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The V-2 ballistic missile (known to its designers as the A4) was the world's first operational liquid fuel rocket. When Wernher von Braun was recruited to assist Walter Dornberger in the development of liquid fuel rockets for the German Army in August 1932, only the tiniest baby steps toward development of rocket motors had been taken by the German Society for Spaceship Flight (VfR).
Development of the aerodynamics and control systems for the V-2 took hundreds of tests of the A5 - in wind tunnels, air-drops, and powered flights. The turbopumps to feed the propellants to the engines proved relatively easy - to von Braun's surprise, high-volume low-weight pumps were already well developed for fire engines. Hitler delayed the decision to put the V-2 into production for three years, from 1939 to 1942. V-2 operational units are said variously to have launched between 2,970 and 3,280 missiles between September 1944 and April 1945.
In view of production and launch serial number records the 2,100 rounds in field storage would comprise mainly abandoned, damaged or new delivery rockets. Although the V-2 was ineffective as a weapon of war, the tremendous investment by the Nazis proved a gift to the Allies.
As early as 1935, in a meeting with General Becker on planning for the A4 and Peenemuende, Von Braun advocated spaceflight as the ultimate program objective.
The Schwimmweste project involved a floating Wasserfall test stand, and was not connected to the submarine-towed V-2 as indicated in some histories. Rocket team member Konrad Dannenberg obtained his early rocketry experience through involvement with Pullenberg's underground rocket group in Hannover.
Originally it was planned that a horizontal production line be established at Peenemuende in the Versuchsserienwerk (research series production factory). The Long Range Bombardment Commission observed a 'fly-off' of the V-1 and V-2 on a visit to Peenemuende. The Peenemuende engineers were under constant threat of being drafted and sent to the front. Combustion-injection research by an American NACA engineer was used in solving V-2 engine problems.
As far back as the V-2, Von Braun advocated underestimating costs in order to sell projects to the government.
In mass production, the V-2's combustion chambers and turbopumps were fabricated and tested separately. Reisig, on the Dornberger staff, had to convey endless changes in the missile to the launch troops. The use of highly qualified Peenemuende research and development staff for V-2 production was seen as a big waste of effort.
Walter Riedel was a talented engineer but his lack of academic qualifications led to conflicts with the graduate engineers on the rocket team. After takeover of the project by Kammler and the SS, Dornberger's responsibilities were limited to testing ground equipment and continuing development firings of the V-2 from the Blizna SS range in Poland. Rudolph and von Braun laid out their plans for spaceflight at the Kummersdorf officer's club in 1935. There were no significant tension in the V-2 engineering leadership over Nazi Party or political questions. The Wolman Doppler tracking system for the A4 was modified to command V-2 engine cut-off by radio. The in-house laboratory concept for guidance-and-control development at Peenemuende was largely forced by the circumstances of heavy time-pressure and lack of experience in the industry.
Wasserfall engine testing finally led to success with the injector plate and a single combustion-chamber motor. Modification of the A4 engine was constant due to changes in available steel and other materials.
The method used to transfer the Wasserfall missile from development to production - assignment of Henschel as prime contractor from the beginning of the process - was superior to the V-2 mess. The Allied bombing of Peenemuende of August 17, 1943 was disruptive and resulted in the loss of a few months of development and production work due to dispersion and reorganization.
The A9-A10 transoceanic missile idea was in fact found to be unworkable due to heat transfer issues. War shortages of material forced incorporation of new changes to the V-2 during production.
The Peenemuende engineers had very little direct contact with the regular Army officers, even socially. Oberth was inspired to study how man could reach space during the apparition of Halley's Comet in 1910. Von Braun was heard to say that it would have been preferable to develop rocketry for space travel rather than war. A key issue in obtaining missile accuracy was monitoring lateral dispersion of the missile due to wind during ascent.
The thrust and planned dimensions of the A10 transatlantic rocket first stage were used to determine the size of the research and production shops and test stands at Peenemuende.
The V-2 engineers often held "parties with rocket fuel" using the ethyl alcohol delivered as propellant for the rocket. As opposed to the rocket diehards, for most people at Peenemuende the working environment was "nothing special".
