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If you haven’t heard of it before, HOBO SIGNS LANGUAGE is a system of symbols, or a code developed by Hobos during the Great Depression.
They would write this code with chalk or coal on fences, posts, sidewalks, buildings, trestles, bridge abutments, or railroad line side equipment to provide directions, information, and warnings to other hobos. There may be one or more signs that give the same message or, at times, there may be slightly different meanings for a sign. I’m captivated by their simplicity and their power and I wonder what sign hoboes would place outside my house or yours. Although they were victims of religious persecution in Europe, the Puritans supported the Old World theory that sanctioned it, the need for uniformity of religion in the state.
Expelled from Massachusetts in the dead of winter in 1636, former Puritan leader Roger Williams (1603-1683) issued an impassioned plea for freedom of conscience. The Bloudy Tenent of Persecution, for cause of Conscience, discussed in a Conference between Truth and Peace.
In his Notes on the State of Virginia, Thomas Jefferson reflected on the religious intolerance in seventeenth-century Virginia, specifically on the anti-Quaker laws passed by the Virginia Assembly from 1659 onward.
For some decades Jews had flourished in Dutch-held areas of Brazil, but a Portuguese conquest of the area in 1654 confronted them with the prospect of the introduction of the Inquisition, which had already burned a Brazilian Jew at the stake in 1647. Designed by Peter Harrison, constructed in 1762, and dedicated in 1763, Touro Synagogue is considered an architectural masterpiece.
A breastplate is an ornamental covering for the Torah, designed in imitation of the breastplate worn by the High Priest, as described in the book of Exodus. During the colonial period, this board was used at Touro Synagogue to prepare the dough for Matzoh (unleavened bread) used in the Passover season. The Quakers (or Religious Society of Friends) formed in England in 1652 around a charismatic leader, George Fox (1624-1691). A youthful William Penn (1644-1718) portrayed in armor suggests that at this point in his career he may have been considering following his father into a military profession. In his famous charter of religious liberty, William Penn pledged that all citizens who believed in "One Almighty and eternal God . This undated image depicts a feature of Quaker religious practice that made early Friends so repugnant to other denominations: their insistence on equality for women, including the right--in defiance of the apostle Paul's injunctions--to speak in Meeting for Worship and to preach the Gospel.
This collection of "advices" on the behavior of American Quakers was a compilation of guidelines covering every aspect of Quaker life.
The first group of Germans to settle in Pennsylvania arrived in Philadelphia in 1683 from Krefeld, Germany, and included Mennonites and possibly some Dutch Quakers. This Pennsylvania German illustration depicts a familiar 19th century evangelical motif of the narrow gate to Heaven and the broad and seductive road to Hell, where the devil and his minions await the self-satisfied sinner.
Many of the German sects that emigrated to Pennsylvania brought with them "primitive" Christian practices such as footwashing, seen here being practiced by the women of the Moravian Brethren.
Although the Stuart kings of England did not hate the Roman Catholic Church, most of their subjects did, causing Catholics to be harassed and persecuted in England throughout the seventeenth century. The "Apostle to Maryland," Father Andrew White (1579-1656), described the celebration of the first mass upon the arrival of the Ark and the Dove, "We celebrated mass for the first time . Like some of their Protestant counterparts in the colonies, the Jesuits in Maryland assumed the responsibility of converting the native population to Christianity. An ostensorium, also called a monstrance, is used at Catholic communion services to display the consecrated Host. In 1649, Catholics in the Maryland Assembly passed an act stipulating that no Trinitarian Christian "shall from henceforth be any waies troubled, molested, or discountenanced, for, or in respect of his or her religion nor in the free exercise thereof within this Province." Though this act was not as inclusive as similar ones in Rhode Island and Pennsylvania, which brought theists within their purview, it was another in a series of progressive measures taken by early American colonists to emancipate themselves from the European belief in enforced religious uniformity.
