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Description: The Globe of Euphrosynus Ulpius, constructed in 1542, is now preserved in the museum of the New York Historical Society, having been found in Madrid by Buckingham Smith.
It will doubtless prove of interest to note upon this map the line running from pole to pole and cutting through the border of South America. The Ulpius globe is 15.5 inches in diameter, and is supported upon a worm-eaten stand of oak, the iron cross tipping the North Pole, making the height of the instrument three feet and eight inches. The literal translation is as follows: Regions of the Terrestrial globe handed down by ancients, or discovered in our memory or that of our fathers. This may be rendered: Marcellus Cervino, Cardinal-Presbyter and Doctor of Divinity of the Holy Roman Church. This work is of great historical interest, for the reason that it bears direct and independent testimony to the voyage of Verrazano in 1524, certified first by the Letter of Verrazano to Francis I, confirmed by Carli, and attested to by the map of Hieronimo da Verrazano (#347); this witness being followed by the author of the Discourse of the Dieppe Captain, in 1539.
The present representation of one hemisphere of the globe, without being a facsimile, is nevertheless sufficiently correct for historical purposes, and may be relied upon. It will be observed that Ulpius does not give the exact date of the discovery by Verrazano.
In the northwest, near Alaska, is Tagv Provincia, the Tangut of Marco Polo, the coast, once again, being joined to Asia. The Ulpius globe corrects many errors of preceding geographers, though not free from errors itself. Perhaps the most surprising thing on the globe is to find that the portion of North America above Florida is called Verrazana sive Nova Gallia [Verrazano or New France]. The names scattered along the coast of North America in Ulpiusa€™ delineation of it, are practically all of them of Italian form and termination, though many of them are evidently adaptations of place names well known in France. In Brazil the aborigines appear in the scant wardrobe that they were accustomed to affect, and display, on the whole, what may be regarded as an animated disposition.
No true indication of the terminus of the continent of South America is given, but south of the Straits of Magellan is seen a vast continent spreading around the pole. In the more easterly portion of this continent is written, Terra Australis adhuc incomperta, being an unexplored region, while in passing around the border of this continent we come to Brasieeli, a corruption of a€?Brazil,a€? a name earlier applied to an island in the Atlantic before the discovery of America. The Old World is depicted substantial1y as it appeared in the re-constructed Ptolemaic maps of this period.
Near the bank of the Nile a robed ecclesiastic sits upon a canopied throne with a triple crown upon his brow and a triple cross in his hand. The Conger eel, without much regard to the proprieties, stretches complacently over several degrees of latitude, herein following the example of the gold fish (Aurata), which puffs itself up to half the size of the whale. The fish represented upon the globe are so well done that they might claim a full and separate treatment, evidently belonging to the earliest scientific delineations in Ichthyology. Besides the historic groups of islands, there are also many of lesser note, together with a few not found today. Bermuda is prominent, having been laid down for the first time on Martyra€™s map of 1511, and southward is Catolica, possibly an alternate name for the a€?Island of the Seven Cities,a€? which was reported in various places, the inhabitants being a€?good Catholics.a€? Near this spot, on Ruyscha€™s map of 1508 (#313), is the word Cata.
It would not, however, be proper to treat all these islands of Ulpius now missing in accordance with the volcanic theory. Turning to the Greenland section of the globe, a gratifying improvement upon Verrazanoa€™s outline is found, showing that Ulpius had consulted the maps of Ruysch, 1508 (#313), and Orontius Fines, 1531 (#356), though it will be well to remember in this connection that Behaima€™s globe of 1492 shows land in the same direction. It will be necessary next to speak of the coast names on the North American continent, though it has been indicated previously that certain of them show an agreement with the names on the Verrazano map.
In 1612 he made a seventeen daysa€™ journey into the wilderness from Montreal to find the sea upon whose shore Vignan professed to have seen the wreck of an English ship. As mentioned above, the globe is further interesting for illustrations of many different kinds of fish that are found in the different oceans. It also serves to show how deeply interested were the Popes and the high ecclesiastics near them at Rome in securing and diffusing the best available scientific information. Lithograph facsimile of the Ulpius Globe, Western Hemisphere, 1542, New York Historical Society, 23 cm from Dr. 1906: Availability of panchromatic black and white film and therefore high quality color separation color photography. G+ #Read of the Day: The Daguerreotype - The daguerreotype, an early form of photograph, was invented by Louis Daguerre in the early 19th c. The first photograph (1826) - Joseph Niepce, a French inventor and pioneer in photography, is generally credited with producing the first photograph. Easy Peasy Fact:Following Niepcea€™s experiments, in 1829 Louis Daguerre stepped up to make some improvements on a novel idea.
