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Contributing editor and builder Mike Guertin, from East Greenwich, Rhode Island, replies: Reroofing is a great time to install skylights. An outdoor shelter is ideal for your backyard, especially if you want to protect a picnic table from bad weather. Top Tip: Building a small shelter for your backyard is a beautiful project that can be done by any person who has the basic woodworking skills.
Make sure you follow us on Facebook to be the first that gets our latest plans and for some other exclusive content. Also, follow us on Pinterest to get many ideas for your backyard from all the internet! You can always adjust the size and the shape of the constructions, but still use the techniques described here.
Securing the wooden posts into place is not hard, but there are several options you could choose from. Alternatively, you could fit metal anchors in the concrete footings or to attach them to a concrete slab. The easiest way to build the roof of the shelter is to assemble trusses on a level surface, before fitting them to the top plates. Top Tip: Assemble the trusses on a level surface, making sure they are all the same in size and shape.
Plumb the trusses with a spirit level, before locking them into place with galvanized screws and metal brackets. Attaching the roof of the shelter is one of the last steps of the project, so you need to pay attention to the instructions.
I am looking for plans for a picnic shelter that is 20 x 40, would you have something around that size? I am starting to build a shed, looks like it will be 16x18 and I was thinking of building my own rafters. My house is 24" on center for the rafters, so figured that is setup right, the shed would be fine.
My Dad built another garage in Maine last summer and he did premade trusses (didn't have time to make his own) and they are 24" OC.
Depending on local codes and inspections, you may or may not be able to get away with building your own trusses.
It had a very low crown on the prefab trusses, but they were about 3 feet deep and 30 long.
But we glued and screwed the joints with plywood gussets instead of the gang nails used on the prefab ones. He ended up passing us, but the trouble could have been avoided with a little conversation beforehand. Please Select Username to appear on public areas of the site like community and recipe comments. Add an enclosed screen porch to your house using basic framing and deck building techniques. A screen porch is a big improvement, but it's also a big project, one that might consume most of your spare time this summer. The total cost of this porch was $6,500, but you could save hundreds of dollars without sacrificing quality by substituting treated decking for the cedar or using tongue-and-groove pine rather than cedar on the ceiling. You'll need a full set of basic carpentry tools, a circular saw and a drill to build this porch.
You can add this porch to almost any house, but attachment details may vary from what we show here.
If you're not sure how to neatly join the porch and house roofs, we recommend hiring an architect to help work out the details. Contact your local building inspections department to find out what's required to obtain a building permit. These illustrations show the plans for the porch, deck framing, gable framing, ledger, truss block, side walls and the end wall. After you mount the ledger, use stakes and string lines to outline the deck frame according to the dimensions in Figure B and mark the footing locations. The basic construction of a flat roof is made up of roofing timbers, or joists as they are more commonly known or steels that are laid across two uprights (walls in most cases).
The steels, or RSJ's (Rolled Steel Joists) are often built into one or both walls to give added stability to the roof structure. In the majority of cases the covering will be plywood or OSB timber which is more commonly called Stirling board. When timbers are used in flat roofing they obviously need to be waterproofed so boards are normally laid across the joists and then a felt or rubber is used to cover the boards to make them waterproof. To use a pitched roof in these circumstances would mean adding roof valleys or box gutters and make draining the roof difficult and expensive.
Occasionally a new flat roof will be required to replace an old roof, for example asbestos or corrugated tin roofs which are either not allowed under building regulations or are in a complete state of disrepair. Care should always be taken when removing old asbestos and advice sought from the local council on the correct way to dispose of the asbestos. Additionally as part of the Building Regulations Approved Document A for structure further calculations are required to take into account additional loads such as snow that some roof may be subjected to.
Due to these factors it is very important that before construction begins that you gain building regulations approval. You can see the joist span table at the following link on the DIY Doctor website where we discuss how to remove a load bearing wall and make sure joists are the correct size to span openings.
