Catana Starks was the first African-American woman to coach a collegiate Division I level all-men’s golf team. Critelli, the former Executive Chairman of Pitney Bowes, had no experience in the movie industry when he acquired the rights in 2006, but he was determined to bring the story to life.
Standing just 5 feet 5 inches tall, Henson’s height made her a perfect fit for the role. It was Critelli who pushed for movie heavy-weight Michael Clark Duncan (left in a still courtesy of From the Rough Productions) in the role of Roger.
Tom Felton, or Draco Malfoy as he’s best known, signed on to play Edward, a member of the golf team. When the film is released in select theaters April 25, he is confident that word of mouth with help the movie.
At the Potsdam Conference, held on the outskirts of Berlin from mid-July to early August, the allies debated the fate of Soviet-occupied Poland. On the eve of American involvement in World War II, on August 14, 1941, Roosevelt and Churchill had issued a joint declaration of goals for postwar peace, known as the Atlantic Charter.
Many officials on both sides knew that the Soviet-American relationship would dissolve into renewed hostility upon the closing of the war, and events proved them right.
Truman, on March 12, 1947, announced $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey, where “terrorist activities…led by Communists” jeopardized “democratic” governance.
The European Recovery Program (ERP), popularly known as the Marshall Plan, pumped enormous sums into Western Europe. The Berlin Blockade and resultant Allied airlift was one of the first major crises of the Cold War. In the summer of 1949, American officials launched the North Atlantic Treaty Alliance (NATO), a mutual defense pact in which the US and Canada were joined by England, France, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Italy, Portugal, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland.
A new chapter in the Cold War began on October 1, 1949, when the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) led by Mao Tse-tung declared victory against “Kuomintang” Nationalists led by the Western-backed Chiang Kai-shek.
The communist world system rested, in part, on the relationship between the two largest communist nations — the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China.
After Japan surrendered in September 1945, a US-Soviet joint occupation had paved the way for the division of Korea. In the spring of 1950, Stalin hesitantly endorsed North Korean leader Kim Il Sung’s plan to ‘liberate’ the South by force, a plan heavily influenced by Mao’s recent victory in China.
General Dwight Eisenhower defeated Illinois Governor Adlai Stevenson in the 1952 presidential election and Stalin died in March 1953. The world was never the same after the United States leveled Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 with nuclear bombs. The United States detonated the first thermonuclear weapon, or hydrogen bomb (using fusion explosives of theoretically limitless power) on November 1, 1952. As Germany fell at the close of World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union each sought to acquire elements of the Nazi’s V-2 superweapon program. In response, the US government rushed to perfect its own ICBM technology and launch its own satellites and astronauts into space. While outer space captivated the world’s imagination, the Cold War still captured its anxieties. Although it took a back seat to space travel and nuclear weapons, the advent of modern computing was yet another major Cold War scientific innovation, the effects of which were only just beginning to be understood. Joseph McCarthy, Republican Senator from Wisconsin, fueled fears during the early 1950s that communism was rampant and growing. Joseph McCarthy burst onto the national scene during a speech in Wheeling, West Virginia on February 9, 1950. Within a ten-month span beginning in 1949, the USSR developed a nuclear bomb, China fell to Communism, and over 300,000 American soldiers were deployed to fight land war in Korea.
During the war, Julius Rosenberg worked briefly, and had access to classified information, at the US Army Signal Corps Laboratory in New Jersey. The environment of fear and panic instigated by McCarthyism led to the arrest of many innocent people. With growing anti-communist excitement and a tough election on the horizon, Truman gave in to pressure in March 1947 and issued Executive Order 9835, establishing loyalty reviews for federal employees.
Lacking the legal grounds to abolish the CPUSA, officials instead sought to expose and contain CPUSA influence.
HUAC made repeated visits to Hollywood during the 1950s, and their interrogation of celebrities often began with the same intimidating refrain: “Are you now, or have you ever been, a member of the Communist Party?” Many witnesses cooperated, and “named names,” naming anyone they knew who had ever been associated with communist-related groups or organizations.
Many accused of Communist sentiments vehemently denied such allegations, including the one of the most well-known Americans at the time, African American actor and signer Paul Robeson.
Anti-communist ideology valorized overt patriotism, religious conviction, and faith in capitalism.
American religion, meanwhile, was fixated on what McCarthy, in his 1950 Wheeling speech, called an “all-out battle between communistic atheism and Christianity.” Cold warriors in the US routinely referred to a fundamental incompatibility between “godless communism” and god-fearing Americanism. In an atmosphere in which ideas of national belonging and citizenship were so closely linked to religious commitment, Americans during the early Cold War years attended church, professed a belief in a supreme being, and stressed the importance of religion in their lives at higher rates than in any time in American history.