This important and deeply interesting instrument was discovered in the collections of a Spanish dealer in 1859, and brought to New York the same year, after the death of its owner, being purchased for the society by John David Wolfe.
Ulpius, in 1542 stands as the fifth witness to the voyage by the following inscription: Verrazana sive Nova Gallia a Verrazano Florentino comperto anno Sal. The Old and New Worlds are represented as they were known at the time, the latitude of Florida, which was too high on the Verrazano map (#347), being given quite correctly, while the excessive easterly trend of the North American coast line on that map is corrected. On the North American section of the globe various new points are indicated, and the advance of the Spaniards in New Mexico is noticeable. The peninsula of Lower California does not appear, though exploration had been extended to that region, as proved by Domingo del Castello, on his map of 1541 (Lorenzana Historia de Nueva Espana, 1770). This is a reference to the a€?Seven Cities of Cibola,a€? which were credited with such vast wealth, it being declared that the houses were supported by massive pillars of crystal and gold. The name of America had been reserved for South America for the better part of half a century, at least for over thirty years, from the time of Canon WaldseemA?llera€™s map in 1507 (#310), which followed the descriptions given in the notes of Amerigo Vespuccia€™s voyages. For the first time the peninsula of Florida receives a proper location and the shore of North America generally is rather well outlined. This, it is noted, was discovered by Verrazano, the Florentine, in the year of grace (anno salutis), 1524.
Breton, for instance, is mentioned, but there is a Selva de Cervi [a forest of deer or stags]; there is, of course, a San Francisco and a Porto Reale [Port Royal], and then there is a Terra Laboratoris, evidently what was later to be Labrador, but Ulpius, following Verrazano, places this very much farther south than our present-day Labrador.
From the Straits of Magellan to Chinca, just north of the Tropic of Capricorn, the coast is marked Terra Incognita. A couple of Brazilians, broad ax in hand, are on the point of taking off a fellow beinga€™s head, while a third, with a knife, is artistically dressing a leg. With respect to the East Indies, however, a clear improvement is made upon the Verrazano map. Canton is displayed as a collection of houses, near which is a bird, in company with a couple of goats with ears that reach to the ground. Tall ships, laden with the wealth of a€?Ormus and of Ind,a€? move bravely homeward with billowing sails, while light galleys glide around the borders of the newly found lands. The Kraken of Pontoppidan, or at least what resembles the sea-serpent of Nahant, appears in the Atlantic off South Africa, corrugating his hirsute back.
The fish upon the Ulpius globe bear a close resemblance to those of Rondelatius (Lugduni, 1554). An island that appears to be a duplicate of Cape Breton that lies eastward of that region, and is called Dobreta. The Greenland section of Ulpius also indicates that the knowledge in possession of the Zeno family at Venice found some expression in Italy before the publication of the Zeno Voyage and Map in 1558.
Along the eastern border of the Gulf of Mexico, adjoining Florida, may be seen Rio Del Gato [the Cat River], the Rio de Los Angelos, or [River of the Angels], the P.
