Histologically, it consists of liver cells abnormally laid out in sheets instead of lobules, which contain Kupffer cells and abnormal bile ducts not connected with the bile system.
Greater lesions commonly have a central scar made up from fibrous stroma by a supply artery and hyperplastic bile ducts (5,17-19).
Thanks again, Max Debi November 16, 2015 at 10:48 pm ReplyA few years ago I was experiencing some pain, especially after eating fast foods (fries and burgers). Oral contraceptive use and pregnancy may favor its growth, but not its development (1,5,17).
MRI is the technique of choice in the diagnosis of this condition, and has completely replaced liver scintigraphy. FNH is isointense in T1 and isointense or slightly hyperintense in T2, but central scars are clearly hyerintense (4,5,17,19). The consultant said an operation could go okay, but then again he said they could cut the wrong part, and I could turn yellow and die.
In the remaining patients, histology is required for a differential diagnosis regarding liver adenoma.
After this I did a lot of research, it seems drastic to remove a gallbladder when its the stones and not the gallbladder that’s the problem. It is associated with oral contraceptive use and less frequently with anabolic androgens and type I glycogenosis (2,4,5,17). Usually it occurs as a solitary mass, but a diagnosis of liver adenomatosis (10-20% of cases) should be considered for multiple adenomas (2,4,17,18). It is histologically made up of atypia-free liver cells arranged in rows separated by dilated sinusoids, with no portal spaces or bile ducts (2,5). The most common complication is hemoperitoneum, whose risk increases for tumors larger than 5 cm and when contraceptive use persists beyond diagnosis (1,2,17,18).
Kupffer cell scarcity is responsible for absent colloid uptake in liver scans using Tc99, a technique that has become obsolete for its differential diagnosis from FNH (1,2). Sharing is caring Karen Thompson February 6, 2016 at 5:40 am ReplyPS My gallstone attacks were triggered by an avocado. In our setting, most common metastases originate in the lung, the gastrointestinal tract (colon, stomach, pancreas, gallbladder), breast and ovary (21). Two major exceptions include colorectal cancer (CRC) metastases when susceptible of surgical resection, and neuroendocrine tumor metastases, as they are of a less aggressive nature. Regarding imaging techniques, CT reveals a hypovascular lesion with characteristic contrast uptake, whereas in a few cases there is hypervascular enhancement suggesting a carcinoid tumor, melanoma, sarcoma, hypernephroma or thyroid cancer (2,5). Octreotide scintigraphy may locate primary tumors and their extension in neuroendocrine metastatic disease (2).
In selected patients with CRC (less than 4 nodules), resection allows survivals of 40% at 5 years (21). For neuroendocrine tumors, resection may cure the disease when associated with primary tumor elimination (20).
For non-resectable neuroendocrine tumors, hepatic embolization, interferon and somatostatin analogs may be useful in the management of carcinoid syndrome (21). Tricia May 12, 2016 at 4:33 pm ReplyLast year I started having very loose stools after every meal, that was met with severe abdominal pain. Follow-up every 6 months using ultrasonography and alpha-fetoprotein determination is recommended in these patients to detect early tumors, at a time when healing treatments are feasible (24). Ultrasonography usually reveals a hypo- or hetero-echogenic hypervascular lesion by using contrast media.
CT scans show a hypodense lesion in baseline phases that takes up contrast during the arterial phase and then becomes hypovascular versus the liver parenchyma in portal and later phases (5,25). MRI reveals a lesion that is hypointense in T1 and hyperintense in T2, with a behavior similar to that seen in CT in dynamic studies (5,19,25). Of late, angio-MRI has been shown to represent the best technique for tumor staging, mainly in the detection of nodules between 1 and 2 cm in size (25).
In tumors greater than 2 cm, this may be achieved by using imaging techniques, whereas puncturing for histology samples is essential in tumors 1-2 cm in size (Fig.
The strategy recommended for nodules smaller than 1 cm is an expectant attitude and serial ultrasounds every 3 months (24). Prognosis depends upon tumor stage, the grade of hepatocellular failure, general condition, and treatment used.
We recently developed a new prognostic classification for HCC that takes these variables into account and allows selecting the best therapy possible for each patient (26-28). Patients with stage 0 disease have in situ carcinoma, and achieve 80% survivals at 5 years following healing treatment (29). Patients with early-stage disease (stage A) present with single tumors or 3 nodules less than 3 cm in size, are eligible for resection, liver transplantation or percutaneous treatment, and achieve 50-70% survivals at 5 years (26-28,30). Patients with multinodular asymptomatic tumors (stage B) are eligible for chemoembolization (31,32).
Patients with symptomatic tumors or vascular, nodular or extrahepatic involvement (stage C) will receive new agents in clinical trials. It may be asymptomatic until a considerable size is reached; hence it presents with pain in the right hypochondrium and loss weight. Baseline CT shows a hypodense lesion, hypovascular in dynamic studies (20), with peripheral contrast uptake during the portal phase (5).
MRI reveals a tumor that is hypointense in T1 and hyperintense in T2 (5), which behaves as in CT during dynamic studies (5). On occasion, it may result in an entrapment of vascular structures, but invasive thrombosis is rare (2,5,33). Clinical characteristics, hydatid- and amebic-related serologic tests, and CT and MRI scans allow a differential diagnosis between simple cyst, liver and renal polycystosis, hydatid cyst, and pyogenic and amebic abscess. Telling apart a cystadenoma from a cystadenocarcinoma is difficult and requires the histological study of the resected lesion for confirmation. Finally, some metastases may look cystic, as is the case in those of ovarian or pancreatic origin, and in those stemming from selected neuroendocrine tumors.
FNH and adenoma should be ruled out in younger women or in women with a history of oral contraceptive use. Despite the fact that MRI and to a lesser extent Tc99 scintigraphy may differentiate these two conditions in more than two thirds of patients (17,18), fine-needle aspiration is required for doubtful cases. Biopsy collection will also allow etiology to be established in asymptomatic malignancies and atypical tumors. Lesions greater than 2 cm are usually diagnosed using imaging techniques; lesions of 1-2 cm in size require histology, and lesions less than 1 cm in diameter call for ultrasonographic surveillance at 3 months. Then gastric cancer must be excluded, and finally pancreatic cancer in patients with jaundice or altered CA-19.9 or CA-125.
Neuroendocrine tumors make up a distinct subgroup according to their differential characteristics. Patients with an unknown primary tumor and severe impairment of the general condition (performance status 3-4). These patients exhibit severe toxic syndrome, liver infiltration and liver failure symptoms, severe laboratory abnormalities, and multiple metastatic images. Patient characteristics hamper a number of explorations and render therapy unuseful; symptomatic treatment is therefore recommended.



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