While the link between American nationalism and religion grew much closer during the Cold War, many Americans began to believe that just believing in almost any religion was better than being an atheist.
Joseph McCarthy, an Irish Catholic, made common cause with prominent religious anti-communists, including southern evangelist Billy James Hargis of Christian Crusade, a popular radio and television ministry that peaked in the 1950s and 1960s.
Twenty million people saw the “Army-McCarthy Hearings” unfold over thirty-six days in 1954. Congressman Richard Nixon, for instance, used his place on HUAC and his public role in the campaign against Alger Hiss to catapult himself into the White House alongside Eisenhower and later into the presidency. Based on the logic of militarized containment established by NSC-68 and American Cold War strategy, interventions in Korea and Vietnam were seen as appropriate American responses to the ascent of communism in China. The Cuban Revolution seemed to confirm the fears of many Americans that the spread of communism could not be stopped. Instead of dismantling its military after World War II, as the United States had after every major conflict, the Cold War facilitated a new permanent defense establishment.
A radical critic of US policy, Mills was one of the first thinkers to question the effects of massive defense spending, which, he said, corrupted the ruling class, or “power elite,” who now had the potential to take the country into war for the sake of corporate profits.
In Eisenhower’s formulation, the “military-industrial complex” referred specifically to domestic connections between arms manufactures, members of Congress, and the Department of Defense.
As American strategy became consumed with thwarting Russian power and the concomitant global spread of communist, to foreign policy officials it increasingly made little difference whether insurgencies or independence movements had direct involvement with the Soviet Union, so long as a revolutionary movement or government could in some way be linked to international communism. American planners felt that successful decolonization could demonstrate the superiority of democracy and capitalism against competing Soviet models. The architects of American power needed to sway the citizens of decolonizing nations toward the United States. In June 1987, American President Ronald Reagan stood at Berlin Wall and demanded that Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev “Tear down this wall!” Less than three years later, amid civil unrest in November 1989, East German authorities announced that their citizens were free to travel to and from West Berlin. Partisans fight to claim responsibility for the break-up of the Soviet Union and the ending of the Cold War. This chapter was edited by Ari Cushner, with content contributions by Michael Brenes, Ari Cushner, Michael Franczak, Joseph Haker, Jonathan Hunt, Jun Suk Hyun, Zack Jacobson, Micki Kaufman, Lucie Kyrova, Celeste Day Moore, Joseph Parrott, Colin Reynolds, and Tanya Roth. Meet Robert Gordon Duncan, the pioneering Portland shock-jock who was the first person ever sent to prison for cursing on the air, in 1930.
An Oregon City man claimed he'd inherited the rights from his father, and demanded to be allowed to cut it up and haul it away. It was left there by astronaut Jim Irwin at the request of a friend from Bend — who gave him a sliver of Oregon lava to leave on the moon's surface. A Portland real-estate guy found a loophole in the law and claimed a patch of beach for his own, and his friends in the state Legislature tried to keep it that way. Legendary Hollywood voice man Mel Blanc's teachers weren't too impressed with his voice talents, but Oregon radio listeners and cartoon fans sure were.
The secret society of anonymous xenophobic vigilantes spread through Oregon society like a virus in 1922, and by the time elections were held that year, it was ready to seize the reins of power.
There was something shockingly sudden about the Ku Klux Klan’s seizure of the reins of power in Oregon in 1922. It’s important to understand that the Klan in 1922 was different from the Klan in 1866. The original Klan of the 1860s had targeted freed former slaves and their white allies, and was quickly shut down in the early 1870s after leaving a trail of bloody corpses and terrified survivors strewn about the countryside.
By contrast, this new Klan would be, if you will, a kinder, gentler terrorist organization.
With an eye on public relations, the new Klan controlled the level of vigilantism and terrorism carefully, seeking that perfect level of edgy, attractive muscularity while avoiding becoming extreme enough to threaten mainstream society. In due course the kleagle would identify and deputize sub-kleagles to go out and repeat the process at other towns. As we know from last week, Luther Powell did a yeoman’s job of working this system in Oregon. The state’s Republican governor, Ben Olcott, was an outspoken and intransigent opponent of the Klan. The Klan would get both Olcott and McArthur defeated in that election, replaced with men who were either Klansmen or at least friendly to the Klan’s agenda. A new report (PDF) from the Bureau of Justice Statistics paints an unsettling picture of juvenile detention centers in the U.S.