As far northward as the coast of the Carolinas, the territory is considered Spanish, while thence to the Gulf of St. The sea and isthmus were copied from Verrazano, and the existence of a body of water in close proximity to the Atlantic was generally believed. This man, who marched before Champlain through the tangled forests, has been called an impostor, and, with a musket leveled at his head, Vignan confessed himself one; yet no doubt he was as much deceived as Champlain, having acted upon the trusted relation of another, a course which he supposed would succeed, and bring him great credit. This globe, surmounted with a cross, remains as a very definite demonstration that the too common impression of Roman ecclesiastical authorities as hampering the progress of science or keeping information away from the people, is one founded entirely on ignorance of the actual conditions. Talbot was active from the mid-1830s, and sits alongside Louis Daguerre as one of the fathers of the medium. Niepcea€™s photograph shows a view from the Window at Le Gras, and it only took eight hours of exposure time!The history of photography has roots in remote antiquity with the discovery of the principle of the camera obscura and the observation that some substances are visibly altered by exposure to light. Again employing the use of solvents and metal plates as a canvas, Daguerre utilized a combination of silver and iodine to make a surface more sensitive to light, thereby taking less time to develop. That nation, according to his decree, was entitled to lands discovered by them west of the line, while the Portuguese were to confine their new possessions to the region east of the line, inscribed, Terminus Hispanis et Lusitanis ab Alexando VI. The resemblance of the globe to that planned by Mercator, 1541, taken with the fact that Mercator and the Italian, Moletius, were in a sense associated, might possibly lead us to inquire whether or not Moletius had any influence in connection with the production of the work of Ulpius. The wheat or barley heads appear to have formed a device in the family arms, as they are given with his portrait, while the Deer form a proper allusion to his name. This part of the continent is called Verrazana, sive Nova Gallia, while on the Verrazano map is found, Ivcatania.
Undoubtedly, Verrazano was the first to explore the coast behind which lies this immense geographic region, and yet very little was known of that fact until quite recently. In the distant northwest of the North American continent there is a Tagu Provincia, which is evidently a reminiscence of previous mapmakers who had used that name. The giants themselves are wanting, like Raleigha€™s men with heads in their breasts, notwithstanding we are told by Pigafetti and other voyagers that there was a plenty of giants in those days; yet, further north, the chameleon roost upon a broad-leaved plant, and still higher up, one of the tall ostriches, described by Darwin, is trying to exhibit himself, using as a pedestal the house formerly of solid gold. Near by, two other amiable representatives of the tribe are engaged in turning a huge spit, upon which, comfortably trussed up, is another superfluous neighbor, whom the blazing fire is transmuting into an acceptable roast.
Its existence was considered probable, for the reason that it seemed to be required in order to maintain the balance of land and water. Prester John has been regarded as a king in Tibet, but the Portuguese claim that he was a convert to the Nestorian faith in Abyssinia.
The whale (Balena) is not so well executed as the rest, and is attended by the dolphin (Orca), also called Marsuin by the French.
On globes and maps prior to 1542 may be found a variety of intriguing marine monsters, but correct representations of fish are scarce. Roque is De Ferna Loronha, or Fernando de Noronha, discovered in 1506 by the Portuguese navigator of that name.
The French were nevertheless ambitious, and would have founded New France on the central portion of our coast if circumstances had proved more favorable. Lawrence it is French, the rest being Portuguese, as allowed by the general use of Portuguese names.
Often it was represented as lying further to the south, and hence some suppose that what was referred to may have been the Gulf of Mexico. The instrument in question is a Roman production, the design of which may yet be traced to Pope Marcellus himself, who was known for his ability and skill in this kind of work. Porta (1541-1615), a wise Neapolitan, was able to get the image of well-lighted objects through a small hole in one of the faces of a dark chamber; with a convergent lens over the enlarged hole, he noticed that the images got even clearer and sharper. Though he is most famous for his contributions to photography, he was also an accomplished painter and a developer of the diorama theatre. As far as is known, nobody thought of bringing these two phenomena together to capture camera images in permanent form until around 1800, when Thomas Wedgwood made the first reliably documented although unsuccessful attempt.

Da Costa, in The Magazine of American History (1879), called attention to a reference in Hakluyt to a€?an olde excellente globe in the Queena€™s privie gallery at Westminister which seemeth to be of Verarsanus makinge.a€? On that globe he says the a€?coaste is described in Italiana€? and, as this is the special characteristic of many of the names to be found on this globe, it might possibly seem as though this were the one which Queen Elizabeth I frequently consulted in the privacy of the gallery at Westminster.
Everything is done in accordance with the best science of the age, and proves that the globe was intended for careful use.
