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In IPv6 we use the same type of Routing Protocols that were used with IPv4 but has some changes so they can meet the requirements of IPv6. The Cisco Routers would have IPv6 disabled by default and will need to have it enabled using the below command.
The command “show ipv6 interface” will display the interface configuration which is used for verifying if the configuration is correct.
Routing Information Protocol next Generation (RIPng) is similar to the RIP we used in IPv4. We just need to configure the router id and the area id for the interface and the configuration is done. The following options were used to work around some IPv6 related issues, but the use of these options on BIND 9.3 is now generally discouraged.
The same note for the —disable-ipv6 build option applies to the -4 and -6 run-time options; they only affect the transport protocol for DNS transactions, and are irrelevant to the contents exchanged in the transactions.
The —disable-ipv6 build option and the -6 command line option cannot coexist for an obvious reason.
The named daemon can be controlled via a control channel with the administrative command, rndc.
In BIND 9.2, there was a well-known pitfall on the control channel that made named refuse a connection from rndc.
BIND 9.3 does not have this problem, since the rndc command now tries all possible addresses when a host name is specified as the server. There is nothing special to configuring DNS zone files containing IPv6 related resource records.
To set up a reverse mapping for an IPv6 prefix, a separate zone under the ip6.arpa domain corresponding to the prefix must be created. Just like a zone for IPv4 reverse mapping, this ip6.arpa zone will usually only contain SOA, NS, and PTR resource records. This section discusses various issues that stem from implementation characteristics of BIND9 and may confuse a system administrator.
Figure 3-25 shows a simplified image of the BIND9 named daemon process, focusing on sockets used for DNS transactions along with major modules and internal databases. On startup the BIND9 named daemon loads authoritative zone files and maintains the contents as in-memory zone databases.
It is also helpful to handle all queries on a single wildcard socket when the node renumbers its addresses.
One subtle issue regarding this approach is that the wildcard socket may be overridden by the other AF_INET6 socket used by the resolver module.
Then incoming queries will be delivered to the more specific socket and dropped in the resolver module, which is only interested in response messages (Figure 3-26(A)).
BIND 9.3 and later avoid this problem by sharing the socket for external queries with the query-handle module when that socket can conflict with the listening socket as shown in Figure 3-26(B).
This can be avoided by setting the match-mapped-addresses option to yes in the configuration file (Figure 3-27(C)). But the kludge with the match-mapped-addresses option does not really solve the fundamental problem that the expected TCP sockets could not be opened at startup time and Figure 3-27(B) depicts this situation. This seemingly reasonable configuration actually has a hole if the named version is prior to 9.3 and the operating system allows IPv4 communication via an AF_INET6 socket using IPv4-mapped IPv6 addresses, however the match-mapped-addresses option is specified. Part five of my IPv6 certification walkthrough for Hurricane Electric: Become an IPv6 Sage! Your task at this level is to ensure your mail server has reverse DNS records (rDNS) or pointer (PTR) records that work over IPv6. Just like we have AAAA records to indicated IPv6, and MX records to indicate a mail server, PTR records indicate a reverse lookup. The DHCPv6 server is set up, but an IPv6 scope still needs to be configured for the server to begin assigning addresses.
While network reconnaissance is a critical step in identifying potential vulnerabilities, performing an IPv6 network audit without the right tools can be a challenge. By submitting my Email address I confirm that I have read and accepted the Terms of Use and Declaration of Consent.
By submitting your email address, you agree to receive emails regarding relevant topic offers from TechTarget and its partners. You also agree that your personal information may be transferred and processed in the United States, and that you have read and agree to the Terms of Use and the Privacy Policy. This article covers a number of techniques that can be employed to gain information about a target site when performing an IPv6 network security audit. When gathering information about a site, you want to obtain a list of domain names employed by that site (which will typically use a set of different systems). For security reasons, however, most sites block DNS zone transfers; it is therefore not trivial to obtain the entire contents of the corresponding DNS zone. Note that depending on a number of factors -- DNS server software used at the target site, whether DNS reverse mappings have been configured -- this technique might or might not work as expected, but when it does, it can produce impressive results. Finally, it is not unusual to have to obtain IPv6 addresses within a file with a list of domain names, along with the IPv6 addresses corresponding to the mailservers (MX records) and nameservers (NS records). The increased IPv6 address space has straightforward implications on IPv6 address scanning.

