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The function of an EEG machine depends on the fact that the nerve cells in the brain are constantly producing tiny electrical signals. The electrodes on the EEG machine are affixed to the scalp so they can pick up the small electrical brainwaves produced by the nerves. Our brain is made up of billions of brain cells called neurons, which use electricity to communicate with each other. We searched for the sources whose data would be similar as the data that would be generated by the emotiv EEG.
We took some random data from internet and classified them by decision tree using software weka. Then we started applying clustering algorithm on matlab to generate the set of required clusters. We took sound file as our data as that may be similar to the data that would be generated by EEG. Beta Waves or beta rhythm, is the term used to designate the frequency range of human brain activity between 12 and 30 Hz (12 to 30 transitions or cycles per second).
Theta Waves is an oscillatory pattern in EEG signals recorded either from inside the brain or from electrodes glued to the scalp. A person driving on a freeway, who discovers that they can't recall the last five miles, is often in a theta state - induced by the process of freeway driving.
Delta Waves are high amplitude brain waves with a frequency of oscillation between 0?4 hertz. Earlier evidence out of UCLA suggested that meditating for years thickens the brain (in a good way) and strengthens the connections between brain cells.
Two years ago, researchers at UCLA found that specific regions in the brains of long-term meditators were larger and had more gray matter than the brains of individuals in a control group. The researchers report that those who meditated for about 30 minutes a day for eight weeks had measurable changes in gray-matter density in parts of the brain associated with memory, sense of self, empathy and stress. Push-ups, crunches, gyms, personal trainers -- people have many strategies for building bigger muscles and stronger bones. Meditating does more than just feel good and calm you down, it makes you perform better - and alters the structure of your brain, researchers have found. Using new scanning techniques, neuroscientists have discovered that certain areas of the brain light up constantly in Buddhists, which indicates positive emotions and good mood.
Other research by Paul Ekman, of the University of California San Francisco Medical Center, suggests that meditation and mindfulness can tame the amygdala, an area of the brain which is the hub of fear memory. Ekman discovered that experienced Buddhists were less likely to be shocked, flustered, surprised or as angry as other people.
If you name your emotions, you can tame them, according to new research that suggests why meditation works.
Brain research is beginning to produce concrete evidence for something that Buddhist practitioners of meditation have maintained for centuries: Mental discipline and meditative practice can change the workings of the brain and allow people to achieve different levels of awareness. In Philadelphia, a researcher discovers areas of the brain that are activated during meditation. Newberg, who was catapulted to center stage of the neuroscience-religion debate by his book and some recent experiments he conducted at the University of Pennsylvania with co-researcher Eugene D'Aquili, says he has a sense of his own spirituality, though he declined to say whether he believed in God because any answer would prompt people to question his agenda. Across the country, at the University of California in San Diego, other neuroscientists are studying why religious experiences seem to accompany epileptic seizures in some patients. Could the flash of wisdom that came over Siddhartha Gautama - the Buddha - have been nothing more than his parietal lobe quieting down?
Austin's spirituality doesn't involve a belief in God ­ it is more in line with practices associated with some streams of Hinduism and Buddhism. Belief and faith, argue believers, are larger than the sum of their brain parts: "The brain is the hardware through which religion is experienced," said Daniel Batson, a University of Kansas psychologist who studies the effect of religion on people.
Brainwaves represent the electrical activity of the 100 billion neurons within the brain, each one communicating with its neighbors via chemical neuro-transmitters that bridge the synapses between neurons. This electrical activity demonstrates wave-like patterns that can be separated into distinct frequencies, graded according to the number of waves per unit of time. The nomenclature used to describe brainwaves proceeds more from the order of their discovery rather than from a logical scale of levels of alertness.
When we close our eyes and turn our attention inward, the rapid Beta wave gives way to the slower and deeper Alpha wave (7 – 13Hz). In the last few decades, researchers have discovered mysterious brainwaves outside the four well-known frequencies.
The proposition that we can indirectly control our minds by directly controlling our own brainwaves is not a new one. An important first step in facilitating personal control of brainwaves was the emergence of binaural beats in 1973.
While binaural beats do succeed in controlling brainwaves, they are inherently less effective than some of the newer methods that have been developed.
Temporal entrainment is the final tool in the brainwave audio engineer’s bag of tricks. Delta when there is unconsciousness, deep sleep or catalepsy, emitting between 0.1 and 4 cycles per second. As the signals travel through the machine, they run through amplifiers that make them big enough to be displayed.
If we can recognize an eye blink (for example) by the waves generated by the EEG, the first and the basic step of the project will be accomplished. We applied clustering and some functions in matlab and so now we can say that a data is for eye blink or not. They are found in day dreaming, dreaming, creativity, meditation, paranormal phenomena, out of body experiences, ESP, shamanic journeys. Delta waves, like other brain waves, are recorded with an electroencephalogram (EEG) and are usually associated with the deepest stages of sleep (3 and 4 NREM), also known as slow-wave sleep (SWS), and aid in characterizing the depth of sleep.