Your calculations will need to be checked by a structural engineer to ensure they cover all eventualities. The diagram below is a general one and the specified timbers must be inserted at the correct centres.
Water must be allowed to flow off flat roofs as puddles of water are very heavy and they soon force a dip into the timber roof decking which then becomes bigger allowing more water to puddle until the roof can bear the weight no longer and leaks occur. The diagram above gives you a basic idea of the components of a flat roof, the diagram below goes into greater detail about how all of these component parts work together. The arris rail is purpose made and available from most timber merchants and gives a 2-inch up stand to edges from which the water flows away. The felt roofing to the correct building standards can be applied all over the roof in the specified number of layers, and strips of mineral felt are then fixed to the facia boards with the back facing out. Flat roofs can be constructed as warm roofs or cold roofs depending on the requirement of the owner and architect as they relate to the building regulations regarding heat loss and insulation. Having laid out the rules in simplistic terms above, the most common type of flat roof these days is one which combines a warm insulating layer, with an air flow to protect the joists from rot.
This is a very simplistic diagram designed to show the user the principles of warm and cold flat roofs.
If you are designing or building a flat roof at home you need to do a little more research to show you how and where to incorporate a vapour barrier into your roof and whether or not you need (in the case of an externally insulated roof) to add a further layer of roof decking timber to the top of the insulation.
Cold Flat Roof: It can be seen that warm air (without a vapour barrier) within the plasterboard, can rise up through the plasterboard into the void. It will then condense and water droplets can fallback onto the insulation and even soak through to the plasterboard ceiling. Warm Flat Roof: By fully packing a warm flat roof with insulation there can be no air to condense. The Bit in the Middle: Where insulation above the roof void allows the air underneath to stay warm, avoiding condensation, but also allows for an air flow (should one be deemed to be required) through the joists.
As long as the air flow is small (but constant) the air will not get cold enough to condense and the heat will remain in the room below.
B - External house wall which, when the lean to extension is added, becomes an internal wall below the level of the extension roof. C - A cavity tray must be inserted in all cavities where an external wall becomes an internal wall in any circumstances. E - Lead Flashing - To cover and seal the joint between the flat roof and the wall of the existing property. G - Joist hangers - These hangers are inserted into, or on top of, masonry or stud walls to carry the end of the joists. H - Firring (or furrung) piece - Firring or Furring pieces, refer to a method of raising or making flat, uneven surfaces or levels which need to be adjusted in some way. J - Plasterboard - This is a universally accepted ceiling and wall covering which has many forms. Problem: Without an adequate fall on your flat roof, water can accumulate in puddles laying on the surface of the roof. Seeds and spores can drop into this fertile environment and in no time at all, the flat roof is covered in moss and even weeds. This weight leads to sagging of joists which in turn leads to splitting of the roof covering. Solution: Add firring pieces to the roof to increase the fall and keep the roof free of moss. Fibreglass and rubber flat roofs are far less likely to attract the same amount of moss and weeds that felt will especially if some effort is made to keep them free from grime. In the case of a felt or fibreglass covered roof, we very strongly advise the installation of this by a professional. If you are felting a flat roof and you do get a leak having done the job yourself, 99% of the time a patch will not work because the water will have seeped under the felt already, causing soft spots to your sheet covering and ultimately rot. In this case and depending on the severity of the damp the damaged area will need repairing and in severe cases the entire roof may need replacing. One thing to be aware of though is that in most cases you will be replacing an existing roof and in most cases this will be a felt roof. In respect to this you will either have to remove the whole roof and board it out from scratch using only the existing roof joists or you can board over the top the existing roof. When it comes to DIY kits there are quite a few EPDM rubber roof suppliers in the market at present.
When considering which kit to purchase make sure you do your homework and confirm that the kit will include all the necessary items you will need including full fitting instructions. Most companies will require you to supply them with the dimensions of your roof and they will supply the correct amount of rubber membrane to cover that area. One supplier that we have worked with recently, Waterproof Systems, allow you to build your own kit by entering the dimensions of your roof area and what each side of the roof will be touching and then supply you with a complete breakdown of the cost and what will be included in your kit - very handy!

