T-Enami.org - A Welcome, all who like old Photos of Japan !YOU ARE ONE OF OVER 100,000 VISITORS TO THIS SITE. There has been quite a bit of misinformation published for this family, and so I think it is important to put down in writing a summary of the documentation that may help researchers find the correct trail to our ancestors. In this document, I will merely summarize a bit of our family history in Germany to clarify our heritage so as to address some of the errors made by others.
Another error that has been perpetuated is that our a€?Hans Martina€? must have been a young boy, under age 16, when he came to North America, and that his name was therefore not recorded, but that the a€?Hans Martin Kirschmana€? listed on the passengera€™s list must have been his father. But, to help convince others of that claim, leta€™s begin our story with actual confirming documents from Germany. In this paper, we will start with: Johann a€?Hanssa€? Martin Kirschenmann, who was born on 26 Feb.
Anna Marie born 29 May 1737 -- she had, in 1771, an illegitimate child [male] named Christian born in Pfalzgrafenweiler. Again, the above record comes from the Pfalzgrafenweiler Jakoba€™s Church record, which was the home parish of Hanss. Now, there is a very interesting item noted for this young woman in her own parish record, which says that: she was married on 28 Jan. This clearly establishes the birth of Johann a€?Hansa€? Martin Kirschenmann (our immigrant ancestor) as the son of a€?Hanss Martin Kirschenmann and his wife, Anna Catharina Schmid, who were married about eleven months following his birth.
Not far away, in the village of Goettelfingen (about 6-7 miles northwest of Pfalzgrafenweiler)--as the crow flies, lived the family of Christian Schwarz.
Their oldest daughter, Agnes Schwartz is the one who is of the greatest interest to us, as our immigrant grandmother, but also take note of the names of her brothers, as two of those will come up again later. Sometime after the birth of their second child, this family moved to Kaelberbronn, which is about four miles to the south of where they were living, and about half way to Pfalzgrafenweiler.
For the source of much of the following information, see: History and Genealogy of the German Emigrant Johan Christian Kirschenmann, Anglicized Cashman by Arthur Weaner and William F. Hans Martin Kirschenmann and his young bride, both about 20 years old, began their migration together down the Rhine River in 1752. This Hans Martin Kirschman was the 20 years old father of our American family by this name. In all of Pennsylvania there were only two Kirschman (Kirschenmann, even by other variant spellings) families that can be found in the time frame between 1752 and 1776. In 1761, after living in PA for nine years, and after succeeding waves of immigrants had arrived in Berks Co.
The other family by that name living in Pennsylvania at about that time was that of Johan Christian Kirschman (Kirschenmann) who boarded a ship a€?Hamiltona€?, Charles Smith, Commander, in Rotterdam, Netherlands, and sailed to Cowes, England, arriving at Philadelphia, PA on 9 Nov.
Both of the above men were thought to have come from the same general area in Wuerttemberg, Germany. We know the names of the following children of Johann Martin Cashman and his wife, Agnes Schwartz, who were still living in 1804 when Martin made his will in Bedford Co., Virginia--from the gaps between their birth years, there could have been additional children who died earlier than this date. Martin Kirschman was listed as a carpenter, and paid taxes on 1 horse and two cows in Berks Co., PA in 1767 [Tax List of Berks County] and was also listed in the tax list for 1768.
During this period, Hans Martina€™s oldest son, George, married in Washington County, MD and had a daughter on 13 Nov. In 1778 (during the war years) Men were asked to take an a€?Oath of Allegiancea€? to the new United States of America. There was also a mention of Adam Bumgartner as a resident of Washington Co., MD, in 1778, the year prior to his marriage. I have seen a claim that Martin Kirschman may have moved to Bedford County, PA about at this time and paid taxes there in 1779.
As the Revolutionary War drew towards its close with the surrender of General Cornwallis to George Washington at Yorktown, VA in 1781 thousands of British soldiers were taken as prisoners. We have not been able to find any other records for our Hans Martin Kirschman after this date--except for his will.
