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Synagogue Visits In Istanbul.Jewish community have lived in the geographic area of Asia Minor for more than 2,400 years. A large body of experimental data now exists for (e,2e) differential cross section (DCS) ionisation studies in which the scattered and ejected electrons are detected with the same energy and at the 'same' asymptotic scattering angles with respect to the incident electron direction.
A detection plane spanned by the scattered and ejected electron momenta ka and kb is initially defined.
The energy region from around 3eV to 100eV excess energy is defined here as the 'intermediate energy' region.
Studies at lower energies are considered to lie in the threshold region where correlation effects between outgoing electrons dominate the reaction. Differential cross section studies at energies in excess of 100eV are predominantly governed by single binary collisions between the incident and ejected electrons, the core playing a decreasing role in the reaction as this energy increases. Common to all these models is the importance of correlations between the outgoing electrons brought about through electrostatic coupling as they emerge from the reaction zone (see figure 2). As the excess energy above ionisation decreases, the outgoing electrons have more time to mutually interact and so the probability that they will emerge asymptotically at a mutual angle of p radians increases, whereas their 'memory' of the incident electron direction correspondingly decreases. In this page a model-independent parameterisation of the ionisation differential cross section is discussed. The parameterisation is in terms of a complete orthogonal set of irreducible tensorial angular functions which define correlation between any three vectors in space. This parameterisation was first proposed for the (e,2e) process by Klar and Fehr (1992), and has a long and distinguished history in the field of nuclear particle interactions proceeding through sharply defined states, where the analysis gives information about the angular momenta carried into and out of the reaction. By contrast, in the (e,2e) reaction the intermediate state is not normally sharply defined, and so the parameters do not directly reveal the angular momenta associated with the reaction, but rather indicate the degree of correlation between ingoing and outgoing electrons.
The (e,2e) differential cross section is parameterised as a coherent superposition of partial waves up to L = 2 defining scattering in the reaction zone which is modulated by a Gaussian function modelling correlations between the outgoing electrons. There is no evidence of the complex structure discussed above for the intermediate energy regime.
Comprehensive experimental data exists for ionisation of helium in the intermediate energy region over a very wide range of scattering geometries.
In these results the DCS is assumed to be zero when x = 0 and x = p since the probability of detection of two electrons of equal energy emerging in the same direction is very small.
At 1eV excess energy a single structure is observed due to strong outgoing electron correlation, as previously noted. At 3eV and 5eV above ionisation both a forward and a backward structure start evolving from the central peak at low incident electron angles y, whereas at higher angles y the DCS is still approximately Gaussian.
Backward scattering, probably dominated by elastic scattering of the incoming electron from the atom into the backward direction in the detection plane followed by a binary collision with a valence electron, is the dominant contribution to the overall DCS structure. At the higher excess energy (30 - 50eV) forward scattering starts to dominate, reflecting the importance of single binary collisions.
Only the central peak is attainable through a single collision process and there will additionally be significant contributions to this peak through outgoing electron correlations at the lower energies.
Indistinguishability of the outgoing electrons requires the DCS at (y,x) to be equated to that at (y, 2mp-x) where m is an integer.
Reflection symmetry is necessary in the detection plane since no preferred direction is defined with respect to this plane, and hence s(y,x) = s(-y,x).
When electron spin is not considered the (e,2e) differential cross section is a function only of the momenta of the ingoing and outgoing electrons. The choice of angular functions Ilalbl0 required to characterise the (e,2e) DCS is restricted by the symmetries inherent in the ionisation process. Here the set for which la = lb when l0 is even and (la,A l0)A < lb when l0 is odd is chosen.
It is clear that plotting the absolute magnitude of the I110 function as a radial vector when scanning over all possible values of theta and phi produces a 3-D surface which represents the function.