According to the survey of minors incarcerated at both privately and publicly run facilities, 9.5 percent of the jailed kids reported that they had been sexually victimized in the previous 12 months.
Cleaver Family Reunion opens on March 29, 2013 without advance press screenings, offering instead a Los Angeles premiere on Thursday, March 28, 2013 at the Downtown Independent, 251 South Main Street, Los Angeles, CA 90012. The film stars a talented ensemble of new faces: Trae Ireland (James), Sandy Simmons (Stacy),  Efe (Grandma Bertha), Tamara Goodwin ( Khadijah),  Arthur Richardson (Popp),  Melvin Gregg (William), Dylan Synclaire (Harry), Kevin Yarbrough (Nippy),  Justine Herron (Sunshine), and more.
Cleaver Family Reunion is produced by David Michael Latt, David Rimawi, and Paul Bales, and directed and written by H.M.
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The purpose of the Legal Eagles Blog is to inform others, and provoke thought & positive change. Critelli, who had recently graduated from the University of Southern California  with a degree in film and communications. Casting a short actress was key because Starks short stature and soft-spoken nature were critical aspects of her character.
Critelli says that this film aligned with Felton’s availability and career trajectory. The Germans had pillaged their way across Eastern Europe and the Soviets had pillaged their way back across it at the cost of millions of lives. Toward the end of the meeting, the American delegation received word that Manhattan Project scientists had successfully tested an atomic bomb. An alliance of convenience during World War II to bring down Hitler’s Germany was not enough to erase decades of mutual suspicions. An adaptation of Wilson’s Fourteen Points, the Atlantic Charter established the creation of the United Nations. From 1948-1952 the US invested $13 billion toward reconstruction while simultaneously loosening trade barriers. The Soviet Union would formalize its own collective defensive agreement in 1955, the Warsaw Pact, which included Albania, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and East Germany.
The Kuomintang retreated to the island of Taiwan and the CCP took over the mainland under the red flag of the People’s Republic of China (PRC).
In November 1947, the UN passed a resolution that a united government in Korea should be created but the Soviet Union refused to cooperate. While he did not desire a military confrontation with the US, Stalin thought correctly that he could encourage his Chinese comrades to support North Korea if the war turned against the DPRK.
Troops landed at Inchon, a port city around 30 miles away from Seoul, and took the city on September 28.


To stifle communist expansion southward, the United States would send arms, offer military advisors, prop up corrupt politicians, stop elections, and, eventually, send over 500,000 troops, of whom nearly 60,000 would be lost before the communists finally reunified the country.
The blast measured over 10 megatons and generated an inferno five miles wide with a mushroom cloud 25 miles high and 100 miles across.
A devastating rocket that had terrorized England, the V-2 was capable of delivering its explosive payload up to a distance of nearly 600 miles, and both nations sought to capture the scientists, designs, and manufacturing equipment to make it work. In 1958, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was created as a successor to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). In 1958, following the humiliation of the Sputnik launches, Eisenhower authorized the creation of an Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) housed within the Department of Defense (later changed to DARPA).
This intensified Cold War tensions felt by every segment of society, from government officials to ordinary American citizens.
Still, some Americans accused of supplying top-secret information to the Soviets were, in fact, spies. Forced to respond, President Truman arranged a partisan congressional investigation designed to discredit McCarthy. The Communist Party of the USA (CPUSA) formed in the aftermath of the 1917 Russian Revolution when the Bolsheviks created a Communist International (the Comintern) and invited socialists from around the world to join.
Following a series of predecessor committees, the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) was established in 1938, then reorganized after the war and given the explicit task of investigating communism. In 1956, black entertainer and activist Paul Robeson chided his HUAC inquisitors, claiming that they had put him on trial not for his politics, but because he had spent his life “fighting for the rights” of his people. Religious conservatives championed the idea of traditional nuclear god-fearing family as a bulwark against the spread of atheistic totalitarianism.
Americans sought to differentiate themselves from godless communists through public displays of religiosity. In June 1951, on the floor of Congress, McCarthy charged that then-Secretary of Defense (and former secretary of state) Gen. The Army’s head counsel, Joseph Welch, captured much of the mood of the country when he defended a fellow lawyer from McCarthy’s public smears, saying, “Let us not assassinate this lad further, Senator.
Stalin’s death, followed by the Korean War armistice, opened new space—and hope—for the easing of Cold War tensions.