This surname is just not close enough to say that this was our a€?Martin Kirschmana€? but it is given here only as a point of interest. Now, we have an even longer stretch without any documentation, but in 1803, Hans Martin & Agnesa€™s youngest daughter, Elisabeth Kirschman, or a€?Betsya€? married Jesse Orendorff in Bedford Coounty, VA (or Botetourt County, VA). At least by 1804, and probably earlier, our Hans Martin Kirschman and Agnes Schwartz had moved to Bedford County, VA., which occupies most of the area between Roanoak and Lynchburg, VA in southwestern Virginia. This last Will and Testament of Martin Kershmon, deceased, was exhibited in Court and proved by the oath of James Ripley, a subscribing witness and continued for further proof and a Court held for said County the 24th day of September 1804a€”this will was further proved by the oath of Presley Sinclair another subscribing witness and ordered to be recorded.
In the 1820 US census, there was only one Cashman family still in the area and this was for a George Cashman in Providence Twp, Bedford Co., PA. As discussed above, Catherine Kirschman was born about June of 1752 in Amsterdam while her family was en route from Germany to America. Catherine spent her early years in Berks County, PA until she was in her mid-teens, when the family moved to York County, PA, and about 25 years old when they moved to Washington County, MD. There were only two Catherine Kirschmans (by any spelling) that we can find in the USA at that time.
It is not clear where and how Catherine next met David Buck, but since he was absent from his home in Bedford Co., PA from 1785 till about 1789.
Shortly after their marriage, they returned to Davida€™s home in Bedford County, PA, where this couple had Davida€™s first child, a son, Thomas Buck, named after Davida€™s father. We do not know the birth years of any of these, but they all would have been born between 1780-86 and probably in Washington Co. David and Catherine remained on Brush Creek in West Providence, Bedford, PA for the rest of their lives. According to David Buck's will, there are two daughters younger than Elizabeth Buck, who was born 2 May 1795. There were many political and religious difficulties multiplied by physical hardships in continental Europe during the 16th, 17th an 18th centuries to make the mind fertile to emigration to America. In 1681 William Penn received from King Charles II of England, 40,000 square miles of land in America, in liquidation of a debt of 16,000 pounds the British government owed William Penna€™s father. The journey to Pennsylvania consumed from eighteen to twenty six weeks.[3] The first part was the journey from the Palatine down the Rhine River to Rotterdam, in our case, or to some other seaport {note that for the family of Johann Martin Kirschman, the embarkation port was Amsterdam}. The Passengers were usually crowded, with insufficient and improper food and water, subjecting many to all sorts of diseases which resulted in the death of many, especially the children. It was of early concern to the rulers of the Province of the emigration of the Germans to English Pennsylvania. From the dock, the arrivals go to the City Hall, sign the above oaths, and square their account with the Captain.
To what extent Christian Cashman, his wife and family participated in these sufferings is not known, but it is safe to assume that they endured many trials. It is on these ship and oath lists above referred to, that is found the name of JOHAN CHRISTIAN KIRSCHENMANN.
The Foreigners whose names are underwritten, imported in the Ship Hamilton, Commanded by Charles Smith, from Rotterdam, did this day take and subscribe the usual Qualifications. Only the names of males above age sixteen appear, but tradition states he was accompanied by his wife, Catharan (whose maiden name has not been ascertained), and five of his six children,[7] viz: Christian, Barbra, George, John and Susanah. On the Ship Edinburgh, James Russell Commander, from Rotterdam, {Note: the author made an error here.
At the same source for the year 1767, under name Martin Kirschman, a carpenter, 1 horse and 2 cows, tax L2.[4] The surname Kerschner appears frequently in Berks County records. Martin Kirschman and his wife Agnes, Daughter Elizabeth, born September 14, 1775, baptized November 26, 1775. This is all the data found on this family, and no descendants have been ascertained at the time of writing.
List of inhabitants of Providence Township, Bedford County, Pennsylvania, made subject by law to the performance of militia duty, taken by Peter Morgert, the 27th Jany.
Martin Cashman a€“ The Ancestral File of the LDS Church contains a family from a€?Paa€?, where the fathera€™s name is a€?Martin Cashmana€? born 1764 in Pa. I know that Martin Jr and Elizabeth (wife of Jesse Orendorff) moved their families to Breckenridge County Kentucky in the early 1800s.
Martin Sr's wife Agnes Schwartz had two brothers, Frederick and Chrisian who located in Botetourt County Virginia around 1790-1800.