One of von Braun's unique contributions was emphasizing horizontal communication between groups to solve problems. The Peenemuende engineers were poorly prepared for the conversion from laboratory development to production of the A4. Regener was interested in use of the V-2 for scientific research in the ultraviolet and cosmic ray portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Kammler wanted to launch test V-2's from Heidelager and Heidekraut against Polish towns behind the Russian lines, but the Army blocked the move. The in-house research-and-development philosophy of the Von Braun team resulted in problems in getting manufacturers for production. A4 The V-2, known as the A4 to its developers, was the basis for most of the rocketry that exists in the world today.
V-2 The V-2 ballistic missile (known to its designers as the A4) was the world's first operational liquid fuel rocket. McDowell, Jonathan, Jonathan's Space Home Page (launch records), Harvard University, 1997-present. Emme, Eugene M, Aeronautics and Astronautics: An American Chronology of Science and Technology in the Exploration of Space 1915-1960, NASA, 1961. Ordway, Frank, and Sharpe, Mitchell, The Rocket Team, Collector's Guide Publishing, Ontario, Canada, 2000.
Michels, Juergen and Przybilski, Olaf, Peenemuende und seine Erben in Ost und West, Bernard & Graefe, Bonn, 1997. Heinemann, Edward H, and Rausa, Rosario, Ed Heinemann: Combat Aircraft Designer, Naval Institute Press, 1980. Neufeld, Michael, The Rocket and the Reich: Peenemunde and the Coming of the Ballistic Missile Era, Harvard University Press, 1996. Cuxhaven As the only site in Germany with an unrestricted over-water firing sector over the North Sea, Cuxhaven was once touted as 'the Cape Canaveral of Germany'. Heidelager German test range for production V-2 missiles, used for 278 launches from 1943 to 1944, reaching up to 90 kilometers altitude.
White Sands White Sands Missile Range occupies an area 160 x 65 km in the Tularosa Basin of southern New Mexico, across the Sacramento Mountain range from Roswell.
Atlantic Ocean Sounding rocket launches made from naval vessels in the Atlantic accounted for 521 launches from 1947 to 1995, reaching up to 750 kilometers altitude. White Sands LC33 Wac, Viking, V-2, Nike, Javelin, Hermes, Corporal, Atlas, Apache launch complex.
The test was to have examined the behavior of the guidance system and the graphite steering vanes in the exhaust flow. India is the seventh largest country in the world in terms of area which makes it an obvious place to have vast geographical features. On the basis of relief features, tectonic history and stratigraphy, India can be divided into several physical units.
India comprises the Himalayas in the North and Northeastern region, which divides the country from the Tibetan plateau. Pir Panjal Range: This is the largest range of the lower Himalayas and runs from the east-southeast to west-northwest. Zanskar Range: This range is spread over an area that starts from southeastern boundaries of Kashmir and extends to the eastern limit of Baltistan.
Dhauladhar Range: This range rises from the plains of India to the north of Mandi and Kangra. East Karakoram Range: This range separates India from the Central Asia and is also one of the laeger ranges of Asia.
The Bhabhar Belt: It is a narrow belt that lies in the foothills of Himalayas and comprises pebbles and rocks brought down by the streams.
The Bangar Belt: It includes older alluvium and has a low upland in the Gangetic plains which is covered by the laterite deposits. The Khadir Belt: It lies on the lowland areas after the Bangar belt and is made up of newer alluvium which is brought down by the rivers which flow down to this plain. The Peninsular Plateau is a tableland and its characteristic features include shallow valleys and rounded hills. The Deccan Plateau: It is a triangular shaped plateau and is bounded by the Vindhyas and the Western and Eastern Ghats.
The Malwa Plateau: The Malwa Plateau is spread across the parts of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh.
The Chota Nagpur Plateau: Situated in the eastern India, Chota Nagpur Plateau covers the parts of Jharkhand, Bihar, Odisha and Chhattisgarh.
The Western Coastal Plains is sandwiched between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea and extends from Gujarat in the north and covers the regions of Maharashtra, Goa, Kerala and Karnataka.
There are two major groups of islands in India which are also classified as the union territories- the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, and the Lakshadweep Islands.
The Himalayan Range: This is the world's highest mountain range and the tallest peak of the world, Mt.
