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Description: Printed as part of an edition of Ptolemya€™s Geography, in the dedication to this edition, Sylvanus declares himself to be the author. Geographically, while one of the very earliest printed maps to show any part of the North American continent, Sylvanus is still less advanced than his immediate predecessors. In the Trivulziana collection in Milan is an unusual metal casket of Italian origin which has a cordiform map of the world engraved in metal on the lid. Although Vasco da Gamaa€™s success in reaching India via southern Africa in 1497-99 vindicated Portugala€™s earlier decision to abandon intensive exploration west of the Azores, the incentive to sail west had remained strong and some adventuresome individuals undertook, often at their own expense, further voyages of discovery into the western ocean. Sylvanus records the North American landfall of the Corte-Real brothers as regalis domus, a curious term in that it is a€?corte-reala€? inverted and Latinized. They say this country is very populous and the houses of its inhabitants are of long strips of wood covered with the skins of fish. Another noteworthy observer to the affair was the Italian Alberto Cantino, perhaps best described as a foreign spy. East of the homeland of these amiable people is terra laboratoruz, or Labrador, discovered by Joao Fernandes, a Portuguese-Azorian who sailed under the British flag and whose important voyage is contemporary with that of the Corte-Reals. In South America, called Terra Sanctae Crucis [Land of the Holy Cross], the only place-name is canibaluz romon.
In the Caribbean, just west of Cuba and Hispaniola (but on the other end of the map) lies Zampagu Ins [Japan]. Sylvanus left the eastern shores of Asia and the western bounds of the Corte-Reala€™s North America open, thus allowing for the possibility that they were contiguous. This map, and the other maps in the 1511 Ptolemy atlas, were the first to be actually printed in color. Sylvanusa€™ map was not reprinted and hence remains relatively scarce.A  Occasional copies may be found printed on vellum. The vigorous style of engraving gives prominence to ranges of mountains and rivers: these (after Ptolemy) are usually named and there is little space left for the names of localities. Little is known about most of them, and what we do know is generally restricted to those for which a privilege was first obtained from the Portuguese Crown.
Surely familiar with the latest in Azorean exploratory gossip, in 1501 he and his brother Miguel set out from Lisbon with a fleet of three ships and reached Newfoundland Miguel returned to Portugal first, carrying with him many Indians as proof of their success, while Gaspar delayed his return to investigate further the new land. While endowing it with a politically neutral name, Sylvanusa€™ placement of the land far to the east of the raya nonetheless secures it for Portugal anyway. They have brought back seven natives, men, women, and children, and in the other caravel which is expected from hour to hour, fifty others are coming. Visiting the second ship, Cantino described Miguela€™s Indian captives as gentle people who laughed easily, showed their pleasure freely, and whose language was smooth sounding but not understandable.