Maryland Governour and Council (Proceedings) May 1647- February 1651, including "An Act Concerning Religion," Manuscript volume. In this fanciful recreation Cecil Calvert, the second Lord Baltimore, is showing his 1649 Act Concerning Religion to the ancient Spartan lawgiver, Lycurgus. These artist's recreations of the first free standing Roman Catholic Church in British North America are based on extensive historical and archaeological research, conducted by the staff of Historic St. These religious medals, worn by seventeenth-century Catholic colonists in Maryland, bespeak a society spiritually administered by the Jesuits. Virginia was settled by businessmen--operating through a joint-stock company, the Virginia Company of London--who wanted to get rich.

The Book of Common Prayer, which contains the liturgy used by the Church of England, was compiled during the reign of Edward VI (1547-1553) and revised under Queen Elizabeth I.
The Book of Common-Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments, and other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church, According to the Use of the Church of England . This manuscript is an eighteenth-century copy of the original Virginia Company records, owned by Thomas Jefferson and sold to the Library of Congress as part of Jefferson's library in 1815. Like the other seventeenth-century British colonies, Virginia aspired to convert the native populations.
One of the handicaps faced by the Church of England in Virginia and the other American colonies was its lack of authority to ordain priests.
1660) first ran afoul of Massachusetts authorities for supporting theological dissenter Anne Hutchinson. Jefferson apparently believed that it was no more than an historical accident that Quakers had not been physically punished or even executed in Virginia as they had been in Massachusetts. A shipload of twenty-three Jewish refugees from Dutch Brazil arrived in New Amsterdam (soon to become New York) in 1654. Many scholars today consider Quakers as radical Puritans, because the Quakers carried to extremes many Puritan convictions.
Soon after this portrait was made, Penn became a member of the Society of Friends, one of whose fundamental tenets was the renunciation of force. Oil on canvas Eighteenth-century copy of a seventeenth-century portrait, possibly by Sir Peter Lely. Wood engraving from Ernst von Hesse Wartegg, Nord-Amerika, seine Stadt und Naturwunder, das Land und seine Bewohner in Schilderung.
These advices were periodically issued between 1682 and 1763 by the highest institutional authority in American Quakerism, the Yearly Meeting.
During the early years of German emigration to Pennsylvania, most of the emigrants were members of small sects that shared Quaker principles--Mennonites, Dunkers, Schwenkfelders, Moravians, and some German Baptist groups--and were fleeing religious persecution. Engraving from David Cranz, Kurze, ZuverlA¤ssige Nachricht, von der, unter den Namen der BA¶hmisch-MA¤hrischen BrA?der Bekannt, Kirche Unitas fratrum, Halle: 1757. Driven by "the sacred duty of finding a refuge for his Roman Catholic brethren," George Calvert (1580-1632) obtained a charter from Charles I in 1632 for the territory between Pennsylvania and Virginia.
They were quite successful, owing to men like Father White, a skilled linguist, who translated spiritual exercises into the Piscataway language. Here Calvert is depicted in a long line of civil libertarians, running from the ninth-century Saxon king, Alfred, on Calvert's left through William Penn, in the broad-brimmed hat, to Benjamin Franklin, viewing the proceedings from Heaven in his familiar fur hat.
Mary's City at the site of the home of Garret Van Sweringen, a Dutch Roman Catholic who settled in Maryland in the 1660s. They also wanted the Church to flourish in their colony and kept it well supplied with ministers.
The Virginia Company's instructions to its governors required them to make conversion one of their objectives. Those who defied the Puritans by persistently returning to their jurisdictions risked capital punishment, a penalty imposed on four Quakers between 1659 and 1661. They stretched the sober deportment of the Puritans into a glorification of "plainness." Theologically, they expanded the Puritan concept of a church of individuals regenerated by the Holy Spirit to the idea of the indwelling of the Spirit or the "Light of Christ" in every person. This compilation appears to have been made by the Meeting itself for distribution to local Quaker meetings throughout America.
Penn and his agents encouraged German and European emigration to Pennsylvania by circulating promotional literature touting the economic advantages of Pennsylvania as well as the religious liberty available there. This Maryland charter offered no guidelines on religion, although it was assumed that Catholics would not be molested in the new colony. Heinsch, 1655, in Mathias Tanner, Societas Jesu apostolorum imitatrix Prague: Typis Universitatis Carolo-Ferdinandeae, 1694.