Karakoram Range: It lies in the disputed areas of Jammu and Kashmir and comprises more than 60 peaks. Aravalli Range: This is India's oldest mountain range and spreads across the parts of Rajasthan, Delhi and Haryana. Satpura Range: This range stretches from Gujarat and runs to Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. Western and Eastern Ghats: Western Ghats are also known as Sahyadri Mountains and runs parallel to Indian peninsula's western coast.
India is surrounded by water from three sides - Arabian Sea in the west, Bay of Bengal in the east and Indian Ocean in the south. India shares its international borders with Pakistan on its west, and Nepal, China and Bhutan on its northeast.
India has a variety of climates, varying from arid desert in the west, alpine climate in the Himalayan north to the humid tropical regions which support the island territories along with the rainforests in the southwest. Here is an opportunity to get one-on-one training from Robert Vogel, a world class shooter and National Champion in both IDPA and USPSA.
Whether you’re new to competitive shooting or a seasoned shooter, this video will help you to improve upon your skill set. The grip information definitely helped me make some small changes that made a HUGE difference.
I watched the video and was so impressed I flew to Bob’s training facility and had 2 days one on one training from him. It represented an enormous quantum leap in technology, financed by Nazi Germany in a huge development program that cost at least $ 2 billion in 1944 dollars.
The VfR had fired only the most rudimentary of pressure-fed water-cooled combustion chambers, generating only 60 kgf at a specific impulse of 173 seconds. This was also a grueling trial and error process, for there was little theory and no practical experience in supersonic aerodynamics. The other structural elements were well within the allowable mass for the required performance. Dornberger, the Wehrmacht's head of the program, laments this delay repeatedly in his memoirs. The bombing created delays, but V-2's continued to be built at Peenemuende well into 1944, peaking at fifty missiles in September 1943. Final assembly was accomplished by slave laborers housed in the Dora concentration camp next to the Mittelwerk underground factory at Nordhausen. In his memoirs, Dornberger says that 4,300 V-2's were fired in all, which is 500 in excess of the documented firings. Towards mid-March 1945 Mittelwerk shipped about 20 rounds per day and the interval between manufacture and launching had extended from some 5 days in September 1944 to some 12 days in March 1945.
Dornberger's memoirs proudly note the improvement as fixes were made to solve the in-flight explosion problems.
This question reduces to one of philosophy - if a missile misses the aim point by half the range, does that shot count against the missile's accuracy calculation or is it a failure, counted in the reliability calculation? The V-2 development and production program, as a proportion of gross national product, ranked with the American's Manhattan atom bomb program. Von Brauchtisch was able to protect the Peenemuende team from takeover attempts by industry, the Air Force, the SS, etc. Reports and results were expected from each engineer without pause in order to justify his draft exemption.
Based on these test results, they were matched according to their characteristics and mated on the assembly line. These studies were the basis for Von Braun's publications in the 1950s on Mars exploration. All other files and secondary records were intentionally burned in order to give the central records value as a bargaining chip with the Allies after the war.


Later the method of calculating the moment of cut-off was changed to integration of inputs from accelerometers due to fear of Allied jamming of the command signals. He also contributed valuable technical solutions, notably in the guidance and control areas.
The equivalent A4 engine redesign was sidetracked by the urgency to get the missile into mass production. However other raids and the daily air raid warnings were taken in stride and were not disruptive of the work. The military did not consider the danger sufficient to warrant the extra expense and complexity. He purportedly consulted with others in the rocket development group, deciding that his SS membership would be valuable in protecting the project. Technical approaches included a radio guide beam or accelerometers to measure lateral motion. In common with later rocketry projects, the engineers were under tremendous strain and worked very hard but remained enthusiastic. This electromechanical control system used unbalanced gyro accelerometers and a 'Mischgeraet' (mixing device) to combine inputs, thereby eliminating the need for rate gyros. Thereafter Von Braun assigned him to development of the mobile launch system for A4, where he was very successful. Meetings were held in Friedrichshafen in 1943 to discuss the "Regener Tonne" (Regener one-ton scientific payload). Primarily known to space historians for the three post-war V-2 launches under project Backfire, it played an important role in the nascent post-World War II German rocketry. Among many major facilities, engine test stands were built that were capable of accommodating planned engines for the A-10 intercontinental missile. In the 1930's, Robert Goddard, after surveying weather conditions and population densities, had selected Roswell for his pioneering rocket tests. German Army Ordnance Office, after reviewing work of Goddard and others, decided to establish rocket program and to equip artillery proving ground at Kummersdorf to develop military missiles.