Since the magnitude can be positive as well as negative, it is important to represent this facet when describing the function in this way. It is necessary to consider the magnitude and sign of the functions as the (e,2e) Differential Cross Section is parameterised as a linear sum of the angular functions (see equation 6), and so for various values of theta and phi the functions can cancel each other to allow zeroes in the cross section. The complete set of 3-D images of the 44 Angular Functions Ila,lb,l0 required to parameterise the symmetric (e,2e) Differential Cross Section over the energy range from 1eV to 50eV above the Helium ionisation threshold have been generated. The summation is over the experimental data points i each with an associated weight wi evaluated from the uncertainty in the data. This linear fitting was fast and reliable, yielding excellent starting parameters for the second non-linear fitting method. A Simplex method was used to minimise the c2 function by adjusting the Blalbl0 parameters (see figure 7). Any trial for which the fitting function did not obey the assumptions was rejected and the Simplex routine was reset to explore alternative regions of the c2 surface.
This method converges far more slowly than the linear fitting method but requires no inferred data. The maximum significant values of la, lb and l0 were established using a statistical F-test. At 1eV excess energy only l0 = 0 to 4 contribute, and the la and lb terms are all of the same sign, reinforcing each other in each l0 manifold. The relative magnitudes of the terms in each manifold combine to produce the lobe structure at the mutual angle of p radians. As the energy increases this regular pattern quickly disappears as the forward and backward lobes evolve from the central 'Gaussian' profile.
Higher order l0 correlation terms become significant as the intermediate energy region is entered, indicating an increasing contribution of higher order partial waves to the DCS. Additionally the la and lb terms start to compete in magnitude and sign to produce the more complex structures observed. At excess energies above about 30eV the parameters tend to stabilise in sign and vary smoothly with energy. The maximum significant number of la and lb terms in each l0 manifold also decreases as the energy increases, indicating that the number of partial waves required in the outgoing channel decreases with increasing energy.
Figure 9 shows 3-D representations of the (e,2e) differential cross sections at each energy from 1eV to 50eV excess energy as obtained from fitting the data to the parameterisation. The 3-D surface is generated from a vector whose length is given by the magnitude of the differential cross section as the surface is generated throughout space for all angles (q,f). The backward scattering region is towards the viewer, whereas the forward scattering region is away from the viewer. The results shown in figure 9 show 3 dimensional representations of the (e,2e) differential cross sections derived from the parameterisation at the energies where experiments were conducted.
It is useful to establish a technique which allows interpolation between these results at the eight discrete excess energies, to enable the differential cross section to be estimated as a function of the three angular and one energy variables over the complete range of energies from threshold to 50eV excess energy. The (e,2e) differential cross section s is then projected onto a four dimensional space, whose axes are defined by the independant variables (s, q,f & Eexc). As this cannot be visualised as a single projection on these pages, it is instructive to map one of these variables onto the time co-ordinate.
In this case, we choose the excess energy to be varied in time, whereas the other 3 variables are mapped onto conventional 3-dimensional co-ordinate space, as has been done in the previous figures.a€?Hence, once the DCS is parameterised as a function of energy as well as a function of the scattering angle, this parameterisation can be used to derive 3-D images at discrete energy intervals. These images can then be projected as a moving film, where the time from the start to the end of the film depicts the energy change from 1eV to 50eV excess energy. A cubic spline is interpolated through the parameters as a function of the ratio of excess energy to the ionisation energy of 24.6eV.
These are fitted using a ninth order polynomial fit which closely emulates the cubic spline through the data.
Details of these cubic spline fits to the Blalbl0 parameters can be found by accessing the appropriate interlink page splinefit.htm.
The b-parameters which define the normalised DCS as a function of energy and angle can be downloaded here as a text file. Although the b-parameters do not have a direct physical meaning, they allow the normalised DCS surfaces to be generated at any energy from 1eV to 50eV as has been discussed. 100 of these images have been generated at 0.5eV intervals, and compressed into a Quicktime movie.