If possible (this will depend on the size of the area that needs covering) ensure that the covering is a single piece of rubber and that it is not supplied in cut sections that you then have to join together. Construction calculators are pre-programmed with Pythagorean formulas for finding the values of right triangles—and roofs are all about right triangles. There are also two laudable software versions available as smartphone apps: one from Calculated Industries, and one from BuildCalc. The values on the calculator that we use for common roof framing are: Pitch, Rise, Run, and Diagonal. Looking at our model roof, I need to find the two elements that will give me all the information needed to frame the roof. Each rafter only spans half the width of the building, and they start at the face of the ridge beam.
Now the calculator has all the details it needs, and it can provide me with every bit of information about that triangle. Be sure to go through all the calculations a few times, clearing the calculator in between. Laying the square on the top of the rafter material, I start by scribing the plumb cut at the peak of the rafter. Measuring from the tip of the rafter, I mark off the diagonal measurement along the top edge of the rafter. Then, using my framing square (some carpenters choose to use a speed square, but speed squares aren’t as precise, especially on fractional pitches), I draw the parallel plumb line across the rafter, marking along the tongue of the square. I could calculate this on my construction calculator, but honestly, I find it easier to draw it out—it’s much safer, since drawing makes it easier to keep track of the numbers. To do that, I start with my calculated Rise of the rafter, and measure up that distance from the bottom of my post. Next, since I want to post the ridge, I measure the depth of the ridge beam (in my example, 5 ? in.), and measure down from my HAP line mark. You are right about the Pitch, it is the relationship between the total span and the height of the ridge.
My goodness, we have a lot of linguistics and English majors on board, but I’m not sure if the debate between pitch and slope really adds a lot to this article. As I learned Pitch in the Early days , it was the Rise of a building over its entire run , The denominator was not usually 12. I’m glad these calculators are available, however, I can step a rafter with a square quicker than I can go to the truck and get the calculator. Sincere appreciation to Gary Katz and all contributors, who make TiC the great web-site it is. Although I’ve read this in books and done a couple of simple rooves I never quite got the hang of it but now that I am armed with this information things will be simpler on my next project. The information was presented in a readily digestible manner that helped me to really understand where to go with it.
BTW David Lemke, I believe you’re always free to write and contribute an advanced framing article for TIC to consider publishing. It will give you everything you need, and no worries if you hit the wrong button, (whether it be the (X), or (divide) the only way you could mess this up is incompetence, and then you might look for a job at Wal Mart.
This book is bible, and if you spill coffee on it, it will still work, no need to go to Radio shack for another calculator.
I’m content as long as I know what a guy is talking about –– dictionaries are descriptive, not prescriptive, so we are in charge of the language.
Regardless of the method used cutting rafters is more fun and rewarding than rolling trusses.
The one thing I do different is I use a straight peice of 1X and clamp it to my square instead of using square dogs.
Although CM can make roof cutters job easier, it will NOT make you a roof cutter; Learn the square! Using a CM to figure rafter lengths without knowing the basics can lead to a ton of headaches when cutting complex roofs, especially bastard hips and true valleys. I will try to better explain what I mean, but please keep in mind that I am a carpenter and writing is not my strongest skill. For now, lets forget about bastard (irregular) pitch, for simplicity I will use a common gable roof. The only laudable smartphone app for unequal pitched gable roofs, that will give the correct length of the rafters, is Rafter Tools for Android.
The first step to a good house is a good foundation, the same philosophy goes for skills to build it! I caught a guy making a related mistake when we were building a timber frame with a hip roof. Yes, the risk of measuring along the wrong plane is greater when using a calculator –– the rafter itself is such an excellent visual aid.
By doing that, a guy could catch himself if he made the mistake of measuring along the top edge.