There has been quite a bit of misinformation published for this family, and so I think it is important to put down in writing a summary of the documentation that may help researchers find the correct trail to our ancestors.A  For additional information on this family while living back in Germany (Wuerttemberg) before their immigration to America, please see Our Kirschenmann Haritage in Wuerttemberg, Germany by Lionel Nebeker also available on this web-site in the a€?Librarya€?.
Another error that has been perpetuated is that our a€?Hans Martina€? must have been a young boy, under age 16, when he came to North America, and that his name was therefore not recorded, but that the a€?Hans Martin Kirschmana€? listed on the passengera€™s list must have been his father.A  Indeed, the man listed on that passengera€™s list (and wea€™ll discuss that below) was our only immigrant by that name--and he was 20 years old at the time of his migration. Not far away, in the village of Goettelfingen (about 6-7 miles northwest of Pfalzgrafenweiler)--as the crow flies, lived the family of Christian Schwarz.A  He was not born there, and we do not have any indication of his homeland, but he moved there in time to marry Anna Maria Kuhn (b.
Paul Lunde, in his article a€?Pillars of Hercules, Sea of Darknessa€?, writes that for the Latin Middle Ages, the Atlantic was Mare Tenebrosum; for the Arabs, Bahr al-Zulamat. This name - and its analogue, a€?The Dark Sea,a€? Bahr al-Muzlim - sufficiently indicates medieval mana€™s fear and ignorance of the Atlantic Ocean. The Arabs used other names also, such as the scholarly Uqiyanus, directly transliterated from the Greek word okeanos, and even, in later sources from the western Islamic world, Bahr al-Atlasi [The Sea of the Atlas Mountains] - an exact rendering of the word Atlantic. The most frequent Arabic name for the Atlantic was al-Bahr al-Muhit, the Circumambient, or All-Encompassing, Ocean. The ancient belief that nothing lay beyond the Pillars of Hercules became a tremendous psychological barrier. It is a generally accepted opinion that this sea - the Atlantic - is the source of all the other seas.
The Historical Annals, which presumably gave a much more detailed account of this and other voyages, is lost. The voyages of the mugharrirun and Khashkhash were private undertakings, apparently motivated by curiosity and bravado. We know little for sure about how he supported himself during such extensive travels within and beyond the lands of Islam.
The information we have gathered here is the fruit of long years of research and painful efforts of our voyages and journeys across the East and the West, and of the various nations that lie beyond the regions of Islam. The geographical sections, which are among the most interesting to modern readers, are either accounts of his own very far-flung travels or, where there are gaps in his personal experience, accounts gleaned from sources he considered reliable.


Al-Jahiz claims that the Indus, the river of Sind, comes from the Nile and adduces the presence of crocodiles in the Indus as proof. Al-Masa€™udi claims he visited China, yet he actually depended very much on previous accounts to write his section on China and what he learned from contemporaries like Abu Zayd.
Al-Masa€™udi supplies a lot of theoretical information about world geography in Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems, which derives from earlier Greek works that he studied in Baghdad and Damascus. This concept of sea division is similar to the Chinese division of five great seas in Zhou Qufeia€™s Land beyond the Passes examined in Hyunhee Parka€™s Mapping the Chinese and Islamic Worlds, although the actual divisions and standards differ from each other. In the Sea of Rum [the Mediterranean] near the island of Iqritish [Crete], planks of ships of Indian teak, which were perforated and stitched together with fibers of the coconut tree, were found.
This discovery near Crete of the planks of a boat from the Indian Ocean surprised geographers of the 10th century, who correctly knew that the Indian Ocean was not linked to the Mediterranean. Ahmad Shboul notes that al-Masa€™udi is distinguished above his contemporaries for the extent of his interest in and coverage of the non-Islamic lands and peoples of his day. His normal inquiries of travelers and extensive reading of previous writers were supplemented in the case of India with his personal experiences in the western part of the subcontinent. He described previous rulers in China, underlined the importance of the revolt by Huang Chao in the late Tang dynasty, and mentioned, though less detailed than for India, Chinese beliefs. Al-Masa€™udi was also very well informed about Byzantine affairs, even internal political events and the unfolding of palace coups. One example of Al-Masa€™udia€™s influence on Muslim knowledge of the Byzantine world is that we can trace the use of the name Istanbul (in place of Constantinople) to his writings of the year 947, centuries before the eventual Ottoman use of this term.
