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Note For complete syntax and usage information for the commands used in this chapter, see the command reference for this release. Typically, networks operate on a best-effort delivery basis, which means that all traffic has equal priority and an equal chance of being delivered in a timely manner. When you configure the QoS feature, you can select specific network traffic, prioritize it according to its relative importance, and use congestion-management and congestion-avoidance techniques to provide preferential treatment. The QoS implementation is based on the Differentiated Services (Diff-Serv) architecture, an emerging standard from the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
The classification is carried in the IP packet header, using 6 bits from the deprecated IP type of service (ToS) field to carry the classification ( class) information.
Layer 2 Inter-Switch Link (ISL) frame headers have a 1-byte User field that carries an IEEE 802.1p class of service (CoS) value in the three least-significant bits. Layer 2 IEEE 802.1Q frame headers have a 2-byte Tag Control Information field that carries the CoS value in the three most-significant bits, which are called the User Priority bits. Layer 3 IP packets can carry either an IP precedence value or a Differentiated Services Code Point (DSCP) value.
All switches and routers that access the Internet rely on the class information to provide the same forwarding treatment to packets with the same class information and different treatment to packets with different class information. Switches and routers along the path can use the class information to limit the amount of resources allocated per traffic class. Implementing QoS in your network can be a simple or complex task and depends on the QoS features offered by your internetworking devices, the traffic types and patterns in your network, and the granularity of control that you need over incoming and outgoing traffic.
To implement QoS, the switch must distinguish packets or flow from one another (classify), assign a label to indicate the given quality of service as the packets move through the switch, make the packets comply with the configured resource usage limits (police and mark), and provide different treatment (queue and schedule) in all situations where resource contention exists. Policing determines whether a packet is in or out of profile by comparing the rate of the incoming traffic to the configured policer.
Marking evaluates the policer and configuration information for the action to be taken when a packet is out of profile and determines what to do with the packet (pass through a packet without modification, mark down the QoS label in the packet, or drop the packet). Queueing evaluates the QoS label and the corresponding DSCP or CoS value to select into which of the two ingress queues to place a packet. Queueing evaluates the QoS packet label and the corresponding DSCP or CoS value before selecting which of the four egress queues to use.
Scheduling services the four egress queues based on their configured SRR shared or shaped weights.
Classification is the process of distinguishing one kind of traffic from another by examining the fields in the packet.
The QoS label is based on the DSCP or the CoS value in the packet and decides the queueing and scheduling actions to perform on the packet. You specify which fields in the frame or packet that you want to use to classify incoming traffic. Perform the classification based on a configured Layer 2 MAC access control list (ACL), which can examine the MAC source address, the MAC destination address, and other fields.
Trust the DSCP value in the incoming packet (configure the port to trust DSCP), and assign the same DSCP value to the packet.
For ports that are on the boundary between two QoS administrative domains, you can modify the DSCP to another value by using the configurable DSCP-to-DSCP-mutation map.
Trust the IP precedence value in the incoming packet (configure the port to trust IP precedence), and generate a DSCP value for the packet by using the configurable IP-precedence-to-DSCP map.
Trust the CoS value (if present) in the incoming packet, and generate a DSCP value for the packet by using the CoS-to-DSCP map.
Perform the classification based on a configured IP standard or an extended ACL, which examines various fields in the IP header. For information on the maps described in this section, see the a€?Mapping Tablesa€? section.
After classification, the packet is sent to the policing, marking, and the ingress queueing and scheduling stages. Note If the switch is running the LAN Lite image, you can configure ACLs, but you cannot attach them to physical interfaces. You can use IP standard, IP extended, or Layer 2 MAC ACLs to define a group of packets with the same characteristics (class). If a match with a permit action is encountered (first-match principle), the specified QoS-related action is taken. If a match with a deny action is encountered, the ACL being processed is skipped, and the next ACL is processed. If no match with a permit action is encountered and all the ACEs have been examined, no QoS processing occurs on the packet, and the switch offers best-effort service to the packet. If multiple ACLs are configured on a port, the lookup stops after the packet matches the first ACL with a permit action, and QoS processing begins.
Note When creating an access list, remember that, by default, the end of the access list contains an implicit deny statement for everything if it did not find a match before reaching the end.
You implement IP ACLs to classify IP traffic by using the access-list global configuration command; you implement Layer 2 MAC ACLs to classify non-IP traffic by using the mac access-list extended global configuration command.
A class map is a mechanism that you use to name a specific traffic flow (or class) and to isolate it from all other traffic.
