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ChazzCreations - City of Alachua The Old Dixie Highway came into Alachua from the Lake City side, then it turned down Main Street and went out, going by Burnett's Lake.
Nestled beneath huge live oaks, magnolias, cedar and hickory trees the town of Alachua is steeped in Florida history dating back to the Spanish explorers who were looking for land for their cattle ranches.
The DeSoto trail winds through the area and can be followed by those interested in Indian and Spanish culture.  You can`t talk about the history of Alachua without mentioning the history of another settlement nearby called Newnansville.
In the early 1800`s Alachua County was a wild land inhabited and controlled by the Seminole Indians. Early in 1826, a post office was established, roads were built, stores were set up and a settled land began to emerge. This area was then called "Dell`s Post Office" in one historical document and in another it is referred to as "Dell`s Court House".
It was named for the Dell brothers who came to the Alachua area during the "Patriot War" (1812-1814). A land grant office just east of the present site of the city was built and offered early settlers land, provided they promised to live on the land, farm and keep the Indians off of it.
It was located about a mile northeast of present day Alachua.The name "Dell`s Post Office" or "Dell`s Court House" was changed by the Territorial Legislature to "Newnansville" in honor of a Patriot War hero, Daniel Newnan and officially made the Alachua County seat.
However, the program was soon enlarged to include disruption of the Socialist Workers Party (1961), the Ku Klux Klan (1964), the Nation of Islam, the Black Panther Party (1967), and the entire New Left socio-political movement, which included antiwar, community, and religious groups (1968). The county`s land area has decreased considerably over the years. "I have a true passion for photography, creavitity, and secrets that photography allows youto explore.
The program was secret until 1971, when an FBI field office in Media, Pennsylvania was burglarized by a group of left-wing radicals calling themselves the Citizens' Commission to Investigate the FBI.
Several dossiers of files were taken and the information passed to news agencies, many of which initially refused to publish the information. Within the year, Director Hoover declared that the centralized COINTELPRO was over, and that all future counterintelligence operations would be handled on a case-by-case basis.[10] Further documents were revealed in the course of separate lawsuits filed against the FBI by NBC correspondent Carl Stern, the Socialist Workers Party, and a number of other groups.
A major investigation was launched in 1976 by the Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities of the United States Senate, commonly referred to as the "Church Committee" for its chairman, Senator Frank Church of Idaho. In 1854 when the railroad replaced the historic trails as the major route of transportation, Alachua was born.
However, millions of pages of documents remain unreleased, and many released documents have been partly, or entirely, redacted.
In 1995, the State of Florida awarded Alachua the honor of "Most Outstanding Rural Community" in the state.
Today Alachua is a prosperous town, which is a wonderful mix of local folks who are direct descendants of the Newnansville founders, and transplanted folks who fell in love with the friendly small town atmosphere. During the Second Seminole War (1835-1842), hundreds of displaced settlers were sheltered there and at Ft.
Indeed, nonviolent organizations and individuals were targeted because the Bureau believed they represented a "potential" for violence -- and nonviolent citizens who were against the war in Vietnam were targeted because they gave "aid and comfort" to violent demonstrators by lending respectability to their cause. The imprecision of the targeting is demonstrated by the inability of the Bureau to define the subjects of the programs. There were eight forts in Alachua County for the protection of whites against the Indians between 1835-1855, but bear in mind that Alachua County was much larger at the time. When the war was over, Newnansville became a commercial center for an area that was beginning to grow as a large number of the refugee settlers stayed and others moved in. The CPUSA program targeted not only Communist Party members but also sponsors of the National Committee to Abolish the House Un-American Activities Committee and civil rights leaders allegedly under Communist influence or deemed to be not sufficiently "anti-Communist". Newnansville and the surrounding area was the most thickly populated section of Alachua County for fifty years. The Socialist Workers Party program included non-SWP sponsors of anti-war demonstrations which were cosponsored by the SWP or the Young Socialist Alliance, its youth group. More than one third of the voters lived in Newnansville in 1857.Newnansville was so much in the main stream it served as the Alachua County seat until 1854 when a railroad was constructed from Fernandina to Cedar Key.