Note that these files are around 3MB in size, so may take some time to download should internet access be busy. Additionally the evolution of the 44.6eV DCS as successive angular functions are added together can be seen! In 2010, about one in three adults (32.4%) who had seen a physician or other health professional in the past 12 months had been advised to begin or continue to do exercise or physical activity. Between 2000 and 2010, the percentage of adults receiving advice to exercise increased by about 10 percentage points. Receiving advice to exercise increased for adults with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes. Adults who were overweight or obese had the largest percentage point increases over the decade 2000a€“2010 in being advised to exercise. Research points to the benefits of physical activity for reducing the risk of chronic health conditions (1a€“4). In 2010, about one in three adults who had seen a physician or other health professional in the past year had been advised to begin or continue to do exercise or physical activity (Figure 1). NOTES: Denominator is adults aged 18 and over who had seen a physician or other health professional in the past 12 months. The percentage of adults who had been advised by their physician to exercise increased with age from the youngest (18a€“24 years) through the middle (45a€“64 years) and upper middle (65a€“74 years) age groups and then declined (Figure 2).
Hispanic adults had the largest percentage point increase over the decade 2000a€“2010 in receiving a recommendation to exercise.
Between 2000 and 2010, receipt of advice from a physician to do exercise or physical activity increased for adults with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes (Figure 4). Adults with diabetes were more likely than those with hypertension, cardiovascular disease, or cancer to have been advised to exercise. In 2010, more than one-half of adults with diabetes were advised to exercise, compared with just over one-third of adults with cancer.
Adults who were obese were about twice as likely as healthy weight adults to have been advised by a physician or other health professional to do exercise or physical activity (Figure 5). The percentage of adults who had been advised to exercise increased in each BMI category between 2000 and 2010, although the percentage point increase was largest for adults who were obese (BMI 30.0 or above).
NOTES: Denominator is adults aged 18 years and over who had seen a physician or other health professional in the past 12 months.
The Healthy People 2020 objectives for physical activity include two objectives for increasing the proportion of physician office visits that include counseling or education related to exercise (visit the Healthy People website).

In 2010, about one in three adults (32.4%) who had seen a physician or other health professional in the past year had been advised to exercise or do other physical activity, which reflects an upward trend since 2000, moving in the direction of meeting Healthy People 2020 goals. Although increases were noted for every population and health condition group studied, these increases were larger for some groups than others. Trends over the past 10 years suggest that the medical community is increasing its efforts to recommend participation in exercise and other physical activity that research has shown to be associated with substantial health benefits. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data are collected continuously throughout the year for the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) by interviewers from the U.S. NHIS is designed to yield a sample representative of the civilian noninstitutionalized population of the United States, and the present analysis used weights to produce national estimates. All material appearing in this report is in the public domain and may be reproduced or copied without permission; citation as to source, however, is appreciated. Worksheet #3 Or Answers #3 Match the Animal Anagrams #1Draw a line from each animal word to its anagram. Work Bank Printouts: Animal Word AnagramsThis is a word bank of anagrams of animal words. It is quite intriguing that many a great life is remembered in conjunction with extremely short expressions. For instance, when you think of Einstein, it is difficult not to think of the equation E = mc2.
This number, or rather the beauty of the number, was expounded by Srinivasa Ramanujan Iyengar, considered by many as one of the greatest mathematicians of all times and certainly India’s greatest in centuries. Simply put, 1729 is the smallest number that can be expressed as the sum of two different cubes in two different ways. Sounds very believable, considering that Ramanujan explained the beauty of 1729 when Hardy was visiting an ill Ramanujan.
Once, in the taxi from London, Hardy (while visiting an ailing Ramanujan) noticed its number, 1729.
Kanigel did a wonderful job in telling us almost everything we wanted to know about the man Ramanujan.
April was declared as the Mathematics Awareness month, and the film comes at the right time to bring into focus a subject that is revered and feared in equal measures.
Ramanujan, once a clerk at Port Trust Office at Madras (now Chennai), didn’t have enough papers to write the enormous amount of theorems and equations he came up with. The astounding part of the mathematical side of Ramanujan’s story is that he didn’t know what a proof was.