You create a class map by using the class-map global configuration command or the class policy-map configuration command. You can configure a default class by using the class class-default policy-map configuration command(not supported on Catalyst 2960-S). The policy map can contain the police and police aggregate policy-map class configuration commands, which define the policer, the bandwidth limitations of the traffic, and the action to take if the limits are exceeded.
To enable the policy map, you attach it to a port by using the service-policy interface configuration command. After a packet is classified and has a DSCP-based or CoS-based QoS label assigned to it, the policing and marking process can begin as shown in Figure 1-4. Note All traffic, regardless of whether it is bridged or routed, is subjected to a policer, if one is configured. You can configure policing (either individual or aggregate policers) on a physical port or an SVI.
After you configure the policy map and policing actions, attach the policy to an ingress port by using the service-policy interface configuration command. Individuala€”QoS applies the bandwidth limits specified in the policer separately to each matched traffic class. Aggregatea€”QoS applies the bandwidth limits specified in an aggregate policer cumulatively to all matched traffic flows. You configure the bucket depth (the maximum burst that is tolerated before the bucket overflows) by using the burst-byte option of the police policy-map class configuration command or the mls qos aggregate-policer global configuration command. On an ingress port configured in the DSCP-trusted state, if the DSCP values are different between the QoS domains, you can apply the configurable DSCP-to-DSCP-mutation map to the port that is on the boundary between the two QoS domains. During policing, QoS can assign another DSCP value to an IP or a non-IP packet (if the packet is out of profile and the policer specifies a marked-down value).


Before the traffic reaches the scheduling stage, QoS stores the packet in an ingress and an egress queue according to the QoS label. The CoS-to-DSCP, DSCP-to-CoS, and the IP-precedence-to-DSCP maps have default values that might or might not be appropriate for your network.
The default DSCP-to-DSCP-mutation map and the default policed-DSCP map are null maps; they map an incoming DSCP value to the same DSCP value. For information about the DSCP and CoS input queue threshold maps, see the a€?Queueing and Scheduling on Ingress Queuesa€? section. The switch has queues at specific points to help prevent congestion as shown in Figure 1-5. Because the total inbound bandwidth of all ports can exceed the bandwidth of the internal ring, ingress queues are located after the packet is classified, policed, and marked and before packets are forwarded into the switch fabric.
Both the ingress and egress queues use an enhanced version of the tail-drop congestion-avoidance mechanism called weighted tail drop (WTD).
As a frame is enqueued to a particular queue, WTD uses the framea€™s assigned QoS label to subject it to different thresholds. In this example, CoS values 6 and 7 have a greater importance than the other CoS values, and they are assigned to the 100-percent drop threshold (queue-full state).
Both the ingress and egress queues are serviced by SRR, which controls the rate at which packets are sent. In shaped mode, the egress queues are guaranteed a percentage of the bandwidth, and they are rate-limited to that amount. In shared mode, the queues share the bandwidth among them according to the configured weights.
Note SRR services the priority queue for its configured share before servicing the other queue.
The switch supports two configurable ingress queues, which are serviced by SRR in shared mode only.
High-priority user traffic such as differentiated services (DF) expedited forwarding or voice traffic.
1.The switch uses two nonconfigurable queues for traffic that is essential for proper network and stack operation.
You define the ratio (allocate the amount of space) with which to divide the ingress buffers between the two queues by using the mls qos srr-queue input buffers percentage1 percentage2 global configuration command. You can configure one ingress queue as the priority queue by using the mls qos srr-queue input priority-queue queue-id bandwidth weight global configuration command. SRR services the priority queue for its configured weight as specified by the bandwidth keyword in the mls qos srr-queue input priority-queue queue-id bandwidth weight global configuration command.
You can combine the commands described in this section to prioritize traffic by placing packets with particular DSCPs or CoSs into certain queues, by allocating a large queue size or by servicing the queue more frequently, and by adjusting queue thresholds so that packets with lower priorities are dropped. Note If the expedite queue is enabled, SRR services it until it is empty before servicing the other three queues. Each port supports four egress queues, one of which (queue 1) can be the egress expedite queue.These queues are configured by a queue-set. They reportedly spent hours following the signal until they finally traced it to a man on a bicycle. The two fought until Torkelson said he pepper-sprayed the man and attempted to make a citizen's arrest, according to News10. No problem: All you have to do is search for Find my phone and Google will locate your device as long as you have a recent version of Android.
If its a land line number, you can find the approximate location of this phone number by finding the city from the STD code. But wouldn’t it be best if your phone screen displays the location of the caller directly? To find the location of any phone number, just enter the phone number in it and it will show you the location and operator of the same. Communication has allowed us the means to share knowledge, spread ideas and record thousands of years of history. With QoS, you can provide preferential treatment to certain types of traffic at the expense of others.