Hakluyta€™s reference to an olde excellent globe in the Queen's privie gallery at Westminster, which seemeth to be of Verarsanus makinge, is also of interest, for, like the globe of Ulpius, it had the Coaste described in Italian, and a necke of lande in the latitude of 40 degrees. Purchas says that South America was called Peruviana, and North America, Mexicana; which explains the action of Hieronimo da Verrazano in 1529 (#347), who employs the name of Yucatan in accordance with the same principle. The wealth of Cibola eventually became the subject of sport, as was the case respecting the whole continent, at first supposed to be a part of the East Indies, and remarkably auriferous. His brother published, in 1529, a large map, preserved in the College of the Propaganda at Rome, which outlines Giovanni Verrazanoa€™s discoveries.
Curiously enough, Greenland is pictured not very far from where we know it and under a name not very different from ours, but Islandia is placed very close to the Greenland coast. Gvito, or Quito, happens to be placed nearly in the centre of the South American continent, and close by we read, Domus olim ex solido auri, [the House formerly of solid gold].
The parrot, evidently an edified spectator, gazes placidly down from its perch in the tree. Regio Patalis, a part of this continent, lies southwesterly from the Straits of Magellan, the name perhaps having been transferred from the coast of Africa. This lonely, harborless isle, with its remarkable peak appears ready to be what it is now, the Sing Sing of Brazil; while St. An instance is found in the Isle de Fer, a reflection of which, often noticed by sailors, and called the Land of Butter [Terre de beurre], was gravely ceded by the Spanish Government to Louis Perdignon.
The editor of the Ptolemy of 1482 knew of the Chronicle of Ivar Bardsen, and some of the names mentioned by him appear upon the editora€™s map; yet at the same time he assigns a false position to Greenland, which is shown as an extension of Norway, while Iceland is laid down in the sea west of what is given as Greenland.
2, 1591) represents the sea in his map, while the Virginia colonists entertained a similar idea. Nevertheless, by whomsoever it may have been designed, this ancient globe has come to us from the Eternal City, finding a permanent resting place at last, not without a certain fine justice, in the great metropolis which looks out upon the splendid harbor visited and described by him whose name is so prominently engraved upon the portion representing the New World. Schulze mixes chalk, nitric acid, and silver in a flask; notices darkening on side of flask exposed to sunlight.
A daguerreotype, produced on a silver-plated copper sheet, produces a mirror image photograph of the exposed scene.
It would be interesting to trace, at least conjecturally, the possibilities of how the globe found its way over to England. The latitudes are found by the nicely graduated copper equator, upon which the names of the zodiacal signs are engraved; while the equatorial line of the globe itself has the longitude divided into sections covering five degrees each. What we know as Central America is called Nova Andalusia; the Pacific Ocean is named Mare Pacificum, but also Mare del Sur, which became the familiar South Sea in English, and in South America we find such names as Peru, Bresilia [Brazil], Venazola, Terra Paria, and Rio de Platta. It was doubtless from this that the detailsa€”some of them at leasta€”of the Ulpius globe were secured. Hibernia [Ireland] has much the form we know and looks like the little dog we see on our maps, but Scotia [Scotland], much less well known at that time, does not extend far enough north, and England is much compressed in length.
On a peninsula may be found the following inscription: Lusitani vltra promotorium bone spei i Calicutium tendentes hanc terra viderut, veru non accesserut, quaobrem neq nos certi quidq afferre potuimus [The Portuguese, sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope to Calcutta, saw this land but did not reach it, wherefore, neither have we been able to assert anything with certainty]. Helena, discovered on the festival of that saint, 1501, is waiting to imprison one of the worlda€™s great disturbers. To a similar origin may be assigned Jaquet Island, which came from the Jaquet Bank, a shoal near the edge of Grand Bank. The Fata Morgana is perhaps quite as unsatisfactory as the theory of satanic delusion, sometimes resorted to for the purpose of explaining the mystery. Ulpius, on the contrary, and in accordance with fact, places Iceland east of Greenland, though both are placed too close to mainland Europe. Then follow Selvi di Cervi, the Deer Park of Verrazano, and Calami, similar to the Carnavarall of the Spanish maps. But for a head wind when off Cape Cod, sailing southward in 1605, Champlain might have reached the Hudson, and instead of planting Port Royal in Nova Scotia, he might have established its foundations on Manhattan Island, in the region where Port Royal (Porto Reale) was laid down by Ulpius. Lawrence River, a belief that led the French to attempt the colonization of that cold and inhospitable country, in preference to the sunny and fertile regions explored farther southward by Verrazano.