If Ramanujan didn’t know what a proof was, evidently there was no way he knew his theorems were correct. Ramanujan’s extremely religious mother firmly believed Ramanujan himself was the goddess’ gift to her. While Ramanujan’s contribution to mathematics transcends sub-topics, his first love was numbers. There’s one more interesting anecdote that involves P C Mahalanobis, the celebrated Bengali who founded the Indian Statistical Institute. If there were a hall of fame of mathematicians, it would be difficult to tell where Ramanujan would stand. True, there have been great mathematicians before and since, but the very background of Ramanujan, steeped as it is in the lack of intensive formal training in mathematics, makes every judgment about him prone to mistakes. Ramanujan, who was built quite heavily in his youth, often joked that anytime he fought a boy in school, all he had to do was to throw himself on the boy, effectively crushing the opponent. On the occasion of National Statistical Day, Haryana government has launched statistical software, e-vishleshak, to make their schemes more effective.
Mayank Batavia is a teacher and an edupreneur with interest in numbers, language and the intersection of society and technology. In his latest book, a€?The Search for the Man in the Iron Mask: A Historical Detective Storya€?, he presents his thorough investigation supported by a large number of documents.
Sonnino says that serious historians have long ago discounted the legend popularized by Voltaire and Dumas that the mysterious figure was the twin brother of Louis XIV.
The historians are also convinced that the man was a valet, but what they have not been able to figure out is whose valet he was and for what possible reason he was held under tight security for over 30 years, according to Sonnino. Dauger was the valet of the treasurer of the late Cardinal Mazarin, who had been principal minister of France during Louis XIVa€™s childhood and youth, and who had accumulated a huge fortune, some of which he even passed on to the king himself, the researcher says. The Search for the Man in the Iron Mask triumphantly solves an enduring puzzle that has stumped historians for centuries and seduced novelists and filmmakers to this day. Asked why the prisonera€™s identity has remained obscured for so long, Sonnino replied that this is the problem with all history.
Controversial Artifacts No One Wants To Examine Thoroughly: Is There Something We Are Afraid Of Discovering?
Puzzling Unexplained Disappearances In Our National Parks Can Missing 411 Shed More Light On The Story?
In the later Middle Ages, Ashkenazi Jews migrating to the Byzantine Empire and Ottoman Empire supplemented the original Jewish population of Asia Minor. These experiments have recently been carried out principally by two groups at Kaiserslautern group and at Manchester (see references for examples). This region is now successfully modelled to a large degree using the Born approximation and its associated derivatives. Although theoretical interest in this region is increasing, no theory adequately explains the experimental data accumulated so far.
The Paris coplanar and Manchester Perpendicular plane results at an excess energy of 1eV ionising Helium as the target. In the experimentally inaccessible regions centred at x = 0A° and x = p the DCS is constrained to be positive and to have no points of inflection, and at the angles x = 0A° and p themselves the DCS is put equal to zero. The choice of la, lb and l0 used to define the subset is arbitrary within the constraint that the angular functions must be unrelated. These images are established by plotting the magnitude of the angular function against the angles theta and phi that are defined in the function. These artificially generated points were given low weighting to minimise the constraints placed upon the fit.
Consideration of the data sets at all excess energies established that 44 angular functions up to la, lb = 7 and l0 = 6 gave the best overall fit to the data. The fitting parameters can be downloaded as a TAB deliminated text file by linking to the file Blalbl0.dat. Further information can be obtained by linking from the figures to the appropriate WWW page. 3-D representations of the DCS calculated from the fitted parameters Blalbl0 for the 8 data sets from 1eV to 50eV.
The 3D Quicktime movie can be downloaded at the end of this page by linking to the appropriate file. Engaging in regular physical activity can reduce medication dependence, help maintain functional independence, and improve the quality of life for older adults (5,6). Physician counseling for exercise has not previously been tracked by the Healthy People initiative. The increase in the percentage of adults receiving exercise advice is particularly noteworthy for the oldest age group. Adults were classified as having the condition based on separate questions asking if they had ever been told by a physician or other health professional that they had the condition.
Patricia Barnes is with the Office of Research and Methodology; Charlotte Schoenborn is with the Division of Health Interview Statistics. Physical activity in the prevention of the most frequent chronic diseases: An analysis of the recent evidence.
Ageing and physical activity: Evidence to develop exercise recommendations for older adults.
Design and estimation for the National Health Interview Survey, 1995a€“2004 [PDF - 299 KB].
