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While no elements have been found in space that aren't also present on Earth, there are chemical compounds that are unique to other planets, meteorites and found in the space between the stars. I’m often asked by students in my community education astronomy classes whether any new elements have been found in outer space unknown on Earth. The two most common elements are hydrogen and helium, numbers 1 and 2 in the periodic table; together they make up 98% of all the visible matter in the universe. When I was in high school studying chemistry, the periodic table of elements ended at Lawrencium (103). Artist’s concept of the first stars in the Universe turning on some 200 million years after the Big Bang. When the stars exploded as supernovae, not only were these brand new elements blasted into space, but the enormous heat and pressure during the blast built even heavier elements like gold, copper, mercury and lead. The 2% of star-made elements, which include carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and silicon among others, went to build the planets and later became essential for life. A selection of molecules (chemical compounds) including water found in the Orion Nebula detected by the Herschel Space Telescope. Astronomers have found about 220 compounds or molecules in outer space many of them with siblings on Earth but some alien. Helium, the gas that floats our balloons, was first discovered in the spectrum of the sun by French astronomer Pierre Janssen in during a solar eclipse in 1868. So, Earth is the location in the Universe where you’ll find more exotic elements than anywhere else. I'm a long-time amateur astronomer and member of the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO). I don’t read King as proposing exclusivity, just pointing out how exciting and complicated terrestrials inhabited by complex multicellular organisms are.
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Isotopic and ionic symbols are based on these atomic symbols with numbers and signs added to show mass number, charge, and sometimes atomic number.
Recall that the atomic number determines the element, so giving the symbol for the element makes it unnecessary to show the atomic number, but sometimes it is convenient to do so anyway.A  For this lesson, when you work on the practice problems or your problem set to turn in, you should show the atomic number when you write the isotopic symbols. Mass numbers, as we have indicated before, are not the actual mass of the atom, but they are close.

Since this superscript is not the number of neutrons, but the mass number (the number of neutrons plus protons), you determine the number of neutrons by subtracting the atomic number (the number of protons) from the mass number.
The number of protons (the atomic number) is the same for all atoms of a given element, and can be found on any periodic table.A  All beryllium atoms, for example, have 4 protons. Had these been symbols for charged ions, the charge would have been included in the usual location a€“ as a superscript following the symbol. Exercise 12 in your workbook will give you some practice writing and interpreting symbols for atoms, ions, and isotopes.A  Be sure and complete this exercise before you move on.
Questions and Answers - How do I find the number of protons, electrons and neutrons that are in an atom of an element? The answer to the question is no – nature uses the same 98 natural elements to fashion everything from the familiar stars and planets to those in the farthest galaxies we can see.
What sets one element apart from another is the number of protons in the nuclei of its atoms.
The remaining 2% includes everything else from lightweight lithium (number 3) all the way up to californium (98), the heaviest natural element found on Earth and in the stars. At present there are 118 elements, the most recent one created in the lab being ununoctium (you-nah-NOC-tee-um).
We don’t have to look far to find them since a few have been delivered right to our doorstep as rocky packages called meteorites.
Astronomers have discovered compounds in the atmospheres of the giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune like silane (silicon-hydrogen), arsine (arsenic-hydrogen) and phosphine (phosphorus-hydrogen) that don’t exist naturally on Earth. Moving beyond the solar system, astronomers see unusual long-chained carbon molecules in space that couldn’t form on Earth because oxygen would tear them apart.
Thanks to human activity and the complicated molecules that wound together to form life, Earth’s the most exotic place in the universe. The only statement in the article that impliedly supports the conclusion of the article, that Earth is the only place in the universe that has so many elements, is that there are 20 artificially created elements on the periodic table. The mass number is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.A  Each proton and each neutron weighs very close to, but not exactly, 1 amu, hence the mass number is close to the actual mass.
Outside of an occasional compound or mineral, Earth is the place where you’ll find more exotic elements than anywhere else in the universe. Any atom with six protons will always be carbon, 79 protons gold, 94 protons plutonium and 1 proton hydrogen. Matter of fact, all the elements beyond 98 are artificial, brought to life in nuclear reactors or in particle accelerator experiments. They and later generations cooked up heavier elements that were later incorporated into the sun and us. It took the first generation of stars, which formed from these basic building blocks, to synthesize more complicated elements like carbon, oxygen, sulfur and the like via nuclear fusion in their cores.
A compound is also a pure substance but consists of two or more chemical elements joined together. Humans have created all three in the lab and put them to good use in various industries including the manufacture of semi-conductors.

However, there is nothing in this article that demonstrates that these artificial elements, or elements with even higher numbers of protons, don’t exist elsewhere in the universe. If it makes things easier, you can select your element from an alphabetical listing.Use the Table of Elements to find your element's atomic number and atomic weight. The proton number is also the element’s atomic number on the periodic table of elements. Although scientists make it in the lab by bombarding berkelium (97) with neutrons, trace amounts of this very rare element are found naturally in rich uranium deposits. Familiar compounds include water (two hydrogens joined to one oxygen) and salt (one sodium and one chlorine). Check out my forthcoming book "Night Sky with the Naked Eye", a guide to the wonders of the night using only your eyes.
With so many positively-charged protons pushing against one another in their nuclei, these elements quickly break apart into simpler ones in a process called radioactive decay.
This tells us that an atom of krypton has 36 protons in its nucleus.The interesting thing here is that every atom of krypton contains 36 protons. I believe this earth is probably the best all around sheltered perfect master piece in our universe. That means that there must be a balance between the positively charged protons and the negatively charged electrons. In our example, an atom of krypton must contain 36 electrons since it contains 36 protons.Electrons are arranged around atoms in a special way. If you need to know how the electrons are arranged around an atom, take a look at the 'How do I read an electron configuration table?' page.An atom can gain or lose electrons, becoming what is known as an ion. Adding or removing electrons from an atom does not change which element it is, just its net charge.For example, removing an electron from an atom of krypton forms a krypton ion, which is usually written as Kr+. The atomic weight is actually a weighted average of all of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element relative to the mass of carbon-12. Happily, to find the mass number, all you need to do is round the atomic weight to the nearest whole number. Putting this into the equation, we get:84 = 36 + (Number of Neutrons)What number added to 36 makes 84?
That is the number of neutrons in an atom of krypton.The interesting thing here is that adding or removing neutrons from an atom does not create a different element. These different versions are called isotopes and most elements are actually a mixture of different isotopes.If you could grab atoms of krypton and count the number of neutrons each one had, you would find that most would have 48, others would have 47, some would have 50, some others would have 46, a few would have 44 and a very few would have 42.

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