As late as 1651 the western sea was represented within about two hundred miles of the Atlantic coast, as appears from a map of that year, found in some copies of The Discovery of Nevv Brittaine (see #472).
If the history of the globe could be written, it would be found to possess the charms of romance. Paul Jovius wrote a book on ichthyology, which was published in 1524, but it was not illustrated.
The alchemist Fabricio, more or less at the same period of time, observed that silver chloride was darkened by the action of light. Chemistry student Robert Cornelius was so fascinated by the chemical process involved in Daguerrea€™s work that he sought to make some improvements himself. Four distinct meridional lines divide the globe into quarters, while four more lines are faintly indicated.
The name Nova Gallia [New France] is not surprising, though that term was applied later to territory farther north than here delineated, and indeed continued to be a favorite geographic designation for Canada and the French possessions until the middle of the 18th century.
The Orkney Islands, under the name of Orcades, are given a very prominent place, thus leaving insufficient room for northern Scotland. The Amazon and the La Platt Rivers appear, but Ulpius does not show any clear knowledge of the Orinoco River seen by Pinzon around 1500. There is also Insvle Tristan Dacvnha, found by the Portuguese, Dacuna, in 1506; and Insvle Formose, while in the southern part of the Indian Ocean is Insvle Grifonvm [the Isle of Griffins]. Here we might pause to remark upon the ease with which islands that have no existence are found in the sea, and the corresponding difficulty of getting rid of them. Mayda is simply the a€?Maidasa€? of the early maps, while the Three Chimnies, if not explained by some eruption, may have originated in such peculiarities of the bottom as that known as the a€?Whale Holea€? on the bank of Newfoundland. The waters of Greenland are represented as navigated, and nothing is perhaps more susceptible of proof than the fact that communication was never lost with Greenland from the tenth century down to the present day.
Perhaps this last one was placed here in honor of Andrea Corsali, the Florentine navigator in the service of Emanuel, King of Portugal, though no record is found of any voyage made by him to this region. This would have made the greatest city in America a French city, and, possibly, changed the destiny of the continent.
At the same time the globe, as pointed out, bears the line of Pope Alexander, by which the most of the New World was given to Spain. The Spaniards, on the same principle, as previously noted, proposed to fortify and colonize the Straits of Magellan. This error had its day, and then died though not without manifesting a remarkable vitality.
This may be the very globe that, as Hakluyt said, a€?seemetk to be of Verrasanus making,a€? and which Queen Elizabeth I was accustomed to consult in the gallery at Westminster. The whale is represented as living in the distant north and is, perhaps, the poorest illustration of all. It was only two hundred years later that the physicist Charles made the first photographic impression, by projecting the outlines of one of his pupils on a white paper sheet impregnated with silver chloride. It was commercially introduced in 1839, a date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.The metal-based daguerreotype process soon had some competition from the paper-based calotype negative and salt print processes invented by Henry Fox Talbot.
And in 1839 Cornelius shot a self-portrait daguerrotype that some historians believe was the first modern photograph of a man ever produced. This was the year of the restoration of Catholicism in England under Mary Tudor, and the following year Cardinal Pole became her principal adviser. That line was drawn from pole to pole at ninety degrees west longitude, giving the Portuguese the right over all the territory of Africa, but only a small portion of South America which projects beyond that line. The latitudes are found by the aid of a brass meridian, the Tropic of Cancer being called A†TIVVS, and Capricorn HYEMALIS.
The principal adverse critic of Verrazano frankly concedes that the Globe of Ulpius affords indubitable evidence that the maker had consulted the map (Murphya€™s Verrazano). There is a Terra Gigantum and a Terra de los Fuegos, as well as an immense Terra Australisa€”a great southern continent below the Strait of Magellan (the initium freti Magellanici is carefully noted)a€”but with regard to this southern continent the globe tells us that it had not yet been explored, perhaps not yet actually found, for the Latin words are ad hue incomperta. It was on Verrazanoa€™s discoveries and voyage, authorized and financed by the French king, that the French based their claims to this part of North America. Upon some of our best maps may be found such islands as Jaquet Island, Three Chimnies, Mayda, Amplimont, and Green Rock. Brendana€™s Island, without any great stretch of the imagination, might be referred to as a burning insular peak, so far as the etymology may be concerned; while, again, as the Irish monks were abroad upon the sea at an early period, some of them may have landed upon an island that afterward disappeared. Ulpius, who seems to copy Ruyscha€™s basic outline, leaves the space between Greenland and the west as unexplored; while Ruysch, on the other hand, makes Greenland, together with Newfoundland, part of Asia, Gog and Magog being in close proximity.