Ronald Reagan bolstered the fame he had won in Hollywood with his testimony before Congress and his anti-communist work for major American corporations such as General Electric. Unless Soviet power in Asia was halted, Chinese influence would ripple across the continent, and one country after another would “fall” to communism. It is believed that American government intervened in the new government of Fidel Castro in covert ways, and many attribute the La Coubre explosion to the American Central Intelligence Agency. Yet perhaps the most famous critique of the entrenched war economy came from an unlikely source. Yet the new alliance between corporations, politicians, and the military was dependent on having an actual conflict to wage, without which there could be no ultimate financial gain. Roosevelt had spoken for many in his remark to British Premier Winston Churchill, in 1941, that it was hard to imagine “fight[ing] a war against fascist slavery, and at the same time not work to free people all over the world from a backward colonial policy.”46 American postwar foreign policy planners therefore struggled to balance support for decolonization against the reality that national independence movements often posed a threat to America’s global interests.
Their goal was in essence to develop an informal system of world power based as much as possible on consent (hegemony) rather than coercion (empire).
In 1948, Congress passed the Smith-Mundt Act to “promote a better understanding of the United States in other countries.” The legislation established cultural exchanges with various nations, including even the USSR, in order to showcase American values through its artists and entertainers.
DuBois, joined in solidarity with the global anti-colonial movement, arguing that the United States had inherited the racist European imperial tradition. Whether it was the triumphalist rhetoric and militaristic pressure of conservatives or the internal fracturing of ossified bureaucracies and work of Russian reformers that shaped the ending of the Cold War is a question of later decades.
From Cotton Belt to Sunbelt: Federal Policy, Economic Development, and the Transformation of the South, 1938–1980. Tens of thousands of Oregonians had paid their $10 membership fee and had white eyehole-suits hanging in their closets, and tens of thousands more looked upon the secret society as a positive thing. It would last a little longer, and for a few years it would seem destined to take over, because the agency took its message down a notch and broadened it.
Crosses were regularly lit afire in spots where they overlooked Catholic, Jewish and African-American neighborhoods. Klan membership would spread virally until any man in the state who thought he might want to be a Kluxer had the opportunity to pay his $10 and take home his very own Klown suit. By election season in 1922, the process had completed itself and Oregon was shot through from one side to the other with Kluxers.
He knew the stand he was taking would probably cost him the election, but he also knew that letting a secret society of anonymous xenophobic vigilantes take over state government would be an awful thing, and he refused to give the state anything less than his full effort to stop it.
It would also get a law passed that more or less outlawed private schools in Oregon, in a direct attack on the Catholic church.
The primary purpose of this site is news and education, and consequently many images here are used pursuant to the fair-use exemption of the 1976 copyright law.
The worst states are Georgia, Illinois, Ohio and South Carolina, which had victimization rates topping 15 percent. Coakley’s Cleaver Family Reunion takes on Tyler Perry’s Madea franchise with his twisted brand of humor about a family who marches to a different beat as far away from each other as possible.
From black celebrity news and gossip to the latest in the political world, health and international affairs, you can trust the EUR to provide you with the latest information and opinions on today’s biggest stories. Don’t miss a single day of important information from the leader of online urban news and entertainment. Some changes have been made though, and the re-release this year is a shorter, tighter version of the original. The Soviet Union was among the fifty charter UN member-states and was given one of five seats—alongside the US, Britain, France, and China—on the select Security Council.
To avoid the postwar chaos of World War I, the Marshall Plan was designed to rebuild Western Europe, open markets, and win European support for capitalist democracies. In June 1948, when the US, British, and French officials introduced a new currency, the Soviet Union initiated a ground blockade, cutting off rail and road access to West Berlin (landlocked within the Soviet occupation zone) to gain control over the entire city. Lippmann envisioned a prolonged stalemate between the US and the USSR, a war of words and ideas in which direct shots would not necessarily be fired between the two. Coming so soon after the Soviet Union’s successful test of an atomic bomb, on August 29, the “loss of China,” the world’s most populous country, contributed to a sense of panic among American foreign policymakers, whose attention began to shift from Europe to Asia. The North Koreans launched a successful surprise attack and Seoul, the capital of South Korea, fell to the communists on June 28.
Soviet scientists successfully tested an atomic bomb on August 29, 1949, years before American officials had estimated they would.
The irradiated debris—fallout—from the blast circled the Earth, occasioning international alarm about the effects of nuclear testing on human health and the environment. Detonated on March 1, 1954, it was the most powerful nuclear device ever tested by the U.S. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb plumbed the depths of American anxieties with plots featuring radioactive monsters, nuclear accidents, and doomsday scenarios. A former top German rocket scientist, Wernher Von Braun, became the leader of the American space program; the Soviet Union’s program was secretly managed by former prisoner Sergei Korolev.
