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Located at Troy Wood in the East Neuk of Fife, 3 miles (5 km) north of Anstruther and 5 miles (8 km) southeast of St Andrews is Scotland's Secret Bunker. Please complete a short questionnaire to help a student project that has added climate information to the Gazetteer for Scotland.
The continents, with the islands pertaining to them, almost reach the edges of the map, so that the ocean, as in most of the medieval manuscript maps, is limited to a narrow circle; there is however a large patch of ocean, but without any name, in the Gulf of Guinea. Rivers are marked by plain lines corresponding to their actual or presumed course; often they flow from mountains, sometimes across them, which is in itself no absurdity though the representation of valleys is lacking. Legends are confined to the most important indications, so that the map-picture is not overcrowded with an excessive number of names and legends, as was customary in most medieval maps. Regarding the outline of the coasts, a considerable improvement can be observed in respect of Europe in comparison with printed Ptolemaic maps of the 15th century, particularly in regard to the position of Italy which is altered to a more northwesterly and southeasterly direction, instead of the usual excessive west-easterly direction, and also in regard to the better representation of the British Isles, in particular, the omission of the northern part of the main island lying in a west-easterly direction at a right angle to England.
An obvious and retrograde feature of the map, when compared to earlier maps, is that no consideration is given to the discoveries made in East Asia by medieval Italian explorers.
From the latest data recorded on the map, in particular the representation of Guinea, bearing in mind that a certain interval in time had to elapse between the date of a discovery and its recording on a map, and from the technique of the copper-engraving and quality of the paper, the date of the appearance of the map can be fixed at the middle eighties of the 15th century. Summarizing, it can be said that this map, in spite of many discrepancies, represents an important milestone in the history of cartography.
A work based on a critical and subtle combination of the available source-materials, and not on the copies of antique and medieval maps customary in those days, ought to be appreciated as a real achievement in geographic science. All materials, unless otherwise noted, were taken from the Internet and are assumed to be in the public domain. This is an underground nuclear command bunker, used by the Government during the Cold War to accommodate 300 people and to withstand nuclear attack. None of these types seem to be influenced by the advances in geographical knowledge which set in from the beginning of the 15th century, a€?the age of discoveriesa€?, particularly in regard to knowledge of West Africa, and which are recorded in many manuscript medieval maps; there is thus no group of printed maps based on Spanish, Portuguese, or Italian portolans, notwithstanding their proximity in time. The paper is a fairly thick a€?incunablea€? paper with very thin longitudinal lines traced at rather more than one millimeter distance and thicker transverse lines at a distance of about 33 mm, without watermark. Its basis is the representation of Ptolemya€™s world map, although the author does not slavishly adhere to it.
The ocean is represented by means of numerous lines parallel to the edge of the map, while the inland seas, among which even the Indian Ocean is found, are represented by horizontal, straight (W-E) and dense lines, so that the darker water surfaces stand out clearly on the lighter surface of the land.

Mountains are represented by conventional signs in perspective, of different length and height, and are mostly drawn as rows of mountains stretching from west to east (they are left white in my copy, but in Hinda€™s they are colored); only the Appenines, Alps, Karst and Balkans are characterized, in conformity with their crooked outline, by a connected chain of mountains. From an orthographic point of view, the names are unusually correct; the Latin a€?A¦a€™ is mostly transcribed, as was then customary in Italy, by a€?ea€™. Also Scandinavia, which was usually lacking or, as in the Ulm edition of Ptolemy (#119, Book I) in a special map of the northern countries, was represented as an island, appears here for the first time on a printed map in the shape of a natural peninsula. In the representation of Africa the author was evidently guided by two leading principles: on the one hand, adherence to Ptolemya€™s viewpoint as regards the land connection of South Africa and East Asia, and on the other hand, consideration of the recent discoveries made by the Portuguese on the west coast of Africa, which, however, in no way contradicts Ptolemya€™s conception. Copper-engraved maps were not produced in any other country in the Middle Ages and, besides, at that time Italy was the only country where cartographic style had, under the influence of the Renaissance, developed such clear and classical lines and rejected all Gothic ornaments, as shown in this circular world map.
It is the first (and perhaps the only 15th century) printed world map showing a part of the New World (Greenland), though somewhat incorrectly drawn, and the discoveries of the Portuguese on the west coast of Africa. There also are places that the nature has made them beautiful, but the men touched them so he could use it and enjoy them. Originally built as a radar station during World War II, it was completely rebuilt as part of the ROTOR early-warning system in the 1950s. The reason for this may be sought in the fact that such portolan [nautical] charts were kept secret by the rival powers in the interests of colonial policy. Rather he has in mind the medieval Christian belief in an earthly Paradise with four rivers flowing from it; but he takes special account of advances in knowledge of the three parts of the world made since Ptolemy. The few towns indicated in the map are represented by towered buildings of different sizes. The cardinal points are indicated in the ocean in their respective places by Septentrio, Oriens, Auster and Occidens.
The representation of Greenland, depicted as a peninsula of the Eurasian continent bearing the name of Engrovelant (bearing for the first time a name on a printed map) almost conforms to that in the above cited special map of the North. The effort to compare separate bays and points of the West African coast on the map with the actual ones in order to find out how much of the Portuguese discoveries were known to our author would be in vain. Deviating from the ordinary type of map with the hardly understandable Ptolemaic projection and from the Gothic map of the monastic type overcrowded with ornaments, this map gives us, on a small scale, an idea of the outline of the world, as it presented itself in the last phase of the Middle Ages. Please check out this list of 17 astonishing places captured in great photos and give us some feedback.