Al-Masa€?udi also made great efforts to find out as much as possible about remote areas of the world. There is a certain amount about Africa, but there he is more concerned with the geography and natural history, such as exports of panther skins, the habits of the rhinoceros and the course of the Nile, than he is with the customs of the people. More surprising is the lack of information on North Africa and Spain, which at that time was Muslim.
In general his surviving works reveal an intensely curious mind, a universalist eagerly acquiring as extensive a background of the entire world as possible. Theories of pre-Columbus Arab arrival to the Americas state that medieval Arab explorers (from Spain and Africa) may have reached the Americas (and possibly made contact with the indigenous peoples of the Americas) at some point before Christopher Columbusa€™ first voyage to the Americas in 1492. Numerous evidence suggests that Arabs from Spain and West Africa arrived to the Americas at least five centuries before Columbus.
In al-Masa€™udia€™s map of the world, there is a large area in the ocean, southwest of Africa, which he referred to as Ard Majhoola [Arabic for a€?the unknown territorya€?]. There are some scholars such as Professor Ivan Van Sertima and Shaykh Abdallah Hakim Quick, and articles in various Muslim publications beginning in 1996, who assert the pre-Columbian presence of Muslim Africans in the Americas.
It is one thing to read about towering figures in the ancient Muslim world like Al-Idrisi (#219), Al-Biruni (#214.3), Al-Masa€™udi and many, many others whose contributions laid the foundations of the modern sciences of history, geography, cartography, and sea navigation.
To read about the existence of West Africa Muslim scholars and monarchs like Mansa Musa and Abubakari II, is titillating. These references and more all point to what the non-expert activist dismissed as a€?wish-fulfillmenta€?. The list of distinguished Non-Muslim African American scholars who have written on the subject is long, stemming from as far back as the 1920s.
Professor Ivan Van Sertima is an internationally acclaimed historian, linguist, and anthropologist. These scholarly, ground-breaking works, focusing upon African Muslim (as opposed to European Viking) pre-Columbia exploration of North America, include those written by what is believed to be the first Western author to write on the subject, Harvard Professor Leo Weiner (Africa and the Discovery of America, 1920-22). These works compliment references in the writings of Christopher Columbus, Balboa, and other European explorers, to those very same Muslim African explorers (specifically The Mandinka a€“the people of Kunta Kinte, ancestor of Alex Haley, author of Roots, and The Autobiography of Malcolm X) who were already present in the Caribbean and North America, before the bearers of the Cross arrived (e.g.
Lunde, Paul, Caroline Stone, Kegan Paul, Masa€™udi, The Meadows of Gold, The Abbasids, translation, London and New York, 1989. 1733 in Pfalzgrafenweiler to Johann Martin Kirschenmann, a rafter there, who was the son of Jacob Kirschenmann, who was a baker there.
And on the motion of Isaac Sinclair, the Executor therein named, who made oath together with Alexander Simmons his Security entered into and acknowledged their Bond in the Penalty of Five Hundred Dollars conditioned as the Law directs Certificate is granted him for obtaining Probate thereof in due form.
It was the largest tract of land ever granted in America, under which Penn was made the proprietor and invested with the privilege of creating a political government. Pleasant township, Adams County, Pa., in 1788, it seems highly improbable this entry could refer to him. 1733 in Pfalzgrafenweiler to Johann Martin Kirschenmann, a rafter there, who was the son of Jacob Kirschenmann, who was a baker there.A  This date matches exactly with the record in the Pfalzgrafenweiler parish given above.
Both phrases meant a€?The Sea of Darkness,a€? and anyone who has looked west from the northern coast of Portugal and seen the heavy cloudbanks lying across the horizon will admit the name is well-suited to the Atlantic. Writing almost 1400 years after Aristotle, and perfectly aware that the earth is spherical, al-Masa€™udi could still compare it to an egg floating in water. They tell marvelous stories of it, which we have related in our work entitled The Historical Annals, where we speak of what was seen there by men who entered it at the risk of their lives and from which some have returned safe and sound.
If he went north, he may well have plundered the coasts of Portugal, France or even England.