The Black Nationalist program targeted a range of organizations from the Panthers to SNCC to the peaceful Southern Christian Leadership Conference, and included every Black Student Union and many other black student groups.
New Left targets ranged from the SDS to the InterUniversity Committee for Debate on Foreign Policy, from Antioch College ("vanguard of the New Left") to the New Mexico Free University and other "alternate" schools, and from underground newspapers to students' protesting university censorship of a student publication by carrying signs with four-letter words on them. Examples of surveillance, legal and illegal, contained in the Church Committee report:[12] President Roosevelt asked the FBI to put in its files the names of citizens sending telegrams to the White House opposing his "national defense" policy and supporting Col. Land Office located there, along with the Alachua County seat was moved to the new railroad town of Gainesville, located more in the center of present Alachua County. The town of Newnansville was no longer a center for activity and declined for the next 30 years.
President Truman received inside information on a former Roosevelt aide's efforts to influence his appointments, labor union negotiating plans, and the publishing plans of journalists. In 1884 when the Savannah, Florida and Western Railroad bypassed it about a mile to the south, the settlers moved their businesses closer and a new town, Alachua, began as a shipping point.
The Kennedy Administration had the FBI wiretap a Congressional staff member, three executive officials, a lobbyist, and a Washington law firm. President Johnson asked the FBI to conduct "name checks" of his critics and members of the staff of his 1964 opponent, Senator Barry Goldwater.
According to a March 1885 issue of the Alachua Advocate (the forerunner of the Gainesville Sun) "F.E. He also requested purely political intelligence on his critics in the Senate, and received extensive intelligence reports on political activity at the 1964 Democratic Convention from FBI electronic surveillance. Williams is making an effort to get a post office established in his new town at the railroad depot. The COINTELPRO documents disclose numerous cases of the FBI's intentions to stop the mass protest against the Vietnam War. Williams will soon remove his stock of merchandise from Newnansville to his new town," the advocate reported. They planted false media stories and published bogus leaflets and other publications in the name of targeted groups.


Officers of the law gave perjured testimony and presented fabricated evidence as a pretext for false arrests and wrongful imprisonment. On April 12th, 1905 the City of Alachua was officially incorporated and had a population of 526. They discriminatorily enforced tax laws and other government regulations and used conspicuous surveillance, "investigative" interviews, and grand jury subpoenas in an effort to intimidate activists and silence their supporters. In 1914 Alachua had two banks, three hotels, a number of stores ranging from a fruit stand to a large, well-stocked department store, ice plant, electric light plant, waterworks, two cotton gins, two grist mills and bottling works. The FBI specifically developed tactics intended to heighten tension and hostility between various factions the black militancy movement, for example between the Black Panthers, the United Slaves and the Blackstone Rangers.
The cost of water was $1 per month "for the first opening and 25 cents for each additional opening." Alachua Depot 1975By this time in 1915, the new township of Alachua had constructed two church buildings, Baptist and Methodist.
One Black Panther Party leader, Elmer "Geronimo" Pratt, was incarcerated for 27 years before a California Superior Court vacated his murder conviction, ultimately freeing him. The school building stood on the hill "to the northeast of town." At first, there were seven teachers. Appearing before the court, an FBI agent testified that he believed Pratt had been framed because both the FBI and the Los Angeles Police Department knew he had been out of the area at the time the murder occurred. The schools grew and in 1924, the Alachua High School Basketball team upset the sports world with a victory in the state tournament over Duval High of Jacksonville and in nearby Gainesville people were becoming aware that the Florida Gators were being supported by a state-wide audience.
Hoover fired back a memo implying the career ambitions of the agent were directly related to his supplying evidence to support Hoover's view that the BPP was "a violence-prone organization seeking to overthrow the Government by revolutionary means".[32] Hoover was willing to use false claims to attack his political enemies. It still had two banks and its own utilities but all three churches now had their own building. The Government has often undertaken the secret surveillance of citizens on the basis of their political beliefs, even when those beliefs posed no threat of violence or illegal acts on behalf of a hostile foreign power.