However this localised system quickly became obsolete and the bunker was redeveloped once again to act as the Scottish Government Headquarters in 1973. It is, probably a mutilation of the name due to the copyista€™s error, a frequent occurrence in the 15th century. The general impression can be gathered, however, that the navigation round the Bay of Biafra (1475: Cabo de Catarina 22 degrees south latitude was reached by Ruy Sequeira) was the last achievement in the exploration of the west coast of Africa recorded by the map.
The nomenclature is given in the Latin language, as used in the age of the Roman Empire, and is executed in Roman type.
In Asia, we are surprised at the correct representation of the Caspian Sea, unlike that in all other manuscript maps. Later discoveries, made by Diogo CA?o (1482-85) as far as Cape Cross (approximately 22 degrees south latitude) were certainly unknown to the author of the map. Its maker, in contrast to his contemporaries Hanns Rust and Hanns Sporer (#253), must have been not only a highly educated humanist, but even a person of independent opinions, who, notwithstanding his belief in the tradition of the Bible and his veneration of Ptolemya€™s authority, was receptive to the progress in knowledge of the late Middle Ages.
Its maker, in contrast to his contemporaries Hanns Rust and Hanns Sporer (#253), must have been not only a highly educated humanist, but even a person of independent opinions, who, notwithstanding his belief in the tradition of the Bible and his veneration of Ptolemya€™s authority, was receptive to the progress in knowledge of the late Middle Ages.A  He had naturally made use of all the data available to him from verbal, literary and cartographic sources, access to which was probably attended with great difficulty considering that many of the maps (portolans) extant in those days, particularly manuscript, were kept secret.
The accommodation and dining rooms, power-plant, communications centre, emergency broadcasting studios and computer room are all preserved with largely authentic artefacts. Even in Fra Mauroa€™s map of 1450 (#249) only the shape, but not the orientation, of this sea is true to reality. The inclusion of an earthly Paradise at the easternmost limit of the explored world and the four rivers taking their sources there conform to the medieval Christian conception of the world and is encountered in nearly all manuscript maps from Cosmas Indicopleustes (sixth century, #202) to Andrea Bianco (1436, #241), as well as in map-incunabula of the monastic type.
The author did not share the view of some of the medieval cartographers, as known to us, that Africa was divided from Asia by a more or less wide and open ocean, because he probably regarded Ptolemy as more trustworthy than Herodotus or Idrisi; for the rest, the difference between his representation of Africa and that of Idrisi and his adherents, regarding the southern extremity of Africa protruding far out to the east and the chain of islands adjacent to it stretching out in the direction of southeastern Asia, is not so great. The representation of the south coast of Asia differs considerably from that in most contemporary medieval maps, especially in Ptolemaic maps; in this respect the author approaches the Arab Idrisia€™s conception (Book II, #219), that of the 1450 Catalan-Estense world map (#246), and that of Fra Mauroa€™s map (#249), for he represents only the smaller Indian peninsulas and not the big Ptolemaic Aurea Chersonesus.

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