The author of this work compares himself to a man, who having found pearls of all kinds and colours and gathers them together into a necklace of and makes them into an ornament that its possessor guards with great care. I do not know where he could have found such an argument, but he puts the theory forward un his book, Of the Great Cities and Marvels of the Earth. The eighty-five sources that he lists at the beginning of his book include Ibn Khurradadhbiha€™s Book of Routes and Realms.
It begins with traditional Greek theories about the shape of the earth and the division of the lands and seas. Whatever form it took, systemized information about sea divisions was crucial to geographers who sought to understand the shape of the world, and they were able to receive information about the seas from those who actually sailed in the vast ocean to reach their destinations. They were of ships that had been wrecked and tossed about by the waves from the waters of the seas. This could only explain how the individual planks flowed into the Mediterranean, al-Masa€™udi concludes.
Other authors, even Christians writing in Arabic in the Caliphate, had less to say about the Byzantine Empire than al-Masa€™udi.
He demonstrates a deep understanding of historical change, tracing current conditions to the unfolding of events over generations and centuries. Again, while he may have read such earlier Arabic authors as Ibn Khurradad, Ibn al-Faqih, Ibn Rusta and Ibn Fadlan, al-Masa€™udi presented most of his material based on his personal observations and contacts made while travelling. He recorded the effect of westward migration upon the Byzantines, especially the invading Bulgars.
This was clearly not easy, but he managed to glean a certain amount about the Slavs, for example, small numbers of whom traded regularly in Baghdad, as well as the other peoples of Central and Eastern Europe. This is slightly surprising, since the large number of African slaves in Baghdad would have made gathering information relatively simple. He does say a little about Galicia, but clearly al-Andalus did not interest Baghdad as much as Baghdad interested al-Andalus. The geographical range of his material and the reach of his ever inquiring spirit is truly impressive.
In any case, each of my works contains information omitted in the book that preceded it, information which could not be ignored and knowledge of which is of the greatest importance and a genuine need. Proponents of these theories use as evidence, reports of expeditions and voyages conducted by Arab navigators and adventurers who allegedly reached the Americas from the late ninth century onwards. Arab sailors in the 10th century sailed westward from the Spanish port of Delba [Palos] into the Ocean of Darkness and Fog. The oral traditions, scholarly writings, and academic research of experts ranging from centuries ago in the ancient world, to the present are offered as an argument. On the contrary, ancient Arabic language maps, Native American tribes with African names and words clearly embedded in their languages, statues, diaries, artifacts, etc. They include not only Muslim African Americans like Clyde Ahmad Winters (who wrote a series of brilliant articles in the magazine Al-Ittihad in the late 1970s, including a€?Islam in Early North and South Americaa€?, and a€?The Influence of Mande Languages on Americaa€?,) and Shaykh Abdallah Hakim Quick (who is a widely respected and accomplished historian with a doctorate in West African studies, and author of Deeper Roots), but also scholars from the African continent - Dr. Weiner heads a list of historians and social scientists who were neither African nor African Americans (including Basil Davidson, Robert Silverburg, Cyrus Gordon (Before Columbus, 1971), Legrand H.
1770 -- little is known of his life, but he was listed as one of Johanna€™s sons in the 1804 will. Johna€™s Evangelical Lutheran Church in a€?Elizabeth Towna€? (now Hagerstown) Maryland on 13 Nov. Liberty being granted the other Executors to join in the probate thereof when he shall think fit. 1681 in Tumlingen, Schwarzwaldkreis, Wuerttemberg, as the son of Hans Jacob Schmid and Anna Maria Helber) who had married on 2 Aug. It was ill-omened: for Christians, the word tenebrosum suggested evil and evoked the Prince of Darkness. Two of these, The Green Sea and The Circumambient Ocean, appear in the passage just quoted from the famous 10th century Arab historian and geographer al-Masa€™udi, whose works are full of fascinating geographical information.
The Babylonians, and perhaps the Sumerians before them, envisaged the inhabited portion of the world as an upturned boat, a gufa, floating in the sea.
The Arab historian Ibn Khaldun, writing 400 years after al-Masa€™udi and almost 1900 years after Aristotle, compared the inhabited portion of the world to a grape floating in a saucer of water.