I have to say that my biggest pet peeve in forums and blogs are the guys who want to bring up insignificant details and argue how the author is wrong and they are right. Sign me up for free emails from Fine Homebuilding with the latest news, tips, and techniques. Building a simple shelter for your garden is a great project if you want to build a cheap structure, although it won’t be as spectacular as a gazebo or as a pergola.
In addition, the wooden constructions will create a large shaded area for leisure or for hanging out with the loved ones.
Align the components at both ends before drilling pilot holes and inserting the galvanized screws. If you want to get the job done in a professional manner, we recommend you to use batter boards and string.
Drill pilot holes trough the plates and insert 5-6″ galvanized screws into the posts. In addition, make sure you place them on the plates equally spaced, leaving about 24″ between them on center.
Fit blockings between the trusses at the top of the rafters, in order to reinforce the structure of the roof. You could attach plywood sheets and cover the roof with asphalt shingles, or you could keep the costs under control by attaching 1×6 slats to the rafters.
Therefore, fill the holes and the cracks with wood filler and let it dry out for several hours, before sanding the surface with 120-grit sandpaper. Choose colors that match the design of the rest of your property, as to enhance the look of the wooden shelter.
If you want to see more outdoor plans, we recommend you to check out the rest of our step by step projects.  LIKE us on Facebook to be the first that gets our latest updates and submit pictures with your DIY projects. You are currently viewing our boards as a guest which gives you limited access to view most discussions and access our other features.
It is an engineered, prefabricated structural element that incorporates the the "rafter", the ceiling joist, and any bracing that is deemed necassary for the particular application. Because I would have had to cut down 30 or 40 trees to get a truss truck and crane in there. We'll show you everything you need to complete the project yourself, including how to frame the porch, attach it to your house and all of the finishing details. In addition, a reciprocating saw, a table saw and a power miter box will make the job go quicker and give you better results. On most two-story houses, you won't have to worry about tying in to the roof, but you may have to situate the porch carefully to avoid covering a window. Another option is to build a full-size mockup of a roof truss out of inexpensive and lightweight 1x4s. A few days before you plan to dig the footings, call 411 to have underground utilities marked in the vicinity of the porch. Then connect the opposite ends of the two beams at the front with a 2x10 cut to the same length as the ledger. Learn how to make and install a flat roof on your building, with advice on flat roof design and planning.
These joists are spaced at a specified distance apart, usually 400mm depending on the width or span they are covering and the surface that is to be applied.
Where two boards meet and the joint is not on a joist, tongue and grooved decking boards make the joint strong enough to support the flat roof load. Using a lean-to flat roof allows water to run easily away from the building into new gutters which can be connected to existing drainage systems or even new soakaways. In most cases this depends on the area of the country the property is in and also on the ordinance datum (vertical height) of the property above sea level.
If, for example, the incorrect size timbers were used and as a result your roof were subject to unnecessary movement, its covering would soon become weaker and is liable to split and possibly leak. Put simply a warm flat roof has insulation of some kind packed into every available void and a cold flat roof allows air to circulate between the joists. If a warm roof is not fully packed with insulation, yet a constant air flow is not a achieved, condensation will form in any unvented void. This warm vs cold roof situation also occurs in pitched roofs and it is vital, in simplistic terms that either no air is allowed into voids or a constant air flow is achieved. A layer of insulation will further warm this air which will rise until it hits the cold underside of the flat roof decking. However this type of warm roof relies on there being absolutely no voids whatever otherwise interstitial condensation will occur and this can go unnoticed for many years. This applies to new build properties as well as buildings with single floor extensions added to them.
This (Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer) rubber covering is very versatile, long lasting and very strong.
Fibreglass flat roofing, also known as GRP roofing or Glassfibre Reinforced Plastic roofing. They are made from galvanised (non-rusting) steel and come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Plasterboard is pretty fire resistant, is easily cut, can come in moisture resistant, sound resistant, vapour resistant forms and is easy to secure to the surface.

The moss in particular holds on to the water every time it rains and when wet doubles the weight on your roof.