The Government, operating primarily through secret informants, but also using other intrusive techniques such as wiretaps, microphone "bugs", surreptitious mail opening, and break-ins, has swept in vast amounts of information about the personal lives, views, and associations of American citizens. Main street originally was a dirt road lined with trees running through the middle of town.
Investigations of groups deemed potentially dangerous -- and even of groups suspected of associating with potentially dangerous organizations -- have continued for decades, despite the fact that those groups did not engage in unlawful activity. Groups and individuals have been harassed and disrupted because of their political views and their lifestyles. Local farmers from miles around would come to town with their families to buy groceries, plow lines, bridles, nails, buckets, cloth, shoes, and any other household needs. Investigations have been based upon vague standards whose breadth made excessive collection inevitable. Early in the morning the wagons would start lining up with the mules pulling into shady places where they were parked for the day. Unsavory and vicious tactics have been employed -- including anonymous attempts to break up marriages, disrupt meetings, ostracize persons from their professions, and provoke target groups into rivalries that might result in deaths. Most of them behind stores or out in the vacant lots behind Fisher`s Hotel (where the famous Ma Barker once spent the night with her boys).
Intelligence agencies have served the political and personal objectives of presidents and other high officials. Everybody came dressed up in clean overalls and starched and ironed dresses, including the children.
While the agencies often committed excesses in response to pressure from high officials in the Executive branch and Congress, they also occasionally initiated improper activities and then concealed them from officials whom they had a duty to inform. Governmental officials -- including those whose principal duty is to enforce the law --have violated or ignored the law over long periods of time and have advocated and defended their right to break the law. The Constitutional system of checks and balances has not adequately controlled intelligence activities. Joseph Edgar Fugate`s grocery store or Dale`s or Joiner`s Drug Store, where they`d buy liniment, Grover`s chill tonic, 666 tablets and ice cream cones. Until recently the Executive branch has neither delineated the scope of permissible activities nor established procedures for supervising intelligence agencies.
Congress has failed to exercise sufficient oversight, seldom questioning the use to which its appropriations were being put. Several authors have suggested the American Indian Movement (AIM) has been a target of such operations. Inside the stores, rice, beans and sugar were scooped up out of barrels into brown paper bags and tied with white string that came down through a hook in the ceiling and up through a hole in the counter. White bacon and cured meat along with beef and pork that was recently butchered, hung behind the counter, and Mr.
Hastings would cut off a pound or two at a time with the same knife he used to cut the yellow wedges of cheese. Canned goods were stacked in rows and people would wait in line for a clerk to take their order. They would fill up their kerosene cans for their lamps and put a raw potato back in the spout.
Many farmers would bring eggs to sell and each would be held over a light bulb to determine if it was good.
In the afternoon visiting would begin again and the streets would be so crowded no one could move around too much. After a few hours of this, they would begin to load up and the children would begin to be packed in between sacks of flour and meal and other good things. One by one they would pull out and drive slowly home in time to feed the livestock before dark. Eddy`s hardware store or to Willie Cauthen`s bigger barber shop by Charlie Smith`s dry cleaners. They`d sit for hours on the benches covered with green oil cloth until it was their turn for a hair cut, shave and sometimes a bath in the large tub in the back of the shop.
They`d come out in a puff of steam and always smell like Palmolive soap and show up at church the next day smelling like a combination of soap, Mennen`s shaving lotion and Three Roses talcum powder.


Retrieved 2008-06-23.A ^ a b "Supplementary Detailed Staff Reports on Intelligence Activities and the Rights of Americans". One of the popular sites on Sunday afternoon`s was Burnett`s Lake, which got it`s name from a Mayor of Gainesville, Samuel W.
The wagons didn`t stop suddenly, but rather dwindled down to a trickle and were gradually replaced by the Model T Ford.
The farmers still came to town to buy supplies but now most of them now drove a Model T pick-up. Later the Model T was replaced by the Model A and in 1932 everyone went to Enneis Motor Company to see the brand new Ford with the new V8 engine, the rumored choice for bootleggers. Banks began to fail and long lines formed, and when some banks weren`t able to produce the money people had in checking and savings accounts, they closed their doors, leaving people in financial disarray.