Thus, a man from Cordoba named Khashkhash got together a number of young men from the same city and they set sail on the ocean in ships they had fitted out. But the story occurs in the context of a discussion of the All-Encompassing Sea, not the coasts of northern Europe, which were relatively well-known to the Arab geographers.
Medieval historians focused their attention on the ruler and his court, and to a certain extent on the a€?urban elite.a€? The doings of private citizens, particularly of the humbler classes, are only incidentally mentioned by Arab historians of the Middle Ages - or indeed, by their Christian counterparts. As both a historian and geographer al-Masa€™udi presents China in the context of the entire world known to him in his Muruj al-dhahab wa-mdadin al-jawhar [Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems]. It is an excellent work, but since the author never sailed, nor indeed traveled sufficiently to be acquainted with the kingdoms and cities, he did not know that the Indus in Sind has perfectly well-known sources. Like Ibn Khurradadhbih, he states that China was one of the seven ancient nations that existed before Islam and claims that its people descended from Noah.
A general account of the seas based on Greek tradition ends with the Abyssinian Sea, that is, the Indian Ocean.


Muslim geographers always began their accounts with the descriptions of seas and islands, and they often updated these discussions based on new information from contemporary sailors of the Indian Ocean. This [type of ship] exists only in the Abyssinian sea [the Indian Ocean] because all of the ships of the Sea of Rum and the west [emending Arab to gharb] are nailed, while the ships of the Abyssinian sea are not fastened with iron nails, because the sea water dissolves the iron, so the nails become thin and weak in the sea. The seas did not connect to each other until the Suez Canal was constructed in the late 19th century.
He also described the geography of many lands beyond the Caliphate, as well as the customs and religious beliefs of many peoples.
He perceived the significance of interstate relations and of the interaction of Muslims and Hindus in the various states of the subcontinent.
He surveyed the vast areas inhabited by Turkic peoples, commenting on the extensive authority of the Khaqan previously, though no longer in al-Masa€™udia€™s time. He has some knowledge of other peoples of eastern and western Europe, even far away Britain.
Thus I have reviewed every century, together with the events and deeds which have marked it, up until the present. They returned after a long absence with fabulous treasures from a strange and curious land or unknown territory. The truth is that there is such a constantly growing, extensive body of cultural, archaeological, anthropological, and linguistic evidence of Western and Northern African Muslim pre-Columbian American (and Caribbean) presence, that those who study the evidence and continue to deny the obvious, may reveal themselves to be rooted in old, racist, European renditions of American history.
Both Idrisi and Masa€™udi wrote of Muslim African trans-Atlantic excursions to the Western world.
Sulayman Nyang, the Gambian-born Howard University Professor of African Studies , as well as Kofi Wangara, and others .
1777 [Washington County, Maryland Church Records of the 18th Century, by Family Lines Publication, 1988. This old Sumerian word was used to describe the round-bottomed reed boats used in the marshes of southern Iraq, where they are still known by the same name.
We know as much as we do about the efforts of Prince Henry the Navigator to find the sea-route to the Indies because these expeditions were sponsored by the Crown, and the same is true of the four voyages of Columbus. Thus having been well traveled throughout both the a€?Abbasid empire and India during his lifetime, al-Masa€™udi acquired a variety of sources that he used to compile his encyclopedic historical and geographical masterpiece. In contrast, al-Masa€™udi supplies richer and more detailed description than Ibn khurradadhbih does, providing detailed geographical facts and a genealogy of the imperial family (which is unreliable, however, because it provides names that are difficult to trace in contemporary Chinese sources). Al-Masa€™udi portrays the Indian Ocean as one mass of water comprising seven connected seas. So people [of the Abyssinian sea] used stitching with fibers instead of the nails, and [the ships are] coated with grease and lime.
Yet, as we now know, Abu Zayd and al-Masa€™udia€™s suggested route is unimaginable because small dhow planks could never have floated all the way from the Sea of China to the Pacific Ocean, through the straight of the Bering Sea and into the Arctic Ocean, down Norwegian Sea near Scandinavia, and then through the Strait of Gibraltar at Spain in order to finally enter the Mediterranean Sea. He conveyed the great diversity of Turkic peoples, including the distinction between sedentary and nomadic Turks. He knows less of West Africa, though he names such contemporary states as Zagawa, Kawkaw and Ghana. Furthermore, there is to be found at the beginning of this book a description of the seas and continents, of lands inhabited and uninhabited, of the lives of foreign kings, their histories and those of all the different peoples.