This suggested that meditation may indeed be good for all of us since, alas, our brains shrink naturally with age. Meditation research explores how the brain works when we refrain from concentration, rumination and intentional thinking. Researchers at Harvard, Yale, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have found the first evidence that meditation can alter the physical structure of our brains. People who meditate say the practice restores their energy, and some claim they need less sleep as a result.
Flanagan believes that if the findings of the studies can be confirmed they could be of major importance.
Scientists investigating the effect of the meditative stateon Buddhist monk's brains have found that portions ofthe organ previously active become quiet, whilst pacified areas become stimulated.
Brain scans show that putting negative emotions into words calms the brain's emotion center. Those transformed states have traditionally been understood in transcendent terms, as something outside the world of physical measurement and objective evaluation. At two other universities in San Diego and North Carolina, doctors study how epilepsy and certain hallucinogenic drugs can produce religious epiphanies.
It could be the decreased activity in the brain's parietal lobe, which helps regulate the sense of self and physical orientation, research suggests. Predictably, these included areas in the front of the brain that are involved in concentration.
At Duke University, psychiatrist Roy Mathew is studying hallucinogenic drugs that can produce mystical experiences and have long been used in certain religious traditions. Could the voices that Moses and Mohammed heard on remote mountain tops have been just a bunch of firing neurons - an illusion? Michael Persinger, a professor of neuroscience at Laurentian University in Sudbury, Ontario, has been conducting experiments that fit a set of magnets to a helmet-like device. After years of practice, he found himself having to re-evaluate what his professional background had taught him. Both emphasize the importance of meditation and its power to make an individual loving and compassionate ­ most Buddhists are disinterested in whether God exists. Louis University called the "nothing-butism" of some scientists ­ the notion that all phenomena could be understood by reducing them to basic units that could be measured. The first brainwave to be identified in this way was, not surprisingly, the Alpha wave, in 1908. While Alpha was discovered first, it is not the wave associated with our everyday waking state, and is not, therefore, where our inquiry should begin. Much of what transpires in the dream state is freighted with emotional significance, and Theta sleep is the time for emotional issues to be resolved through the ultimate creative exercise of dreaming. The first of these new discoveries was the Gamma wave, cycling above the Beta range at around 40 Hz.
And the phenomenon that makes it all possible is the frequency-following response – the tendency of the brain to mimic external stimuli.
But it has to use sound in a particularly creative way, since the human ear has a lower limit of 20 Hz.
An article by Gerald Oster in Scientific American brought together all the previous work on the subject, going back to their original discovery in 1839. The very fact that the brain must process two distinct tones imposes a certain burden on one’s mental resources. This method encourages the brain to speed up or slow down by modifying familiar sounds, stretching them or compressing them as appropriate.
They create electrical impulses by the diffusion of calcium, sodium, and potassium ions across the cell membranes.
They range from the high amplitude, low frequency delta to the low amplitude, high frequency beta. Long-term meditators have larger amounts of gyrification ("folding" of the cortex, which may allow the brain to process information faster) than people who do not meditate. Electrical brain waves suggest that mental activity during meditation is wakeful and relaxed. Brain scans they conducted reveal that experienced meditators boasted increased thickness in parts of the brain that deal with attention and processing sensory input. The scanning studies by scientists at the University of Wisconsin at Madison showed activity in the left prefrontal lobes of experienced Buddhist practitioners. Cultivating compassion and kindness through meditation affects brain regions that can make a person more empathetic to other peoples' mental states, say researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
That could explain meditationOs purported emotional benefits, because people who meditate often label their negative emotions in an effort to let them go. And in Canada, a neuroscientist fits people with magnetized helmets that produce "spiritual" experiences for the secular.
For while Newberg and other scientists say they are trying to bridge the gap between science and religion, many believers are offended by the notion that God is a creation of the human brain, rather than the other way around.
But Newberg also found decreased activity in the parietal lobe, one of the parts of the brain that helps orient a person in three-dimensional space. Persinger runs what amounts to a weak electromagnetic signal around the skulls of volunteers. But theologians say such practices don't describe most people's religiousness in either eastern or western traditions. And finally, say believers, if God existed and created the universe, wouldn't it make sense that he would install machinery in our brains that would make it possible to have mystical experiences? While the electrical activity of a single neuron is too minuscule to measure, the combined activity of all these neighboring neurons is easily detected by modern electroencephalographs (EEGs), though it is worth noting that EEGs struggle to identify activities that lie deep within the brain, far below the scalp to which the machine’s sensors are attached.
Since then, several other distinct waveforms have been described, and each one corresponds to a different state of consciousness.