These facts, however, are consistent with one another, even on the supposition that the globe was made at the Vatican under the direction of the Cardinal-Presbyter Cervinus.
The belief was shared by Ulpius in common with Verrazano, the latter being as positive on the subject as Frobisher himself, both having committed the belief to maps.
Of course, the sea serpent finds a place here, but then the sea serpent has been seen many times, ever since, without scientists being able to locate him. Through him the globe might easily have found its way into England at this time, and an interesting question would be to trace the relations of friendship between Reginald Pole during his sojourn in Rome and Cardinal Cervinus before he became Pope, so as to discover how this globe could have come into Polea€™s possession and be taken to England. Nevertheless attention has been called to the fact that, in an appendix to his work, the same critic refers to what is called an a€?authority,a€? which says that the map of Verrazano was originated sometime after 1550.
In the case of the monks, it would have received due embellishment, since they were as fond of the marvelous. It remained for the Zeno Map, published sixteen years after the Ulpius globe, to show the position of Greenland more distinctly, and at the same time to reveal the sites of the eastern and western colonies of Greenland, so erroneously supposed in later times to have been situated on the opposite coasts of that country. That person, though loyal to the Papal throne, which he was destined to occupy, was not over friendly to Spain, having three years before refused a pension of ten thousand piastres from Charles V., who wished to win his support.
Lawrence was supposed to lead directly into the a€?Sea of China.a€? When Champlain went to Canada in 1608, he declared that he would not return until he reached that sea.
It certainly went to Spain, and there, the instrument upon which perhaps more than one Pope read the decree of his predecessor, Alexander, was finally banished to the realm of worthless antiquities.
The photos were turned into lantern slides and projected in registration with the same color filters. Even with that problem settled, however, the question as to how the globe found its way back to Spain, would remain.
A brass hour-circle enables the student to ascertain the difference of time between any two given points, while the graduated path of the Ecliptic is a prominent and indispensable aid. If this were so, it would appear that the Verrazano map was based upon the Globe of Ulpius in connection with certain maps, and that, instead of having influenced the production of other maps, it is itself a composition made up of early material.
On Coltona€™s Atlas these islands lie in the track of navigation between France and Newfoundland. Germano, both Verrazano names, the former being Longueville, near Dieppe, and the latter St. Therefore, while recognizing the decree of Alexander, he might have been fair with the French, and thus conceded what they had accomplished in the New World by the aid of his countryman, Verrazano.

In 1802, Wedgwood reproduced transparent drawings on a surface sensitized by silver nitrate and exposed to light. If there were a replica, one could easily understand that one of the two should find its way there since Marya€™s husband was Philip II of Spain, and he doubtless would have been very much interested in this globe which, better than almost any other map of the time, set forth the Spanish possessions on the other side of the water. It is said that they originated with icebergs in the fog-banks, or possibly in the fog-banks themselves. However this may be, the French are recognized, and the most of the region now occupied by the United States was claimed for France as New Gaul. Nicephore Niepce (1765-1833) had the idea of using as sensitive material the bitumen, which is altered and made insoluble by light, thus keeping the images obtained unaltered. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Ti and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. But Hakluyta€™s reference is to Elizabeth, perhaps thirty or forty years after Marya€™s death, and when there was no possibility of any such communication between England and Spain as would account for the globe reaching Spanish dominions. It should be noticed, however, that this part of the ocean is volcanic, and that islands of considerable magnitude have risen from the sea at different times.
It stands connected with its maritime enterprise and adventure, and with its naval and geographical romance. He communicated his experiences to Daguerre (1787-1851) who noticed that a iodide-covered silver plate - thedaguerreotype -, by exposition to iodine fumes, was impressed by the action of light action, and that the almost invisible alteration could be developed with the exposition to mercury fumes.
In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experimentsIbn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965 in Basra a€“ c.