It is a literary prize awarded every two years a€?for a work of excellence in literature and the humanities relating to the cultural heritage of Africa and the African diaspora.a€? Van Sertimaa€™s later compilation, African Presence in Early America, is considered a definitive work on the subject. Documents, logs and maps were placed in royal archives and were available to the historians of the time, whereas knowledge of the mugharrirun and Khashkhash has come down to us only because of the chance interest of al-Idrisi and al-Masa€™udi. Each of these seas has its own name and features; the seventh of these lying at the easternmost end is the Sea of China. This proves, and God knows better, the connection of the seas, and that the sea near China and the country of Slid [Korea] goes all round the country of the Turks, and reaches the sea of the west [the Mediterranean?] through some straits of the encircling ocean. He noted their independent attitude, the absence of a strong central authority among them, and their paganism. If God gives me life, if He extends my days and grants me the favor of continuing in this world, I will follow this book with another, which will contain information and facts on all kinds of interesting subjects. It is probable, however, that they entered sailorsa€™ lore along the Atlantic seaboard and joined the tales of other fabulous islands to the west - the Antilles, Brazil, St.
This complete description of the Indian Oceana€™s seven seas supplements the missing part of the extant manuscript for the original volume of Accounts of China and India in 851.
Did shipbuilders in the Mediterranean Sea build ships without using nails, consciously or unconsciously imitating dhows?
He was very well informed on Rus trade with the Byzantines and on the competence of the Rus in sailing merchant vessels and warships. A present day analogy would be the use of the phrases a€?I am going Downtowna€? or a€?I am going into the Citya€? by those who live near say New York City, Chicago or London respectively.
Without limiting myself to any particular order or method of setting them down, I will include all sorts of useful information and curious tales, just as they spring to mind. Van Sertima appeared before a Congressional Committee to challenge the a€?Columbus mytha€?.
Although his biographer Ahmad Shboul questions the furthest extent sometimes asserted for al-Masa€™udia€™s travels, even his more conservative estimation is impressive: Al-Masa€™udia€™s travels actually occupied most of his life from at least 915 to very near the end. Lunde and Stone note that al-Masa€™udi in his Tanbih states that the revised edition of Muruj al-dhahab contained 365 chapters.
We may never know the story, but we can understand from the passage how Aba Zayd and al-Masa€™udi understood the geography of the world during their time.
This work will be called The Reunion of the Assemblies, a collection of facts and stories mixed together, to provide a sequel to my earlier writings and to complement my other works. His journeys took him to most of the Persian provinces, Armenia, Azerbaijan and other regions of the Caspian Sea; as well as to Arabia, Syria and Egypt. He also travelled to the Indus Valley, and other parts of India, especially the western coast; and he voyaged more than once to East Africa. OTHERWISE, BEGIN SCROLLING DOWN FOR A TREASURE-TROVE OF RARE AND BEAUTIFUL PHOTOS OF OLD JAPAN. Lunde and Stone in the introduction to their English translation state that al-Masa€™udi received much information on China from Abu Zaid al-Sirafi whom he met on the coast of the Persian Gulf. In Syria al-Masa€™udi met the renowned Leo of Tripoli who was a Byzantine admiral who converted to Islam.
ENAMI WEARING SAMURAI ARMOR, TAKING A REST BETWEEN POSES IN HIS YOKOHAMA STUDIO, CA.1898-1900. ENAMI, OTHER WELL-KNOWN JAPANESE PHOTOGRAPHERS WHO OPERATED DURING THE MEIJI-ERA (1868-1912) ARE MENTIONED THROUGHOUT THE COMMENTS.I HOPE YOU FIND THE STORY AND DATA BOTH INTERESTING AND HELPFUL. In Egypt he found a copy of a Frankish king list from Clovis to Louis IV that had been written by an Andalusian bishop. FOR THOSE WHO ARE HERE PRIMARILY TO LOOK AT THE IMAGES, I HOPE THAT YOU EXPERIENCE SOME ENJOYMENT IN GAZING AT A FEW OF ENAMI'S"LOST PICTURES" OF OLD JAPAN. THOSE THAT LIVE FOR DISCOVERING NEW DATA AND CONNECTING THE DOTS WILL NO DOUBT FIND SOME EYE-OPENING REVELATIONS HERE.A OF COURSE, WE ALL LOVE KIMBEI KUSAKABE AND THE REST OF THOSE ILLUSTRIOUS JAPANESE PIONEERS OF PHOTOGRAPHY WHO GOT THEIR START LONG BEFORE ENAMI OPENED HIS OWN MEIJI-ERA STUDIO.