The corset had pivot mountings on it to allow the missile to be deflected while its motor was being fired, to see how fast the steering vanes responded, and what amount of corrective force they developed. Solid propellant rockets were fired from a submerged platform off Greifswalder Oie to test the concept of a submarine-launched missile. Using its original gyroscopic guidance package, the A4 demonstrated a 4.5 km CEP up to 1943, with 100% of the shots falling within 18 km of the target. However Compare Infobase Limited and its directors do not own any responsibility for the correctness or authenticity of the same. The Pir Panjal pass lies to the west of Srinagar and comprises Banihal Pass, Sinthal Pass, Rohtang La, Munawar Pass and Haji Pir Pass. Singge La Pass, Runrang La Pass, Fotu (Fatu) La Pass, Marbal Pass and Zoji La Pass are some of the passes of this range.
Chambal River and its tributaries find their way in this plateau and Mahi River also flows through its Western region. The Eastern Coastal Plains lie between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal; and stretches from Tamil Nadu to West Bengal.
It extends across Gujarat, Haryana and Punjab and covers over 60% of the geographical area of Rajasthan. It comprises three hill ranges- Garo-Khasi-Jaintia in Meghalaya, Lushai hills and Patkai-Bum.
It extends from Arunachal Pradesh to West Bengal and from Uttarakhand to Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh.
Eastern Ghats or Purva Ghat is a discontinuous range of mountains which runs along the eastern coast of India. Some areas in the north have severe summers with extreme winters, with the temperature reaching to freezing point.
In Building World Class Pistol Skills, you will get tips and advice from Robert to help you improve your handgun shooting ability in an easy to follow step by step approach.
6,084 V-2 missiles were built, 95% of them by 20,000 slave labourer in the last seven months of World War II at a unit price of $ 17,877. Unlike the atomic bomb, the V-2 was not a war-changing weapon, and the resources devoted to it undoubtedly hurt rather than helped the German war effort. After 28 months of development, Von Braun was able to demonstrate the A2, a small rocket generating 300 kgf to the German Army. Eventually, through a seven-year process of trial and error, a fuel-cooled rocket engine of 1.5 tonnes thrust and a specific impulse of 215 seconds was perfected. A missile had to be controlled when rising vertically at near zero speed, where aerodynamic surfaces would be ineffective. It seemed only a radio beam guidance system could provide the necessary accuracy, but the V-2 developers had to take a back seat to development of such systems for the German bomber and interceptor forces.
He claimed that his rocket team could have fielded a weapon that would have changed the course of the war if it had been in production earlier. Official production records in the German Museum show that 5,797 missiles were built there by war's end. Production sample and training firings were moved to Heidelager, in Poland, in November 1943.
However leading V-2 researcher Tracy Dungan has successfully reconciled production and launch figures. V-2 missile reliability as tested increased from 30% in January 1944 to 70% immediately before combat firings began in September 1944. Tests of prototype V-2's in 1943 indicated a 4.5 km CEP (circular error probable - the radius within which 50% of the shots impact). If he had lived, the Peenemuende team could have succeeded in completing development of the Mischduese injector plate engine.
Both the accelerometer and radio cut-off systems were used in the field, but the radio system was superior in accuracy.
However Kreiselgeraete was only experienced in naval equipment, and applying the principle to rocket guidance was completely foreign to them. A nearly completely unknown series of scientific sounding rocket launches were made from the area in 1957-1964 before the launch site was closed on (purportedly) safety and (actually) military grounds. The original Army Launch Area 1 complex consisted of a blockhouse, several concrete launching pads for captured German V-2 rockets, a 30-m tall launch tower for Aerobee rockets, a gantry and blast pit. Die Rakete zu den Planetenräume (The Rocket Into Interpanetary Space) by Hermann Oberth was published in Germany, and was the genesis for considerable discussion of rocket propulsion.