Trends in adults receiving a recommendation for exercise or other physical activity from a physician or other health professional. As a bonus, site members have access to a banner-ad-free version of the site, with print-friendly pages.Click here to learn more. The words are: whale, bat, fish, bird, rodent, monkey, snake, frog, spider, insect, turtle, worm. The words are lion, zebra, hippo, rhino, eland, gazelle, cheetah, ostrich, giraffe, monkey. An anagram is a word or phrase that is made by rearranging the letters of another word or phrase. When you see a bitten apple, you think of Steve Jobs (or Alan Turing, depending on what you know of this computer scientist).
Though 1729 is not exactly the mathematician’s most important contribution, it certainly is one of the most enduring in public memory. Here’s the anecdote as it appears in Robert Kanigel’s 1991 book, The Man who knew Infinity: A Life of the Genius Ramanujan. Those ghastly little statements that appear as commandments in high-school geometry textbooks. Not unlike Coleridge composing Kubla Khan in an opium-induced stupor, except that Ramanujan wasn’t under the effect of drugs. Ramanujan, hardboiled in the Tambrahm traditions of the day, was rigorously religious, cooking his own meal and all that during his entire stay in England.
Whether it is the explanation of the beauty of how any number multiplied by 9 produces a result whose digits, when added till the end, will result in a 9 (remember the math teacher explaining this in Stanley ka Dabba) to zeta functions to Ramanujan primes (I’m still trying to figure those out), Ramanujan’s love for number is all over. Then he yelled the question itself to Ramanujan, who was stirring vegetables in the kitchen. Now, after almost three decades of meticulous digging, Paul Sonnino, a professor ofA historyA at UC Santa Barbara, claims he has figured the 350-year-old mystery out. They are pretty much in agreement that his name was Eustache Dauger, that he only occasionally wore the mask, and that when he did wear a mask, it was velvet, not iron. Who was the man who was rumored to have been kept in prison and treated royally during much of the reign of Louis XIV while being forced to wear an iron mask? The Wannier model parameterisation transformed to the (y,x) geometry is shown as a fit to the data. The function can either be positive or negative depending upon the value of theta and phi, and the sign is therefore represented by two colours, PURPLE indicating a positive magnitude and RED representing a negative magnitude.
The example here shows the method for finding the minimum of a 3-D Gaussian function of the form z = - exp(-x^2 + y^2).

Higher resolution images together with a downloadable EPS file for each of the data sets can be obtained by linking to either of the above low resolution images. Physicians and other health professionals can be influential sources of health information, and exercise counseling by primary care physicians has been shown to increase patients' participation in physical activity (6a€“9).
The present report looks at this emerging health issue from the vantage point of adults in the general population who had seen a physician or other health professional in the past 12 months and had been advised to begin or continue to do exercise or other physical activity.
NHIS is a household-based survey collecting information about the health and health care of the U.S. Point estimates and estimates of corresponding variances for this analysis were calculated using SUDAAN software (14) to account for the complex sample design of NHIS. When you hear “You too?” you think of either the bard (the bard, mind you) or the ruler he wrote about. So in 2 times 2 times 2 equal 8, you find the cube of 2 is 8.) 1729 is the sum of the cubes of 10 and 9 (1000 and 729 respectively) as well as the sum of the cubes of 12 and 1 (1728 and 1 respectively). The research couldn’t have been easy by any standards — Ramanujan died 96 years ago this day (well, almost. His formal education did not exceed matriculation (though back then, it wasn’t that bad), but each of his equations and theorems continue to confound and charm post-doctorates students alike the world over even today. Practically everything that he produced in mathematics, it was by the blessings of the family goddess Namagiri (a form of Goddess Lakshmi) of Namakkal.
In a flash, not only did Ramanujan yell back a solution, but also solutions, and also a general method of solving such questions. On the other hand, E T Bell, the writer of the celebrated, canonical work Men of Mathematics, didn’t seem to rate Ramanujan high enough and didn’t accord him more than a single line of comparison.