Fernandes may have reached eastern Canada; Sylvanusa€™ map, however, is one of several early works that contribute to the opinion that Fernandes actually reached Greenland instead. The latter word is probably a mis-spelling for domon, or dominion [the domain of cannibalism].
To find a pattern for his mapa€™s Japan, Sylvanus apparently looked to the Ruysch world map (#313) of four years earlier.
Although he also leaves the north coast of Japan undefined, his designation of that land as ins[ula] seems to make clear that he did not envision it connecting to the Asian mainland.
The East Indian islands are the by now familiar reconstruction of Marco Poloa€™s voyage from China into the Indian Ocean, and they lie off the a€?falsea€? Southeast Asia peninsula, a remnant of Ptolemya€™s Africa-Asia land bridge. Most examples of the map (the present one included) have a curious flaw: in Asia, the place-name come, meant as a black ink word, printed lightly in red as well.
Unlike the other maps that are printed on the backs of preceding and succeeding maps, the world map is blank on the reverse.
His new heart-shaped projection was however adapted by several later cartographers (among them Apian and Vavassore) and used for a number of important maps throughout the sixteenth-century. Seems either no one is talking about louis daguerre at this moment on GOOGLE-PLUS or the GOOGLE-PLUS service is congested.
For instance, in the whole of continental Europe there are only three names: magna germa, Italia and dalma. The map is copied from Sylvanusa€™ map of 1511 and was probably engraved shortly after that date.
Sylvanus may have been modifying a Portuguese prototype in the interest of discretion, as the map was published in Venice, adopted city of John Cabot, who had discovered land in the same region as the Corte-Reals for the king of England. In sum, except for the guarded looks of the men, they are similar in every other way to ourselves as to features and appearance. Ruysch did not show Japan, but rather explained in an inscription that he believed Japan to be the same as one of the islands recently discovered by the Spanish (in the Caribbean). No ambiguity whatever is found with GRVENLANT [Greenland], which Sylvanus integrates fully into the Asian continent, placing it due north of CA TAI REGIO [Cathay]. But most disappointing is Sylvanusa€™ apparent ignorance of data gained from the Portuguese voyages to India, as he still reverses the relative proportions of India and Ceylon.
This quirk has helped reconstruct the method used to print the map, demonstrating that separate registers printed each color. The capital letters are printed in red by means of type set into the woodblocks that, together with the decorative wind-heads, zodiacal signs, and distinctive heart-shaped projection, make this a most striking representation.A  The place-names are printed from movable type. South America, of which the western coast only is shown, is titled Terra Sanctae Crucis but it contains none of the place names carefully recorded on Ruyscha€™s map of 1508 (#313).


Lawrence River, never returned, and Miguel, who then returned to America to search for him, vanished as well. In any event he is ambiguous about the landa€™s nature, leaving it undefined on the west and omitting fully the 40A° of longitude which would have revealed its relation to Asia or Terra Sanctae Crucis (South America). Although Ruysch indicated Hispaniola as that which he believed to be Japan, he placed an unidentified island - or part of a northern promontory of a continental Cuba as per Columbus - to the west. The practice of printing maps in color was not pursued, however, and except for a few isolated attempts the printing of maps in color did not become established until the development of lithographic processes in the 19th century. Terra cubA¦ and Hispaniola appear similar in shape to that displayed on Cantino (#306) all the other maps Harrisse refers to as the Lusitano-Germanic group. This suggests that Sylvanus was skeptical of the opinion expressed by the Venetian ambassador to Lisbon, Pietro Pasqualigo, that the new land extended south to the a€?parrot landa€? of Cabral (Brazil). They have no arms nor any iron, but whatever they fashion and make they do by using very hard and sharp stone, with which they can work anything however hard.
For Sylvanus, it was much more sensible to adopt that homeless island as Japan, rather than Hispaniola, because it as yet had no identity, and because it was in the position of Cuba, which Columbus himself had once said was really Japan.
Terra cubA¦ and Hispaniola appear similar in shape to that displayed on Cantino (#306) all the other maps Harrisse refers to as the Lusitano-Germanic group.A  However, while further north, the island terra laboratorus is so misplaced that it is situated only a few degrees west of Ireland. Thus Sylvanus transplanted Ruyscha€™s uncommitted Cuba to be a€?truea€? Japan, salvaging it from Ruyscha€™s confused Caribbean. He described the people brought back by Miguel, probably the Beothuk Indians, now long extinct. They are very shy and gentle, but excellently formed as to arms and legs and shoulders, beyond describing. Beyond is the suggestion of a land regalis domus whose western coastline is left open, as is the whole eastern coastline of Asia at the other extremity of the map. The delineation of the Asian coast using the a€?Tiger Lega€? configuration carries on the tradition also employed by the Behaim Globe, and the Marlellus, King Hamy, Roselli, WaldseemA?ller, and Contarini maps. The a€?Tiger Lega€? is Catigara which was the name given on earlier Ptolemaic maps to the land on the easternmost shore of the Mare Indicum, south of the equator.



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Comments

  1. 858, 28.04.2014
    Self a very good have lost connections with such as college buddies.
  2. dj_ram_georgia, 28.04.2014
    Straight from one report to yet another, and and.