Having said that, it is possible to enter an Alpha state with eyes open if you stare at an object for a long time, to the point that you cease really seeing it as your awareness expands to a greater whole. But, much as we can enter an Alpha state with our eyes open, we can enter a Theta state without being asleep or dreaming. Indeed, Delta has been attracting a lot of attention for its ability to trigger the release of anti-aging and growth hormones, and encourage DNA repair.
This wave seems to emerge when the brain is functioning at a very high level of synthesis, combining multiple senses, perceptions, or memories into a greater, holistic understanding. Occupying the lowest possible range below Delta, it exhibits an incredibly slow, long waveform. Thus, long before 20th century scientists began recording electrical activity with EEGs, Asian shamans used repetitive drumbeats in their quest to mediate between the visible and spiritual worlds, and the Egyptian astronomer Ptolemy observed the effects of sunlight made to flicker by a spinning wheel. If we can’t actually hear Alpha, Theta, or Delta waves, how are we going to use sound to entrain them? It is preferable to expose the brain to a pure frequency that requires no extraction from carrier frequencies. The two carrier frequencies are combined in each channel, producing a sine-wave-like interference pattern outside the ear. This is a very effective technique, especially when used in conjunction with the other methods. When a person is thinking, reading, or watching television different parts of the brain are stimulated. The ideation that can take place during the theta state is often free flow and occurs without censorship or guilt.
A direct correlation was found between the amount of gyrification and the number of meditation years, possibly providing further proof of the brain's neuroplasticity, or ability to adapt to environmental changes. The work is part of a broad new effort by scientists around the world to better understand religious experiences, measure them, and even reproduce them. Possibly because of changes in the frontal lobe, caused by heightened concentration during meditation. Normally, the human brain will exhibit a combination of several frequencies at any one time, but one of those frequencies will tend to dominate, depending on whether the person is awake, asleep, or somewhere in between. This is the prevailing frequency when we are fully alert and interacting with the physical world – working, driving, talking, thinking, etc. This phenomenon can occur during repetitive tasks that do not call for great attention, and even when watching television. Theta is a region of great interest to meditators and many world religions, for it gives us access to the profound creativity, intuition, and problem-solving abilities of the subconscious mind, as well as spiritual journeys of reconnection with higher powers. Straining the limits of existing equipment, researchers went on to identify frequencies up to 100 Hz (HyperGamma) and even as high as 200 Hz (Lambda), which is truly extraordinary. In a sense, the first experiments with strobe lights and EEGs merely formalized what Ptolemy had observed some 1700 years earlier. Using powerful brain imaging technology, researchers are exploring what mystics call nirvana, and what Christians describe as a state of grace. As we shall see, it is this close connection between brainwave activity and states of mind that enables us to deliberately control our minds by harnessing brainwaves that correspond to the desired state. As noted in our articles on lucid dreaming, many noted creative talents have used the Theta state to great advantage. Characterized by the slowest, deepest waves of these four main frequencies, Delta is the state in which emotional imbalances are healed and long-term memory is enhanced as time itself ceases to be a meaningful construct. Even more interesting, however, is that the extreme levels of insight, perception, psychic abilities and out-of-body experiences documented at these ultra-high frequencies are almost identical to those observed at another newly-discovered wave all the way at the other end of the scale. Thompson speculates that the abilities associated with the two extremes of the frequency scale coincide because the frenetic HyperGamma and Lambda waves are actually riding on an underlying Epsilon wave. The only downside to isochronic tones is that the very sharpness of the tones makes them difficult to integrate with background music. Depending on the design, the EEG machine then either prints out the wave activity on paper (by a galvanometer) or stores it on a computer hard drive for display on a monitor. Scientists are asking whether spirituality can be explained in terms of neural networks, neurotransmitters and brain chemistry. I realized that nothing in my training or experience had prepared me to help me understand what was going on in my brain.
Those who suffer from Attention-Deficit Disorder (ADD) often exhibit too little Beta in their EEGs, but most of us spend too much time in the Beta state. The Alpha-Theta Bridge is particularly interesting in this regard, for it maximizes the potential for conscious participation in the creativity of Theta and is associated with out-of-body experiences (OBEs). It is this combination that enables the most advanced yogis and Tibetan monks to enter states of suspended animation, slowing their metabolic rates to imperceptible levels, and to meditate outside in the snow wearing minimal clothing yet suffering no ill effects. Binaural beats are commonly incorporated into relaxing soundtracks of instrumental music or nature sounds, and are essentially subliminal.
By injecting a tiny amount of radioactive marker into the bloodstream of a deep meditator, the scientists soon saw how the dye moved to active parts of the brain. This results in physiological stress, mental and spiritual imbalance, and cuts us off from the deeper levels of the self that can naturally restore harmony to body and soul. Isochronic tones are much more obvious, but that is the price you pay for the ultimate entrainment technique.

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