THEIR BEST WORK IS ENOUGH TO TAKE YOUR BREATH AWAY.HOWEVER, ENAMI ALSO HAD HIS FANS AND FRIENDS, BOTH AS A PERSON AND AS A PHOTOGRAPHER. AS YOU SCROLL DOWN THESE PAGES, FOR A FEW MOMENTS YOU MAY STEP INTO ENAMI'S SHOES, AND TAKE A PEAK THROUGH HIS LENS.A LIKE SO MANY OTHERS --- SOME NOW FAMOUS, BUT MOST BEING FORGOTTEN --- ENAMI DEDICATED HIS LIFE TO CAPTURING, AS BOTH ART AND DOCUMENT,A WORLD THAT WAS QUICKLY VANISHING BEFORE HIS EYES.
AS THIS SITE IS A PERSONAL HOMAGE TO ENAMI, YOU WILL FIND SOME AMATEUR ELEMENTS, AND THE OCCASIONAL PITFALL. AT ALL TIMES, PLEASE "EAT THE MEAT, AND SPIT OUT THE BONES" WHILE DIGGING FOR VISUAL TREASURE.DISCOVERING THE OCCASIONAL GEM OF A PICTURE, OR ODD BIT OF INFORMATION, WILL HOPEFULLY MAKE THE SCROLLING WELL WORTH IT.
The general wording seen above was fairly common to all photographic self-promotion during the Meiji-era, and actually contains less specifics than some of his studio ads which he placed in various guide books of the time. OGAWA, who was actually a year younger than Enami, was still his "elder" in terms of experience. It was photographed by Enami's friendly competitor and neighbor Kozaburo Tamamura, whose studio was located at No.2 Benten Street. It would be built in 1894 just down the street on the right hand side, and appear in endless views and postcards as the most recognizable landmark of Benten Street. Other images of Enami's studio -- both interior and exterior views -- are shown farther down on this page.A  While offering many of the same services and productions as his contemporaries, he also engaged in other activities that made him unique.
Further, while no photographer did "everything", Enami worked and published in more processes and formats than any other Japanese photographer of his time.
A He was one of only a few photographers born during Japan's old Edo-Bakumatsu period, who went on to photograph right through to the Showa period of Emperor Hirohito.Enami was also one of the few to experience, and then successfully outgrow his roots as a traditional maker of the classic, large-format "Yokohama Shashin" albums. While successfully embracing the smaller stereoview and lantern slide formats, he added to that a portfolio of Taisho-era "street photography" that maintained his own unique and artistic content. Enami and Kimbei Kusakabe are now the only two Japanese photographers known to have a surviving list of their commercial 2-D images. While Enami's 2-D portfolio contained a sprinkling of older, public domain images, his 3-D images and slides made from them were wholly his own.A THE 3-D CATALOG "S 26. Girls Looking at Pictures" A Maiko and two Geisha Looking at Stereoviews in Enami's Yokohama Studio. One of over 1000 cataloged 3-D images of old Japan.A THE "CATALOG OF COLORED LANTERN SLIDES AND STEREOSCOPIC VIEWS"A  Not surprisingly, Enami matched his older Catalog of Meiji-era Prints with a separately published catalog of his classic STEREOVIEWS. In the case of the 3-D Catalog, the lantern-slides were all made directly from one half of the stereoview negatives.
The Cover and two sample pages of the Stereoview Catalog are shown just below in the Enami Activity List numbers (6) and (9). ENAMI'S ACTIVITIES and CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE WORLD OF JAPANESE PHOTOGRAPHYA A  For the moment, based on a wide range of primary sources, it is now clear that T.




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