The earliest eruption on record in the north Atlantic is that mentioned on the Ruysch map in the Ptolemy edition of 1508.
It was then fixed with a solution of potassium cyanide, which dissolves the unaltered iodine.The daguerreotype (1839) was the first practical solution for the problem of photography. Between Iceland and Greenland is the legend Insule hac 1456 anno Dno fvit totaliter combusta [This island was entirely burned up, A. Especially does it prove to the student how the exploration of our continent tried the courage, tested the endurance, baffled the skill and dissipated the fortunes of some of the noblest of men. In 1841, Claudet discovered quickening substances, thanks to which exposing times were shortened. Cartiera€™s voyage of 1534 is not mentioned, as he made no discoveries, but the Gulf of St.
More or less at the same time period, EnglishWilliam Henry Talbot substituted the steel daguerreotype with paper photographs (named calotype). Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694. Niepce of Saint-Victor (1805-1870), Nicephorea€™s cousin, invented the photographic glass plate covered with a layer of albumin, sensitized by silver iodide.
The novel Giphantie (by the French Tiphaigne de la Roche, 1729a€“74) described what could be interpreted as photography.Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. Porto Reale follows, when suddenly we reach the river intended for the Penobscot or Norombega, which, as on the Allefonsce map, which is positioned too far south. Ribero on his map (#346) indeed closes the Gulf, yet it was well known to the French at a very early period. Maddox and Benett, between 1871 and 1878, discovered the gelatine-bromide plate, as well as how to sensitize it. As with the bitumen process, the result appeared as a positive when it was suitably lit and viewed. Next is Refvgivm Promont, intended for the Cape of Refuge of the Verrazano map, which afforded Verrazano a land-locked harbor, today identified with Newport, RI. It must be observed again, however, that the outline of the Ulpius globe is a bit confusing.
A strong hot solution of common salt served to stabilize or fix the image by removing the remaining silver iodide. The next name is Corte Magiore, unless indeed Magiore belongs with the succeeding inscription. On 7 January 1839, this first complete practical photographic process was announced at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences, and the news quickly spread.
The signification is obscure, like that of Flora, though the latter occurs in several of the Ptolemaic maps of the period, including the Maggiolo map (#340) of 1548, and in Ramusioa€™s Verrazano sketch. At first, all details of the process were withheld and specimens were shown only at Daguerre's studio, under his close supervision, to Academy members and other distinguished guests.
Finally, Cavo de Brettoni is reached, or Cape Breton, a name usually referred to the French, but which may have been given by the Portuguese.
The reading may be cdmeri, and thus refer to the Cosin de mer annano, or Oceanus on the SchA¶ner globe of 1520 (#328), signifying the Ocean Cape.
With Terra Laboratoris we reach, not Labrador, the Portuguese a€?Land of the Laborers,a€? but Newfoundland. Paper with a coating of silver iodide was exposed in the camera and developed into a translucent negative image.
By mistake, Laboratoris is applied to Newfoundland, as later to Cape Breton, the inland waters of which are today called a€?Bras da€™or,a€? previously lengthened from Brador, which, according to the fancy of someone, signified a€?the Arm of Gold,a€? Thus easily are names emptied of their original signification. By mistake, Laboratoris is applied to Newfoundland, as later to Cape Breton, the inland waters of which are today called a€?Bras da€™or,a€? previously lengthened fromA  Brador, which, according to the fancy of someone, signified a€?the Arm of Gold,a€? Thus easily are names emptied of their original signification. Unlike a daguerreotype, which could only be copied by rephotographing it with a camera, a calotype negative could be used to make a large number of positive prints by simple contact printing. The calotype had yet another distinction compared to other early photographic processes, in that the finished product lacked fine clarity due to its translucent paper negative. Frio [the Cold Cape of the Portuguese] represents Newfoundland, one part of which is marked Terra Corterealis.
This was seen as a positive attribute for portraits because it softened the appearance of the human face. Talbot patented this process,[20] which greatly limited its adoption, and spent many years pressing lawsuits against alleged infringers. He attempted to enforce a very broad interpretation of his patent, earning himself the ill will of photographers who were using the related glass-based processes later introduced by other inventors, but he was eventually defeated.