You configure the QoS settings, such as classification, queueing, and scheduling, and apply the policy map to a port. Implementing QoS in your network makes network performance more predictable and bandwidth utilization more effective. QoS supports the use of either value because DSCP values are backward-compatible with IP precedence values. The class information in the packet can be assigned by end hosts or by switches or routers along the way, based on a configured policy, detailed examination of the packet, or both. The behavior of an individual device when handling traffic in the DiffServ architecture is called per-hop behavior. The switch also needs to ensure that traffic sent from it meets a specific traffic profile (shape). The switch maps the CoS or DSCP in the packet to a QoS label to distinguish one kind of traffic from another. Queueing is enhanced with the weighted tail-drop (WTD) algorithm, a congestion-avoidance mechanism.
One of the ingress queues is the priority queue, and SRR services it for its configured share before servicing the other queue. Because congestion can occur when multiple ingress ports simultaneously send data to an egress port, WTD differentiates traffic classes and subjects the packets to different thresholds based on the QoS label. One of the queues (queue 1) can be the expedited queue, which is serviced until empty before the other queues are serviced. The QoS label identifies all QoS actions to be performed on the packet and from which queue the packet is sent. The label is mapped according to the trust setting and the packet type as shown in Figure 1-3. If no ACL is configured, the packet is assigned 0 as the DSCP and CoS values, which means best-effort traffic.
The IP Version 4 specification defines the 3 most-significant bits of the 1-byte ToS field as the IP precedence. For configuration information on port trust states, see the a€?Configuring Classification Using Port Trust Statesa€? section.
The class map defines the criteria used to match against a specific traffic flow to further classify it. Unclassified traffic (traffic that does not meet the match criteria specified in the traffic classes) is treated as default traffic. As a result, bridged packets might be dropped or might have their DSCP or CoS fields modified when they are policed and marked. For more information about configuring policing on physical ports, see the a€?Policing on Physical Portsa€? section. For configuration information, see the a€?Classifying, Policing, and Marking Traffic on Physical Ports by Using Policy Mapsa€? section and the a€?Classifying, Policing, and Marking Traffic by Using Aggregate Policersa€? section. You configure this type of policer within a policy map by using the police policy-map class configuration command. You configure this type of policer by specifying the aggregate policer name within a policy map by using the police aggregate policy-map class configuration command. The size of the bucket imposes an upper limit on the burst length and limits the number of frames that can be transmitted back-to-back. You configure how fast (the average rate) that the tokens are removed from the bucket by using the rate-bps option of the police policy-map class configuration command or the mls qos aggregate-policer global configuration command. You configure this map by using the mls qos map dscp-mutation global configuration command. For information about the DSCP and CoS output queue threshold maps, see the a€?Queueing and Scheduling on Egress Queuesa€? section. Because multiple ingress ports can simultaneously send packets to an egress port and cause congestion, outbound queues are located after the internal ring.
WTD is implemented on queues to manage the queue lengths and to provide drop precedences for different traffic classifications. If the threshold is exceeded for that QoS label ( the space available in the destination queue is less than the size of the frame), the switch drops the frame.


Three drop percentages are configured: 40 percent (400 frames), 60 percent (600 frames), and 100 percent (1000 frames). CoS values 4 and 5 are assigned to the 60-percent threshold, and CoS values 0 to 3 are assigned to the 40-percent threshold. However, for ingress queues, sharing is the default mode, and it is the only mode supported.
You can configure the bandwidth required for this traffic as a percentage of the total stack traffic by using the mls qos srr-queue input priority-queue global configuration command.
Specifically, you map DSCP or CoS values to an ingress queue and map DSCP or CoS values to a threshold ID. Each queue has three drop thresholds: two configurable ( explicit) WTD thresholds and one nonconfigurable ( implicit) threshold preset to the queue-full state. The buffer allocation together with the bandwidth allocation control how much data can be buffered and sent before packets are dropped. The priority queue should be used for traffic (such as voice) that requires guaranteed delivery because this queue is guaranteed part of the bandwidth regardless of the load on the stack or internal ring.
Then, SRR shares the remaining bandwidth with both ingress queues and services them as specified by the weights configured with the mls qos srr-queue input bandwidth weight1 weight2 global configuration command. For configuration information, see the a€?Configuring Ingress Queue Characteristicsa€? section.
All traffic leaving an egress port flows through one of these four queues and is subjected to a threshold based on the QoS label assigned to the packet. 30, and his friend Greg Torkelson, a freelance photographer, used his "Find My iPhone" app to track down the missing phone, according to News10. Without QoS, the switch offers best-effort service to each packet, regardless of the packet contents or size.