Von Braun had found the location in December 1935, after his first choice - Briz on the island of Ruegen - was taken over by the Deutsch Arbeitsfront as a 'Kraft durch Freude' recreation camp. Following problems with testing of the A3 (a subscale version of the planned V-2) by Dr Hermann, Von Braun proposes to the Germany army that a supersonic wind tunnel be constructed at a cost he estimates as 300,000 Marks. Joint German Army-Air Force rocket research station opened at Peenemünde on the Baltic Sea.
The engine delivered 18 months after design started was so compact, that the length of the A4 could be cut in half.
After Hitler's visit, it finally it became clear to Dornberger that either support for the project would have to come from the highest level, or that Peenemuende should abandon rocket research and be devoted to more pressing war needs.Meanwhile the results of the air war over London showed that the A4 could be an economic weapon.
This was used in early 1940 to get 4,000 soldiers with the necessary engineering and technical backgrounds released from the Army and sent to Peenemuende's 'Versuchskommando-Nord'.
After the military success in Poland, Hitler believes development of expensive 'wonder weapons' are unnecessary to win the war.
Throughout the early 1940's Thiel and his team sought to produce a single chamber 25 tonne thrust engine in place of the kludged prototype engine that used 18 separate 1.5 tf chambers. After the failure, the Peenemuende team was embarrassed by the fact that they had overlooked something as obvious as the fact that cold things shrink. The idea came from Steihoff, an engineer on the rocket team whose brother was a submarine captain.
At the end of 1942 the first train launcher wagon was completed and trials began from Test Stand VII at Peenemuende. Many factors contributed to this inaccuracy - out of tolerance guidance system components, and poor alignment of the gyro platform prior to firing. In a meeting with Professor Hettlage, of the Financial and Organisational Ministry of the German Defence Industry, it was proposed that Peenemuende be made a private country, with the Nazi Party and selected corporations (AEG, Siemens, Lorenz, Rheinmetall) being its shareholders.
The Indian subcontinent is surrounded by three different water bodies and is easily recognisable on the world map. Considered as a segment of the Karakoram mountain range, the Ladakh range has an extreme climate with the main town called Leh regarded as the trade centre for fine pashmina wool.. It acts as a barrier against the frigid katabatic winds which flow down from Central Asia and protects India from its effects.
Due to its geographical location in central India, it separates Northern and Southern India.
It shares its border with Pakistan on its west, Gujarat on its southwest, Madhya Pradesh on its southeast and Punjab on its north. There are 12 major rivers in the country and they originate from any one of the three watersheds.
Sri Lanka lies to the south of India and the union territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands lie close to Thailand and Indonesia. The country encounters four different types of seasons - winter, summer, monsoon, and post-monsoon. Grey dotted lines stand for the state boundaries and will help you to be familiar with all the Indian states and their neighbours.
As many as 3,225 were launched in combat, primarily against Antwerp and London, and a further 1,000 to 1,750 were fired in tests and training. At war's end the Allies seized tons of documents, hundreds of experts, and dozens of V-2 missiles. But this design of December 1934 still used a primitive cooling method - the combustion chamber and rocket nozzle were immersed in the fuel tank. Then it had to remain controllable and stable at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds up to Mach 4. Therefore they settled for a control system that oriented the missile along a pre-determined path in a vertical plane pointed at the target. The key is a statement by the General Manager of Mittelwerk indicating there were 2,350 built but unfired V-2's at the end of the war.
A further 250 or so rounds could be accounted for by the overall average rate of return of defective rounds to MW.
Dornberger claims it reached nearly 100% after the final technical fix was introduced into production in December 1944. Personnel and technology from the V-2 formed the basis for subsequent rocketry developments throughout the world. But later even he came into conflict with other groups in the Third Reich, and couldn't prevent the final takeover of the V-2 program by the SS. In all 65,000 changes were made to the missile design between the decision to put it into production and the end of the war.
This had combustion instability problems that could not be overcome before the end of the war.