Nonetheless, Talbot's developed-out silver halide negative process is the basic technology used by chemical film cameras today. Yet, whatever name may be given to Newfoundland by the old cartographers, that of Bacca laos always adheres, being derived from Baculum, a stick, often used to keep fish spread open when drying.
Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce. A  I learned something from every man I met or exchanged emails with, and Lou taught me a few words in Spanish.A  Ole! The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.Nineteenth-century experimentation with photographic processes frequently became proprietary. This adaptation influenced the design of cameras for decades and is still found in use today in some professional cameras. As in several other maps of the period, the name is repeated on an island lying westward as Grovelat. The greater portion of the region around the Pole is shown as land, but north of Asia is an immense lake, Mare Glaciale, also found on the Nancy globe (#363). Petersburg, Russia studio Levitsky would first propose the idea to artificially light subjects in a studio setting using electric lighting along with daylight. In 1884 George Eastman, of Rochester, New York, developed dry gel on paper, or film, to replace the photographic plate so that a photographer no longer needed to carry boxes of plates and toxic chemicals around.
Now anyone could take a photograph and leave the complex parts of the process to others, and photography became available for the mass-market in 1901 with the introduction of the Kodak Brownie.A practical means of color photography was sought from the very beginning. Results were demonstrated by Edmond Becquerel as early as 1848, but exposures lasting for hours or days were required and the captured colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.The first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. It was taken by Thomas Sutton in 1861 for use in a lecture by the Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.[27] The photographic emulsions then in use were insensitive to most of the spectrum, so the result was very imperfect and the demonstration was soon forgotten. Maxwell's method is now most widely known through the early 20th century work of Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color-filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.[28]The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907. If the individual filter elements were small enough, the three primary colors would blend together in the eye and produce the same additive color synthesis as the filtered projection of three separate photographs.
We can take a little walk, maybe get our feet wet, and then lie on a blanket and listen to the waves. Autochrome plates had an integral mosaic filter layer composed of millions of dyed potato starch grains. Reversal processing was used to develop each plate into a transparent positive that could be viewed directly or projected with an ordinary projector. The mosaic filter layer absorbed about 90 percent of the light passing through, so a long exposure was required and a bright projection or viewing light was desirable. Competing screen plate products soon appeared and film-based versions were eventually made. A complex processing operation produced complementary cyan, magenta and yellow dye images in those layers, resulting in a subtractive color image. Kirsch at the National Institute of Standards and Technology developed a binary digital version of an existing technology, the wirephoto drum scanner, so that alphanumeric characters, diagrams, photographs and other graphics could be transferred into digital computer memory. I do the same thing myself, when the mood strikes.A  And how about this for being an "in tune with women" kinda guy?A  A few days after I had ordered myself 2 new green dresses and several in black to add to my collection from a mail order company named Newport News, he sent an email asking:A  "So, what are you wearing right now?
The lab was working on the Picturephone and on the development of semiconductor bubble memory. The essence of the design was the ability to transfer charge along the surface of a semiconductor. Michael Tompsett from Bell Labs however, who discovered that the CCD could be used as an imaging sensor.
A  For Christ Sake!!A  How about saving the Taxpayers a buck?A  In addition to that $6 million you've already blown by hovering and covering me, and scheduling a proper Face to Base meeting in your office; at my convenience?
Dramatic, but no drama.A  Short black skirt, or long black dress?A  Heels or boots?A  Camo, or commando? Until then, as in the end,there is much more to come.A A A  Once Upon a Time, a little mushroom popped through the moss covered ground of the Southeast Alaska Rainforest. Grant, Attorney at Law, Juneau, AK From Wedding Bells to Tales to Tell: The Affidavit of Eric William Swanson, my former spouse AFFIDAVIT OF SHANNON MARIE MCCORMICK, My Former Best Friend THE AFFIDAVIT OF VALERIE BRITTINA ROSE, My daughter, aged 21 THE BEAGLE BRAYS!
HELL'S BELLS: THE TELLS OF THE ELVES RING LOUD AND CLEAR IDENTITY THEFT, MISINFORMATION, AND THE GETTING THE INFAMOUS RUNAROUND Double Entendre and DoubleSpeak, Innuendos and Intimidation, Coercion v Common Sense, Komply (with a K) v Knowledge = DDIICCKK; Who's Gunna Call it a Draw?

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