Pretty much all teh kits available regardless of manufacturer will include everything you need - the membrane itself, trims, glues, fixings and the all important installation guide. Depending on the age and manufacturer of your existing roof and roof felt and the type of adhesive that has been used to fix it down, the glue that is used can be detrimental to the glue that is used to fix the EPDM rubber down and can cause it to fail. Although this is fine (as long as the joints are sealed correctly) best practice is to use a single piece as the more joints there are the more chance there is of a leak developing in time.
We work with Checkatrade to ensure that we recommend only reliable and trustworthy tradesmen. They made it seem effortless to cut and fit roof rafters with only the aid of a framing square. They essentially do the same thing as an actual construction calculator, but I prefer the real thing—if I’m going to drop a calculator in the mud, I’d rather it not be my pricey smartphone! If you have any two of those values, the calculator will quickly figure out the rest of the right triangle—which means it will tell you everything else you need to know about a rafter.
For simplicity, and to prevent error, the first thing I do is deduct the full width of the ridge beam from the building width: in this example 6 ft. So I enter the number 6 into the calculator, followed by the Inch key, and then press the Pitch key. For instance, I’d also like to know the diagonal measurement, which will help me layout the seat cut.
First, I attach a set of stair gauges to my framing square, so I can make precise, repetitive marks. Keep in mind that, for most framing jobs, the tongue (the skinny side) is the vertical cut, and the body (the wider side) is the horizontal or seat cut. This way, I have something to hook my tape measure on, which is very handy for long rafters. If you are framing from scratch, and not matching rafter heights (which will be explored in a future article), you will need to decide on what size the seat cut should be. By drawing it out on a story pole, I find the post elevation, and I can then cut the story pole to post the ridge. I can see android tablets replacing handheld calculators as the price of the android tablets keep going down in price. However if we use the CM to figure how much to shorten the total mathematical length, we end up with a different number. Remembering that all mathematical points are center lines, this is what you would add to get the real length. The purpose of this magazine is to provide comprehensive articles that help carpenters improve the quality of their work, speed productivity, and hopefully add a little enjoyment to a sometimes difficult career. Like they are trying to show how much better they are than the author and want everyone to know it. Building codes prohibit any field modification (notching or cutting) of roof trusses.That’s because once you cut into any part of a roof truss, you can’t trust its integrity. Plan every aspect of the construction (materials, plans, tools, location) from the very beginning, if you want to keep the costs as low as possible. Check out the rest of the projects, if you want to see more plans for gazebos, pergola or pavilions.
Make sure the corners are right-angled and the diagonal are equal, before continuing the project.
By joining our free community you will have access to post topics, communicate privately with other members (PM), respond to polls, upload content and access many other special features. I have seen trusses on 24 inch centers with purlins running 90 degrees to the truss and the sheathing applied to them. Sure, it'll take a lot of time and work, but once it's done, you can beat the bugs and spend more time outdoors during the summer.
You can build it with standard dimensional lumber, and it doesn't require heavy beams or complex joints. To reach high places safely and easily, we recommend renting a rolling scaffold system (Photo 8) for a month. Figure out where the top of the wall plate would be if you built the porch according to our plans (Figures A – H). Your local building department will specify how large and deep the footings should be for your climate and soil conditions. Use 16d stainless steel or double-dipped galvanized nails for all of the joist framing and to attach the joist hangers to the ledger board.
A guide to the recommended types of covering and links to construction kits with all the materials you need for your DIY roofing project. Sometimes a pitched roof is not appropriate for an extension because it would mean obscuring light to the home owners own windows. To ensure that these timbers are strong enough for the span they have to cover a formula is used to calculate the correct width and height that the joists should be. This roof shows the traditional covering of felt, there are more applications these days including fibreglass and rubber. Condensation forms as warm air (in insulated voids) hits cooler surfaces (underside of roof decking) and can rot the roof from the inside out. Many times the weephole will just be a perpendicular joint which has been left mortar free, but more often there will be a plastic weephole inserted into this joint .