Till date, his papers and diaries remain a source of joy, discovery, suspense, and great learning to the students and scholars of mathematics even today. Despite emigration during the 20th century, modern day Turkey continues a Jewish population.The present size of the Jewish Community is estimated at around 26,000 according to the Jewish Virtual Library. This electron, and the incident electron that has lost almost all of its energy in the reaction have similar energies and therefore as they emerge from the reaction zone feel the Coulombic influence of each other and the ion core following ionisation. The scattering is more complex than in the threshold region, since the incident electron can penetrate deeper into the neutral target electron cloud, and therefore there is more complex interactions between the electrons and the core. The Simplex, in this case a 2-D triangle whose vertices are defined by points on the surface, proceeds by reflection, contraction, expansion or shrinking along the surface as shown.
Across the chronic health conditions studied, adults with diabetes were the most likely, and those with cancer were the least likely, to have been advised by their physician to exercise.
Hypertension is defined as having been told they had high blood pressure two or more times. To say that Mahalanobis was aghast at the scale of the mathematician’s genius would be an understatement. Like every other serious scholar, intrepid historian Paul Sonnino discounts this theory, instead taking the reader along on his adventures to uncover the truth behind this ancient enigma. The low relative velocity of the electrons allows them to mutually interact for sufficient time to tightly correlate their respective asymptotic directions.
There is now a finite probability of exchange, capture, ingoing and outgoing correlations between all charged particles in the reaction.
Over time, estimates of the percentage of adults being advised to exercise could be influenced by major changes in the characteristics of adults seeing a health professional. An upward trend of 8a€“10 percentage points, however, was seen among adults with each of the chronic diseases examined. Interviews are generally conducted in respondents' homes, although some interviews may be completed over the telephone. All estimates shown in this report meet NCHS standards of reliability (relative standard error less than or equal to 30%). Exploring the hidden, squalid side of the lavish court of France, the author uncovers the full spectrum of French society, from humble servants to wealthy merchants to kings and queens.
Rav Izak Haleva, is assisted by a religious Council made up of a Rosh Bet Din and three Hahamim. This leads to both forward and backward scattering possibilities, depending upon the complexity of these interactions. Adults who were overweight or obese saw among the largest increases over the decade in the percentage receiving a physician's advice to exercise.
Differences between percentages were evaluated using two-sided significance tests at the 0.05 level.
All had self-interested reasons to hold their secrets close until one humble valet named Eustache Dauger was arrested and jailed for decades, simply because he knew too much and opened his mouth at the wrong time.
The percentage of healthy weight adults receiving exercise advice also increased over the decade, but to a lesser extent.
In addition, special topic supplements collect information on topics of current public health interest in some years.
The words are antelope, buffalo, kangaroo, dinosaur, centipede, iguana, cardinal, caribou, mackerel, oriole.
Presenting his dramatic solution to the mystery, Sonnino convincingly shows that no one will be able to tell the story of the man in the iron mask without taking into account the staggering array of evidence he has uncovered over the course of decades. The estimates presented in this report are based on an identical question asked of persons aged 18 and over in the NHIS adult cancer supplements in 2000, 2005, and 2010, cosponsored by the National Cancer Institute and CDC in each of these years. Or go to the answers. Spiral Animal Anagram Picture Puzzle Worksheet #3Solve the animal anagram clues then put the words in the spiral puzzle. A bronze column found in Ankara confirms the rights the Emperor Augustos accorded the Jews of Asia Minor.Ottoman Period,1299 - 1492 As the Ottoman Empire expands more and more Jewish populations , mostly Romaniot ( Greek-speaking Jews who lived in the Roman Empire ) are incorporated into Ottoman lands.
Lack of comment regarding the difference between any two statistics does not necessarily suggest that the difference was tested and found to be not significant. They are officially recognised as dhimmi,a protected non-Muslim community.1326 The Ottoman capture Bursa and make in their capital. For further information about NHIS, including questionnaire content, visit the NHIS website. The words are: chicken, duck, penguin, flamingo, crow, ostrich, turkey, eagle, parrot, pelican.