It was found that a three-axis platform was needed to make the lateral accelerometer work, and there were big delays in getting a platform system developed. Nevertheless, since Kreiselgeraete was a small company, they could respond with flexibility and speed to the rocket team's requests.Siemens developed an alternate system based on two gyros to determine attitude and follow a fixed-plane pitch program. German advances in rocketry during World War II impelled the US Army to begin programs to exploit this technology. The Society for Space Travel (Verein fuer Raumschiffahrt), is better known by its abbreviation 'VfR'. Other parts of the Army are not supportive of the facility, but it is finally built, costing millions more than Von Braun estimated. The first rocket fighter, the He-176, powered by a Walther engine, was tested at Peenemuende. Bombers were averaging only 5 to 6 missions, dropping only 6 to 8 tonnes of bombs before being shot down. The A4 and other rocket projects are removed from the priority list, making acquisition of necessary materials and engineers difficult.
They managed to demonstrate a 60 second burn time in the 18-chamber design, but the engine itself was considered too complicated to fabricate in production, requiring thousands of hand-assembled tubes to introduce fuel and oxidiser into the chamber.
There each rocket was tested and calibration documents were generated, necessary for the launch troops to take into account when preparing the rocket and programming its guidance system.
20 to 30 Wurfgeraete of the Army's smoke corps, equipped with flammable oil or explosive warheads, were shot at the coast from up to 3 km away.
One solution developed was a radio correction system similar to that used by aircraft for landings in poor visibility. A 1:100 model of the planned bunker construction-launch facility for the rocket to be built by Organisation Todt on the British channel was exhibited. Dornberger saw Degenkolb behind this plan, and was determined to keep Peenemuende an Army proving ground.
The land frontier of the country is 15,200 km and the total length of the coastline is 7,517 kilometers. It is divided into six different areas- the Southern Andhra Pradesh, the Kanyakumari coast, the Mahanadi delta, the Coromondel coast and sandy coast.
Gujarat, lying on the extreme west of the country, is one of the most prosperous of all Indian states. There is a large reserve of rivers - big and small, and all these rivers are revered in the country other than merely being the sources of water.
The political boundaries of Pakistan and Bangladesh with India are traced according to the Radcliffe Line. Whether you’re new to competitive shooting or a seasoned shooter, this video will help you to improve upon your skill set. Despite the scale of this effort, the inaccurate missile did not change the course of the war and proved to be an enormous waste of resources.


After another three years, in December 1937, Von Braun launched the A3, which was supposed to be a subscale prototype for the A4 war rocket.
It was not until mid-1942, ten years after development had started, that the first test A4 was launched. The system used accumulating accelerometers to determine when the missile had reached the correct velocity and then cut off the engine.
These firing units had to move away from the Russian advance to Heidekraut in August 1944, and a further 246 documented missiles were fired from that location. The factory was in fact building the missiles much more rapidly than the firing units could launch them. This implies that, allowing for the 515 V-2's abandoned during the Soviet advance, about 1,000 V-2's were lost in the field due to the Western Allies' advance from the Normandy beachhead.
Some authors credit combat missiles with a reliability of 80% to 90%, quite remarkable considering that they were inherently fragile, built underground by slave labor, and transported in incredibly difficult conditions to the launch sites. A radio beam guidance update system was introduced in December 1944, which in tests produced a 2 km CEP. As a result the complex 18 injector 'basket-head' design had to be put into production instead. The White Sands Proving Ground was established for testing German and American long-range rockets on 9 July 1945. From the three people that attended the first meeting, it would grow to 500 members within the year, including most of the European space pioneers - Oberth, Hohmann, von Hoefft, von Pirquet, Rynin, and Esnault-Petrie. This is to power the A1 rocket, which is to have the same tractor configuration as the 20 kg test rocket launched in August 1932. It seemed perfect - 400 km of ocean to the east for use as a missile shooting range, room along the path on the coast for tracking radars.
He had great difficulties in obtaining stable combustion, and preventing burn-through of the chamber walls.
In competition, Dornberger's team developed a 120-second duration engine to power the He-122.
Once the loss of trained flying crews was considered, the bomber cost 30 times more than the A4 to deliver a tonne of explosives on London compared to the expendable A4 at its production price of 38,000 Marks. Thiel sought to replace these thousands of tubes with a simpler injection system - rows of simple bored holes on a flat injector plate at the head of the chamber. The launch pad itself was ringed by a 7 m wide concrete embankment, and sunk 6 m into the ground.