However, recent research indicates many sites employ specific patterns for their nodes; hence, it is possible to greatly reduce the search space by scanning for addresses that follow such patterns. In scenarios where the security professional has local access to the target network, a different technique can be leveraged for IPv6 address scanning: IPv6 multicast addresses. Fortunately, the scan6 tool of SI6-IPv6 not only employs the traditional ICMPv6 echo requests as the probe packets, but also alternative probe packets that can elicit responses from all nodes -- including Windows. Scan6 will print all the addresses present in the local network, along with the underlying MAC addresses, which can be leveraged to tell which addresses correspond to the same network interfaces, since in the IPv6 world each network interface is typically assigned multiple IPv6 addresses.
Two widely employed tools for tracing the route to a target IPv6 node are traceroute and traceroute6.
It should be noted that while the use of IPv6 extension headers can be used to circumvent some security controls, packets with IPv6 extension headers are widely filtered in the public Internet and therefore their use might be counterproductive. As a result of executing the commands discussed, organizations will typically end up with a long list of IPv6 addresses that might contain duplicate addresses or addresses that are of little to no use when performing a security audit.
Once a filtered list of IPv6 addresses is produced, it is important to find out which services are being offered by each address; performing a port-scan of the aforementioned IPv6 addresses is warranted. The increasing IPv6 address space has concrete implications on IPv6 network reconnaissance, and recent security research and tool development have already produced techniques and tools that make IPv6 network reconnaissance possible. About the author: Fernando Gont currently works for SI6 Networks as an Internet security and engineering consultant.
The “ipv6 unicast-routing” command should be executed globally on all routers that need to participate in IPv6.
In addition, named will not listen on IPv6 addresses for incoming queries regardless of how the listen-on-v6 option is specified.
Note that there are no other run-time options or configuration statements to disable the use of IPv4 or IPv6 for queries sent from the system; listen-on or listen-on-v6 only restricts incoming queries. If named is built with —disable-ipv6 and is invoked with the -6 option, it will immediately quit with an error message. In particular, to store an IPv6 address for a host name in an existing zone, it is enough just to add the corresponding AAAA resource record in the zone file.
Most of them are related to IPv6 transport for DNS transactions, rather than DNS contents for IPv6 such as AAAA resource records. It also creates a cache database in memory to store the results of the name resolution initiated by this process.
On the AF_INET6 UDP socket, this can be ensured with a single wildcard socket, thanks to the IPV6_RECVPKTINF0 socket option. Handling all of these addresses on a single socket will contribute to reducing system resources and may also help improve performance, particularly when the node has many IPv6 addresses. The explicitly bound AF_INET sockets cannot receive queries to a newly configured address, so the BIND9 named daemon periodically checks the node’s addresses to update the sockets appropriately.
When the socket is shared, response messages to the address-port pair are delivered to the query-handle module, and then forwarded to the resolver module. Since BIND9 uses wildcard listening sockets for incoming queries over IPv6, it may accept queries carried over IPv4 on those sockets as represented in the form of IPv4-mapped IPv6 addresses, unless the IPV6_V60NLY socket option with a non-zero option value is specified on the sockets. With this option enabled, named internally converts the IPv4-mapped IPv6 address into the corresponding IPv4 address represented as a 32-bit integer, and then compares it with the address specified in the allow-transfer statement. Suppose that the administrator wants to disallow accepting DNS queries over IPv4 while accepting queries over IPv6 to any local IPv6 addresses. Be sure to take the time to read the “Introduction to DHCP Server,” and click Next when you are ready to continue.6.
On the Confirmation page, review the settings, and click Install when you are ready to continue.10. Launch the Server Manager, expand the Roles, expand DNS Server, expand DNS, and select the DNS server name.2.
While these tasks are rather well known for the IPv4 world, they are not widely understood in the case of IPv6. Most of the techniques either have no counterpart in the IPv4 world or have specific nuances in the IPv6 world that deserve special mention.
But not everything is lost; sites tend to use common names for systems providing common services. Namely, DNS reverse mappings can be useful for finding the IPv6 addresses of nodes in a given IPv6 prefix.
The scan6 tool of SI6-IPv6 is the most comprehensive IPv6 address scanning tools and can target a variety of specific address patterns.
It would subsequently perform an IPv6 address scan targeting only the inferred address pattern. However, the current versions of these tools fail to implement support for IPv6 extension headers. For example, when auditing a remote site, IPv6 link-local addresses will be of virtually no use.
Among other things, it can process a list of IPv6 addresses, remove duplicate addresses from the list, and filter IPv6 addresses based on a number of possible criteria. The addr6 manual page should be consulted for further information and examples about its filtering capabilities. Simple IPv6-based port-scanning has been implemented in traditional tools (such as Nmap) for a long time now.