The farm animals and babies are: sheep, lamb, cat, kitten, dog, puppy, pig, piglet, cow, calf, goose, gosling, horse, foal, duck, duckling, goat, kid, chicken, chick. Indeed, Turkey could serve as a model to be emulated by any nation which finds refugees from any of the four corners of the world standing at its doors.In 1992, Turkish Jewry celebrated not only the anniversary of this gracious welcome, but also the remarkable spirit of tolerance and acceptance which has characterized the whole Jewish experience in Turkey.
The events being planned - symposiums, conferences, concerts, exhibitions, films and books, restoration of ancient Synagogues etc - commemorated the longevity and prosperity of the Jewish community.
As a whole, the celebration aimed to demonstrate the richness and security of life Jews have found in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic over seven centuries, and showed that indeed it is not impossible for people of different creeds to live together peacefully under one flag.,A History Predating 1492 The history of the Jews in Anatolia started many centuries before the migration of Sephardic Jews. When the Ottomans captured Bursa in 1326 and made it their capital, they found a Jewish community oppressed under Byzantine rule. Sultan Orhan gave them permission to build the Etz ha-Hayyim (Tree of Life) synagogue which remained in service until nineteen forties.Early in the 14th century, when the Ottomans had established their capital at Edirne, Jews from Europe, including Karaites, migrated there.
In fact, from the early 15th century on, the Ottomans actively encouraged Jewish immigration. Double continuum wave functions and threshold law for electron atom ionisation, Physics Review A.
In 1537 the Jews expelled from Apulia (Italy) after the city fell under Papal control, in 1542 those expelled from Bohemia by King Ferdinand found a safe haven in the Ottoman Empire.
Half a century later, 8070 Jewish houses were listed in the city.The Life of Ottoman Jews For 300 years following the expulsion, the prosperity and creativity of the Ottoman Jews rivalled that of the Golden Age of Spain.
The words are: hamster, canary, parrot, angelfish, cat, rabbit, goldfish, turtle, pony, dog. Another Portuguese Marrano, Alvaro Mendes, was named Duke of Mytylene in return of his diplomatic services to the Sultan.Salamon ben Nathan Eskenazi arranged the first diplomatic ties with the British Empire. As a result, leadership of the community began to shift away from the religious figure to secular forces.,,World War I brought to an end the glory of the Ottoman Empire. In 1926, on the eve of Turkey's adoption of the Swiss Civil Code, the Jewish Community renounced its minority status on personal rights.During the tragic days of World War II, Turkey managed to maintain its neutrality.
As early as 1933 Ataturk invited numbers of prominent German Jewish professors to flee Nazi Germany and settle in Turkey.
Before and during the war years, these scholars contributed a great deal to the development of the Turkish university system. During World War II Turkey served as a safe passage for many Jews fleeing the horrors of the Nazism. While the Jewish communities of Greece were wiped out almost completely by Hitler, the Turkish Jews remained secure.
The vast majority live in Istanbul, with a community of about 2.500 in Izmir and other smaller groups located in Adana, Ankara, Antakya, Bursa, Canakkale, Kirklareli etc. There are about 100 Karaites, an independent group who does not accept the authority of the Chief Rabbi.Turkish Jews are legally represented, as they have been for many centuries, by the Hahambasi, the Chief Rabbi.
Fifty Lay Counsellors look after the secular affairs of the Community and an Executive Committee of fourteen runs the daily matters. Representatives of Jewish foundations and institutions meet four times a year as a so-called ??think tank?? Some of them are very old, especially Ahrida Synagogue in the Balat area, which dates from middle15th century. The 15th and 16th century Haskoy and Kuzguncuk cemeteries in Istanbul are still in use today.,??The Museum of Turkish Jews?? Additionally, the Community maintains in Istanbul a school complex including elementary and secondary schools for around 700 students. Turkish is the language of instruction, and Hebrew is taught 3 to 5 hours a week.,While younger Jews speak Turkish as their native language, the over-70-years-old generation is more at home speaking in French or Judeo-Spanish (Ladino). A bronze column found in Ankara confirms the rights the Emperor Augustus accorded the Jews of Asia Minor.Jewish communities in Anatolia flourished and continued to prosper through the Turkish conquest. Graetz, History of the JewsJewish communities in Anatolia flourished and continued to prosper through the Turkish conquest.

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