Development was interrupted to get the vehicle-towed standard version of the weapon into service. A moving radio beam would follow the correct course, and the rocket would manoeuvre to stay within the beam. He felt that an asset, on which several hundred million Marks had been invested by the government, was being handed over to private hands for 1 to 2 million Marks. Indian peninsula tapers southward resulting in the division of the Indian Ocean into two water bodies - the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea.
Major portion of this desert consists of craggy rocks, sand dunes and compacted salt-lake bottoms. The Line of Control (LoC) delineates the borders of India and Pakistan and serves as a boundary between the administered areas of Kashmir in both the countries.
The British, Americans, and Russians launched a further 86 captured German V-2's in 1945-1952. The A3 had a thrust of 1500 kgf, but still used the same cooling method and had a specific impulse of only 195 seconds. But at least the long development process using the A5 had produced workable aerodynamic and control solutions. Getting it into production concurrently with development was a nearly insurmountable problem - 65,000 changes were made to the initial production drawings. Rockets were also in storage waiting for the bunker-launched (Watten-Wizernes) offensive to begin.
No total tally exists, but detailed figures for certain months and places show losses all along the distribution chain. In reality, in the campaign against Britain, 518 rockets were recorded as falling in the Greater London Air Defence Zone of 1225 fired, implying an average CEP of 12 km. Seven days later the first atomic bomb was exploded at Trinity Site, near the north boundary of the range.
The main issue is how to solve the problem of keeping the rocket stabilised in flight, as the August test demonstrated. Thiel and five staff working on V-2 rocket engine development remained at Kummersdorf until the summer of 1940, when the test stands at Peenemuende were finally completed.. However loss of control in unpowered flights of the latter resulted in it crashing and being eliminated from further consideration. But time was being lost in convincing others in the German leadership that the missile should be put into production. Beck at the Technische Hochschule in Dresden developed a ring-pattern injector that worked well in subscale engines. The viewpoint was 150 m from the pad, at the southern, smaller end of the complex.The pad was surrounded by instrumentation rooms.
At Swinemuende a launcher was installed aboard a Submarine and salvoes of 20 rockets successfully fired from 10 to 15 m under water. But there was no support within the Army for full development of such a system - their priority was in developing and deploying distance-measuring radio navigation systems for the aviation forces.
The investors intended to recover their entire investment back on a fee paid for each missile built. In India, there is a great diversity of landforms such as lofty mountains, deep valleys, extensive plains, and a number of islands. Some of the other important islands in India are Daman and Diu, Majuli, Salsette Island and Sriharikota.
India's eastern border is bordered by states of Manipur, Meghalaya, Assam,Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura and Arunachal Pradesh. It originates in Tibet and enters India in Arunachal Pradesh and passes through Assam before finally making its way through Bangladesh. The MacMohan Line is a border that divides India and China and runs along the states of Arunachal Pradesh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Jammu and Kashmir and Sikkim. Personnel and technology from the V-2 program formed the starting point for post-war rocketry development in America, Russia, and France. The A3 was a miserable failure - it was clear that the control system and aerodynamics were completely wrong. I have numerous reports of shot up rail shipments, one stating at least 40 rockets were destroyed in on case. Of 6,001 missiles submitted for final inspection, 231 were missiles previously rejected and reworked (4%). Part of this lack of accuracy was attributable to a skillful British disinformation campaign. Dornberger's team left further rocket fighter engine development to Walther, and concentrated on the A4 and follow-on ballistic missiles.
The launcher was unnoticeable on the submarine, and the dispersion of the rockets was only a bit worse than a shot from land. A radio guidance unit was not used aboard an A4 until near the war's end, and that used an adaptation of a system designed for a beam-riding air-launched missile.
But Speer did authorise them to proceed with construction on his own authority - he hoped Hitler could be brought around eventually. In the end Dornberger managed to keep Peenemuende an Army proving ground, but then he had to fight off an attempt by AEG to take over the electronics side of the development team. The river Ganga is the longest river in India and is considered to be the most pious river in the country. India-Bangladesh border is one of the longest borders of world and touches Indian states like Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura and Arunachal Pradesh. Detailed design of the A4 was postponed until aerodynamics and control systems could be worked out in a new subscale design, the A5. Unit records for December 1944 to February 1945 show 12% of the missiles received by the units were rejected on the spot as unsuitable for firing.