1658-1663), first Clerk of Court of Charles County, Maryland, or by one of his descendants. Here is a page from the large 1662 edition and the same page as it appears in a 1730 shorthand edition, with the order slightly altered. The most famous early convert was Pocahontas, daughter of Powhatan, head of the Powhatan Confederacy.

Reflecting on the seventeenth century's intolerance, Thomas Jefferson was unwilling to concede to Virginians any moral superiority to the Puritans. Converted to Quakerism in England in the 1650s, Dyer returned to New England and was three times arrested and banished from Massachusetts for spreading Quaker principles. The appearance in Pennsylvania of so many different religious groups made the province resemble "an asylum for banished sects." Beginning in the 1720s significantly larger numbers of German Lutherans and German Reformed arrived in Pennsylvania. The creator of the shorthand system, James Weston, advised his readers that he had omitted the "Forms of Matrimony . Pocahontas was baptized by the Reverend Alexander Whitaker before her marriage to John Rolfe in 1614. Beginning in 1659 Virginia enacted anti-Quaker laws, including the death penalty for refractory Quakers. Small numbers of Jews continued to come to the British North American colonies, settling mainly in the seaport towns. Quakers were severely persecuted in England for daring to deviate so far from orthodox Christianity.
1619) considered himself engaged in "religious warfare" and expected no reward "but from him on whose vineyard I labor whose church with greedy appetite I desire to erect." During Dale's tenure, religion was spread at the point of the sword. Among the pious young Americans who made the perilous journey was Thomas Read, a Virginian, who was ordained by Richard Terrick, Bishop of London, on September 21, 1773, at which time he also received a license to preach in Maryland.
By the time of the Declaration of Independence, Jewish settlers had established several thriving synagogues.
By 1680, 10,000 Quakers had been imprisoned in England, and 243 had died of torture and mistreatment in the King's jails. Among the passengers were two Catholic priests who had been forced to board surreptitiously to escape the reach of English anti-Catholic laws. After we had completed the sacrifice, we took upon our shoulders a great cross that we had hewn out of a tree, and advancing in order to the appointed place .
Read's ecclesiastical credentials, as well as a special, protective carrying case, which has his name etched on its front, are seen here. This reign of terror impelled Friends to seek refuge in New Jersey in the 1670s, where they soon became well entrenched. Upon landing in Maryland the Catholics, led spiritually by the Jesuits, were transported by a profound reverence, similar to that experienced by John Winthrop and the Puritans when they set foot in New England. In 1681, when Quaker leader William Penn (1644-1718) parlayed a debt owed by Charles II to his father into a charter for the province of Pennsylvania, many more Quakers were prepared to grasp the opportunity to live in a land where they might worship freely. Catholic fortunes fluctuated in Maryland during the rest of the seventeenth century, as they became an increasingly smaller minority of the population. When a popular assembly, the House of Burgesses, was established in 1619, it enacted religious laws that "were a match for anything to be found in the Puritan societies." Unlike the colonies to the north, where the Church of England was regarded with suspicion throughout the colonial period, Virginia was a bastion of Anglicanism. After the Glorious Revolution of 1689 in England, the Church of England was legally established in the colony and English penal laws, which deprived Catholics of the right to vote, hold office, or worship publicly, were enforced. Her House of Burgesses passed a law in 1632 requiring that there be a "uniformitie throughout this colony both in substance and circumstance to the cannons and constitution of the Church of England." The church in Virginia faced problems unlike those confronted in other colonies--such as enormous parishes, some sixty miles long, and the inability to ordain ministers locally--but it continued to command the loyalty and affection of the colonists. Although the Quakers may have resembled the Puritans in some religious beliefs and practices, they differed with them over the necessity of compelling religious uniformity in society.
Until the American Revolution, Catholics in Maryland were dissenters in their own country, living at times under a state of siege, but keeping loyal to their convictions, a faithful remnant, awaiting better times. The palm trees depicted in the background reveal the artist's ignorance of conditions in Maryland. Francis Xavier on the other; a sacred site at Zaragosa, Spain, where the faithful believed that the Virgin appeared to the apostle St.
In 1656, a prospective minister was advised that he "would find an assisting, an embracing, a comforting people" in the colony.

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