However, some banks withstood the runs and The First National Bank of Alachua was one of them. People coming out of the bank were asked how much money remained, and their assurances that there was plenty left helped return the confidence of those who had withdrawn their funds and they returned to redeposit their money.
Watermelons were being grown in increasing number and fresh corn, cucumbers, beans, and squash were being shipped to northern markets.
Therefore, they would kill the hogs across the street (which was not in the city limits at the time). Although the Depression hurt everyone, there always seemed to be enough to eat and the farmers brought produce into town and shared with those less fortunate. According to one article, you could always tell who had a good year in cucumbers or tobacco. Special Agent Gregg York: "We expected about twenty Panthers to be in the apartment when the police raided the place. Most of the old buildings in town survived though the old oaks that lined the street were cut down because of old age or to make room for "progress."  Bill Ennis moved to Alachua in 1923 and helped his father open Ennis Motor Company. The streets were Imed with large oaks and US 441 ran straight through town turning at the south end to go out by Copeland Sausage Company.
Bill remembered eating at the Hawkins House operated by the Skirvin Family where everyone sat at one big table and paid $1 .00 for all you could eat. The wagons didn't stop coming suddenly but slowly dwindled to a trickle with the advent of the Model T.
By 1940 a horse and buggy or a mule drawn wagon was seldom seen.The City of Alachua continued to grow. Available at the FBI reading room.^ FBI document, 16 September 1970, Director FBI to SAC's in Baltimore, Detroit, Los Angeles, New Haven, San Francisco, and Washington Field Office. Although the packing sheds have disappeared from town, area farmers still plant crops of beans, corn, squash, peppers and cucumbers. In this small community, local folks still spread the news of births, marriages, and deaths by word of mouth. Neighbors still come to each other`s aid in the time of need and farmers still come to town on Saturday.
Now they stop at the local supermarket and you can find them sitting on a bench outside one of the local stores or restaurants for a neighborly chat and the post office is still a popular place to catch up on the local gossip. Alachua has had families that have been here for years and years and years. Families that are still here, like the Fugates, Shaws (1865), Waters, Harrisons, Bryans, Goodes, Williams, Cauthens, and the Robartses. In 1987, the historic Main Street, with its quaint brick, 1900's architecture and grand old Victorian homes, was redeveloped. This revitalization has provided the perfect environment for our Main Street business to flourish. Through the continued support and efforts of our citizens in the downtown Redevelopment Committee, additional grants have been obtained to build a sitting garden park within the towering, antique brick walls of the old Main Street cinema. Thigpen had a big black and white marble counter top, and if you could reach up to it you could get yourself a Coke. Martin's store was across the street on the corner, and the bank was on the other corner, and that was just about it.
University of California Press, 2001: "Although the FBI officially discontinued COINTELPRO immediately after the Pennsylvania disclosures "for security reasons," when pressed by the Senate committee, the bureau acknowledged two new instances of "Cointelpro-type" operations.
Yes, what I miss most is that when I came up, everybody in Alachua knew you, and you knew everybody.
The committee was left to discover a third, apparently illegal operation on its own."^ Athan G.
Then I went to the University of Florida for four years, and then to Georgia for four years. Then when I came back, and I will be very honest with you, today I am very lucky if I know one of ten people. It is presently the residence of George Stevens. Historic Main Street, Alachua JWShaw ALACHUA WOMEN'S CLUBOriginally called the Alachua Improvement Club, it was organized in 1912 with the objective of improving the schools. Members met in homes until this native stone building was constructed with WPA labor in the early 1930's. Some of the early Presidents included Mrs. Williams will soon remove his stock of merchandise from Newnansville to his new town," the advocate reported.
The wagons didn't stop coming suddenly but slowly dwindled to a trickle with the advent of the Model T.
Martin's store was across the street on the corner, and the bank was on the other corner, and that was just about it.
With the rise of the new com-munity of Alachua, and the decline of Newnansville, the Methodists, after lengthy debate, built a white frame church on this site in 1898.



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