However, as with the path6 tool, it should be noted that while using IPv6 extension headers can circumvent some security controls, packets with IPv6 extension headers are widely filtered in the public Internet. The two most popular IPv6 toolkits (SI6-IPv6 and THC-IPv6) can be employed to leverage the aforementioned techniques. He is an active participant at the IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force), where he contributes to several working groups, and has authored a number of RFCs (Request for Comments) and Internet-Drafts. On the other hand, IPv6-specific configuration statements and options such as listen-on-v6 are simply ignored on a named process built with —disable-ipv6. Some issues are even irrelevant to the DNS protocol per se, but they are common pitfalls in the actual operation that have confused administrators and should be worth discussing here. The daemon accepts incoming queries sent to its UDP or TCP sockets bound to port 53, finds an appropriate answer from its zone or cache database, and returns the response from the socket that received the query. The receiving process can get the destination address of the query in an IPV6_PKTINF0 ancillary data item associated with the received data and can specify that address to be the source address of the response packet by including an IPV6_PKTINF0 item with that address. This means there may be a time-lag between the time a new address is configured and the time the daemon can listen on that address for accepting queries.
This setting is automatically done in the implementation, and the administrator does not have to add any specific configuration options to deal with such cases. BIND9 prior to version 9.3 does not set this socket option and causes various confusing difficulties. The recommended solution for DNS operators who want to use IPv6 is thus to use a newer version of BIND9—9.3 or later. Expand the Roles node, DNS Server node, DNS node, and the server node, and select the Reverse Lookup Zones node.3.
The next three sections for IPv4—IPv4 DNS Settings, IPv4 WINS Settings, and DHCP Scopes—can be bypassed by clicking Next.7.
It is important to not disrupt the installation progress, and allow the installation to complete.11.
Confirm the settings, ensure that the Yes option button under Activate Scope Now is selected, and then click Finish. This article focuses on two IPv6 toolkits: the SI6 Networks' IPv6 toolkit (SI6-IPv6) and THC's IPv6 attack suite (THC-IPv6). While the specific details of this technique are out of the scope of this article, it essentially consists of finding (by brute force) PTR records for each of the IPv6 addresses in an IPv6 prefix. Probably the coolest feature of scan6 is that it can automatically infer the address pattern of a site and reduce the search space accordingly. While multicast addresses could be leveraged with a simple tool such as ping6, some IPv6 implementations (notably Windows) do not respond to the multicasted ICMPv6 echo requests employed by ping6.
The path6 tool of SI6-IPv6 fills this gap by implementing IPv6 traceroute-like functionality with full support for IPv6 extension headers and arbitrary probe packets. Additionally, one might want to restrict the security audit to addresses belonging to a specific IPv6 prefix. However, some IPv6-specific features -- such as the ability to employ IPv6 extension headers with port-scanning packets -- have not been widely implemented. Gont is a regular speaker at a number of conferences, trade shows, and technical meetings, about information security, operating systems, and Internet engineering. If the answer to a query is not cached in the cache database and requires recursive name resolution, the internal resolver module performs DNS transactions with external authoritative servers. This time-lag does not exist for IPv6 addresses because the AF_INET6 socket is not bound to a specific address. If this option works for IPv4 packets, in which case the corresponding ancillary data item contains the local IPv4 address in the form of IPv4-mapped IPv6 addresses, the UDP query will be accepted and the reply packet will be returned to the sender (which is the case for Solaris). As explained above, newer versions of named enable this socket option for AF_INET6 sockets.
Thanks to a technique discovered rather recently, the search space can be greatly reduced, such that exploring a whole prefix becomes feasible.
Thus, the need to filter IPv6 addresses based on different criteria (address type, IPv6 prefixes and so on) should be evident.
The sockets used for recursive resolution are bound to ephemeral ports by default; in Figure 3-25 ports 3001 and 3002 are assumed to be chosen. On BSD variants and Linux, IPV6_RECVPKTINF0 is not effective for IPv4 packets received on the AF_INET6 socket and the query is dropped at an early stage of the query examination procedure of named. In addition, the Linux kernel allows the AF_INET TCP socket with specific IPv4 addresses to be configured as a positive side effect of this option.
On the Server Roles page, click the check box to enter a check mark next to DHCP Server (as shown in Figure 2), and click Next. Ensure that Primary Zone and Store the Zone in Active Directory are selected, and then click Next.6. While this article covers a number of tools comprised in each of these toolkits, note that both toolkits contain many other tools, some of which can also be employed for IPv6 network reconnaissance. For this example, name the scope “Test IPv6 Scope,” leave the Description field blank, and click Next to continue.5.

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