The lead is tucked into a horizontal joint of the existing property masonry, retained by banging in lead wedges or clips and sealed by either repointing the groove (or chase) with cement mortar, or sealant.
EPDM, or rubber roofing, can be bought in DIY kits which include all trims and adhesives to get a neat waterproof job without any previous training other than maybe a YouTube video. Whatever its origins, a firring piece is a piece of timber shaped or cut to give you the types of surface profile you require. It is also advisable to remove the existing felt or covering to minimise the risk of future damage as much as possible. Without a doubt, a construction calculator is the quickest way to find your way around a roof. With wider plates, you cannot cut into the rafter more than a third of its overall width—this would weaken the structure too much. Ben at BuildCalc has done an excellent job on the user interface of BuildCalc and it is the best construction calculator for smartphones.
The limit at the other end of this is, the level portion of the seatcut should not extend inboard of the wall. See my help file for the correct way to deduct for the thickness of the ridge for unequal pitched gable roofs.
That means some of the information may still be applicable and some may not: terminology, building materials, and tools have changed a lot over the years. There are so many designs you could choose form, that we really recommend you to study the alternatives. Trusses are stronger than rafters as far a weight bearing but you dont want to have sheathing developing sags between them. Then support the mocked-up truss at this height to see how the porch overhang meets the roof. Rest one end of each side beam in the double joist hangers and prop them up level with a stack of wood (Photo 1). Then brace the frame against stakes pounded into the ground to hold it square while you install the treated posts, joists and decking (Photo 2).
In 1939 there were no circular saws, no nail guns, no cordless drills, no Titebond II, no power miter saws, and no construction calculators that are far more accurate and efficient–especially when you consider cumulative error. Maybe they are using incorrect terminology but everyone on the crew knows what each other means. But the easiest way I’ve found to retrofit a wide skylight without re-engineering the trusses is to reframe the roof around the skylight opening with dimensional lumber just as you would in a stick-built roof.First, you have to plan the location for the skylight. If you have any problems with the registration process or your account login, please contact contact us.
If you don't like the way the overhangs intersect, adjust the level of the deck slightly, alter the wall height or change the width of the overhang.
Sight along the outside rim joist occasionally and adjust the length of the joists as needed to keep the front rim joist straight. However, when a room is placed on the external side of the wall, allowing this water to drain into this room would be madness. The insertion of a cavity tray ensures that the water can only drop as far as the roof of the adjoining building where it is forced to drain through the brickwork, via a weephole (D). I carefully align those measurements along the edge of the rafter material, and then set the gauges.
I’d like to install the skylights myself just before the roofing contractor installs the roofing, but I am not sure how to cut out a section of one truss without affecting the integrity of the roof structure. If the ledger attaches to concrete, predrill holes and insert lead shield lag screw anchors before installing the lags. I actually prefer to locate skylights so that their sides fall in the middle of truss bays and not alongside existing trusses.
This strategy gives a little more room for slipping in the new rafters and ceiling joists.Next, calculate the size of the rafters and ceiling joists that will support the roof where you cut the trusses. Before you get too far into the tables, measure the distance between the inside edge of the top wall plate and the underside of the roof sheathing.
Selecting a premium species such as Douglas fir or a premium grade such as select structural might be necessary to get away with 2x6 rafters on longer spans.If you can’t support the roof properly, I suggest going with two 2-ft. But let’s assume you can size the rafters and ceiling joists and move on to the next step of cutting and installing them.If possible, I remove several sheets of roof sheathing in the area where the new skylight will go, which gives you plenty of room to do the framing.
If this option isn’t possible, the lumber can be slipped through small holes cut through the sheathing at the ridge, and the framing can be done from inside the roof cavity.Cut enough rafters for both sides of the roof.
Even though you’ll be putting the rough opening for the skylight only on one side, you need to reframe both sides of the roof.

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Author: admin | 28.02.2014 | Category: Simple Shed Plans

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