Nazi agents in Britain were the only source of information to the Germans as to where the missiles actually hit. However the reduction in the cooling area of the chamber also increased problems in preventing hot spots and burn through. Other test stands included number 10, where the effects of the rocket exhaust on different material surfaces was tested; and number 8, where newly delivered engines were fired and calibrated. But even using the radio correction technique, the engineers were unable to get the rocket's CEP under 2 km. But he emphasised that Dornberger would have to use his personal connections to get industry moving on the project. The rocket team's electronic engineers were years ahead of the rest of the industry, and a tempting target. It has several tributaries including river Yamuna, which is the only water body near the national capital - New Delhi. These were found to have multiple causes, and the last of the several fixes to the missile was not introduced in the production line until November 1944. Of the launches made in the same months, 10% were observed as launch failures within sight of the launch units themselves.
Most of these agents had been turned by British intelligence and were sending back false reports as to the impact points of the rockets. Kreiselgeraete's development labs were evacuated to Sudetenland in 1943 after air raids in Berlin, impacting development after that date.The basic A4-A5 aerodynamic configuration was based on the shape of the Wehrmacht "S" model bullet. This was finally solved by using a conical throat exit and a mixing chamber ahead of the burning chamber. They insisted on developing a different one themselves, which would take a year, putting deployment of the system beyond the end of the war. But Dornberger was thwarted when the Army put Degenkolb in charge of organising production of the missile. River Chambal, a tributary of Yamuna passes through Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. British post-war studies would seem to indicate that another 12% landed in the sea or remote areas of the British land mass and were not recorded as impacts.
These false reports indicated that the missiles were going long and impacting beyond London. Refinements were made by trial and error tests in Hermann and Wieselsberger's wind tunnel at Aachen. The 1.5 tonne thrust engine was initially run at 15 bar pressure, versus the 50 bar desired. Area 9 was used for launches of the Wasserfall surface-to-air missile, and Area 2 for tests of the A4 using nitric acid and Visol as propellants. Degenkolb was a sworn enemy of Dornberger's, and had been implicated in the 'suicide' of General Becker in early 1940. The other major rivers in India include Narmada River, originating at Amarkantak in Madhya Pradesh, river Godavari, originating at Trayambakeshwar in Maharashtra, river Krishna originating at Mahabaleshwar, river Kaveri passing through Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, Mahanadi River flowing through Chhattisgarh and Odisha. This indicates that at least one third of the V-2's either never launched due to quality problems or crashed within 100 km of the launch point. As a result of corrections due to this false information, the German average impact point moving farther and farther east as the campaign went on. But whenever the combustion chamber pressure was increased, burn-throughs occurred, as well as forcing increases in the mass of the pumps and tanks.
Area 4 was devoted to firing tests of engines installed in aircraft fuselages, and Area 3 contained the 1000 kgf engine test stand.
Degenkolb set up a Nazi-supported bureaucracy in parallel to that of Dornberger's, requiring the approval of the Army weapons bureau on any decisions.
The other rivers in the country include Mahi, Betwa, Penner, Kosi, Tungabhadra and several others.
The average impact point for the entire campaign ended up on the eastern edge of the Greater London Air Defence Zone. Degenkolb had the sponsorship of Todt and Saur, who in turn followed the party line - 'like the Fuehrer, we are not yet won over to the concept of a long range missile'.In order to productionise the A4 design, Degenkolb began authorising many detailed changes. Had accurate post-attack reports been available to the Germans, the CEP would have been more like 6 km, reinforcing Dornberger's claim that by the end of the campaign the missile was close to achieving its tested accuracy.
Area 6 was built to the same design as the largest test stands at Kummersdorf, and used for A5 tests. He didn't understand that every change had to be proven in test first, and only incremental steps could be taken. Without the British disinformation campaign, the number of the Allied victims of the V-2 would have been more than doubled, demonstrating the effectiveness of that operation. Stahlknecht had planned to produce 300 A4 missiles per month by January 1944, and 600 per month by July 1944.
Degenkolb unrealistically decreed that 300 per month be achieved by October 1943, and 900 per month by December 1943.
Its primary purpose could only be psychological, and in that it suffered in comparison to the V-1. For the 25 tonne thrust engine, Thiel simply used 18 x 1.5 tonne thrust chambers, feeding a common mixing chamber.



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