Detailed examination of the packet is expected to happen closer to the edge of the network so that the core switches and routers are not overloaded with this task.
If all devices along a path provide a consistent per-hop behavior, you can construct an end-to-end QoS solution. The QoS label that is generated identifies all future QoS actions to be performed on this packet. Layer 2 ISL frame headers carry the CoS value in the 3 least-significant bits of the 1-byte User field. If you configure a port with either of these options and non-IP traffic is received, the switch assigns a CoS value and generates an internal DSCP value from the CoS-to-DSCP map.
Otherwise, the policy-map action specifies a DSCP or CoS value to assign to the incoming frame.
A policy might include commands to classify the class as a particular aggregate (for example, assign a DSCP) or rate-limit the class.
The criteria can include matching the access group defined by the ACL or matching a specific list of DSCP or IP precedence values. In this mode, you specify the actions to take on a specific traffic class by using the class, trust, or set policy-map configuration and policy-map class configuration commands. Each policer decides on a packet-by-packet basis whether the packet is in or out of profile and specifies the actions on the packet. You specify the bandwidth limits of the policer by using the mls qos aggregate-policer global configuration command. The bucket has a hole in it and leaks at a rate that you specify as the average traffic rate in bits per second. If the burst is short, the bucket does not overflow, and no action is taken against the traffic flow. You configure these maps by using the mls qos map cos-dscp and the mls qos map ip-prec-dscp global configuration commands. You configure this map by using the mls qos map policed-dscp global configuration command. In addition to an ingress or an egress queue, the QOS label also identifies the WTD threshold value.
These percentages mean that up to 400 frames can be queued at the 40-percent threshold, up to 600 frames at the 60-percent threshold, and up to 1000 frames at the 100-percent threshold. If this frame is added to the queue, the threshold will be exceeded, so the switch drops it. Shaping provides a more even flow of traffic over time and reduces the peaks and valleys of bursty traffic.
For example, if a queue is empty and no longer requires a share of the link, the remaining queues can expand into the unused bandwidth and share it among them. You can use the mls qos srr-queue input threshold, the mls qos srr-queue input dscp-map, and the mls qos srr-queue input cos-map global configuration commands. You assign the two explicit WTD threshold percentages for threshold ID 1 and ID 2 to the ingress queues by using the mls qos srr-queue input threshold queue-id threshold-percentage1 threshold-percentage2 global configuration command.
You allocate bandwidth as a percentage by using the mls qos srr-queue input bandwidth weight1 weight2 global configuration command.
The switch uses a buffer allocation scheme to reserve a minimum amount of buffers for each egress queue, to prevent any queue or port from consuming all the buffers and depriving other queues, and to control whether to grant buffer space to a requesting queue. For land line numbers, it determines the location just by showing you the city for the STD code. Layer 2 IEEE 802.1Q frame headers carry the CoS value in the 3 most-significant bits of the Tag Control Information field.
The switch uses the internal DSCP value to generate a CoS value representing the priority of the traffic.
If you have more than one type of traffic that you want to classify, you can create another class map and use a different name. In this mode, you define the match criterion for the traffic by using the match class-map configuration command. These actions, carried out by the marker, include passing through the packet without modification, dropping the packet, or modifying (marking down) the assigned DSCP of the packet and allowing the packet to pass through. In this way, the aggregate policer is shared by multiple classes of traffic within a policy map. Each time a token is added to the bucket, the switch verifies that there is enough room in the bucket. However, if a burst is long and at a higher rate, the bucket overflows, and the policing actions are taken against the frames in that burst. With shaping, the absolute value of each weight is used to compute the bandwidth available for the queues. With sharing, the ratio of the weights controls the frequency of dequeuing; the absolute values are meaningless.
You can display the DSCP input queue threshold map and the CoS input queue threshold map by using the show mls qos maps privileged EXEC command. Each threshold value is a percentage of the total number of allocated buffers for the queue. The ratio of the weights is the ratio of the frequency in which the SRR scheduler sends packets from each queue.
The switch detects whether the target queue has not consumed more buffers than its reserved amount (under-limit), whether it has consumed all of its maximum buffers (over limit), and whether the common pool is empty (no free buffers) or not empty (free buffers). After a packet is matched against the class-map criteria, you further classify it through the use of a policy map. If there is not enough room, the packet is marked as nonconforming, and the specified policer action is taken (dropped or marked down). The drop threshold for threshold ID 3 is preset to the queue-full state, and you cannot modify it. Marked-down packets use the same queues as the original QoS label to prevent packets in a flow from getting out of order.



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