Initial American attempts to launch a satellite into orbit using the Vanguard rocket suffered spectacular failures, heightening fears of Soviet domination in space. In the early 1950s, the Federal Civil Defense Administration (FDCA) began preparing citizens for the worst.
As a secretive military research and development operation, ARPA was tasked with funding and otherwise overseeing the production of sensitive new technologies.
Julius and Ethel Rosenbergs were convicted of espionage and executed in 1953 for delivering information about the atomic bomb to the Soviets. The Tydings Committee held hearings from early March through July, 1950, and issued a final report admonishing McCarthy for perpetrating a “fraud and a hoax” on the American public. After Truman’s “loyalty order,” anti-subversion committees emerged in over a dozen state legislatures and review procedures proliferated in public schools and universities across the country.
During its first two years of existence, the CPUSA functioned in secret, hidden from a surge of anti-radical and anti-immigrant hysteria, investigations, deportations, and raids at the end of World War I. By the time the Communist Control Act was passed in August 1954, effectively criminalizing Party membership, the CPUSA had long ceased to have meaningful influence. Hoover’s FBI helped incite panic by assisting the creation of blatantly propagandistic films and television shows, including The Red Menace (1949), My Son John, (1951), and I Led Three Lives (1953-1956). If communism was a plague spreading across Europe and Asia, anti-communist hyperbole infected cities, towns, and suburbs throughout the country.
Having entered the workforce en masse as part of a collective effort in World War II, middle class women were told to return to house-making responsibilities. He targeted many, and turned his newfound power against the government’s overseas broadcast division, the Voice of America (VOA). Easily transposed onto any region of the world, the “Domino Theory” became a standard basis for the justification of US interventions abroad, such as in Cuba after 1959, which was seen as a communist beachhead that imperiled Latin America, the Caribbean, and perhaps eventually the United States. In this photograph, Castro and Cuban revolutionary Che Guevara march in a memorial for those killed in the explosion in March, 1960 in Havana Cuba. To critics, military-industrial partnerships at home were now linked to US interests abroad. As it took center stage in the realm of global affairs, the United States played a complicated and often contradictory role in this process of “decolonization.” The sweeping scope of post-1945 US military expansion was unique in the country’s history. Stalin and his successors pushed an agenda that included not only the creation of Soviet client states in Eastern and Central Europe, but also a tendency to support leftwing liberation movements everywhere, particularly when they espoused anti-American sentiment. The Soviets did the same, through what they called an international peace offensive, which by most accounts was more successful than the American campaign.
Supporters of the Soviet Union made their own effort to win over countries in the non-aligned world, claiming that Marxist-Leninist doctrine offered a roadmap for their liberation from colonial bondage. This 1930 Soviet poster shows a black American being lynched from the Statue of Liberty, while the text below asserts the links between racism and Christianity.
Within months, the Berlin Wall was reduced to rubble by jubilant crowds anticipating the reunification of their city and their nation, which took place on October 3, 1990. Questions about the Cold War’s end must pause before appreciations of the Cold War’s impact at home and abroad. It now appointed itself as the enforcement arm of white American Protestantism, ready and willing to undertake anonymous vigilante actions as needed to preserve white American Protestantism as the definitive American culture.
They barged into Catholic churches during services dressed in their sinister, anonymous eyehole suits. Kleagles were encouraged to discreetly make contact first with Protestant pastors, and then target cops and local government officials for membership. The best were Delaware, Massachusetts, New York and the District of Columbia, which had no reported incidents at all. Please consult a licensed professional concerning any and all matters that warrant that you do so. Even as plans were made to end the fighting in the Pacific, and it was determined that the Soviets would declare war on Japan within ninety days of Germany’s surrender, suspicion and mistrust were already mounting.
Bolshevik leader Vladimir Lenin urged an immediate worldwide peace that would pave the way for world socialism just as Woodrow Wilson brought the United States into the war with promises of global democracy and free trade.
The Atlantic Charter, though, also set in motion the planning for a reorganized global economy. The Soviets countered with their rival Molotov Plan, a symbolic pledge of aid to Eastern Europe. The United States organized and coordinated a massive airlift that flew essential supplies into the beleaguered city for eleven months, until the Soviets lifted the blockade on May 12, 1949. Lippmann agreed that the Soviet Union would only be “prevented from expanding” if it were “confronted with…American power,” but he felt “that the strategical conception and plan” recommended by Mr.
The UN passed resolutions demanding that North Korea cease hostilities and withdraw its armed forces to the 38th parallel and calling on member states to provide the ROK military assistance to repulse the Northern attack. The nationalist leader Ho Chi Minh had been backed by the US during his anti-Japanese insurgency and, following Japan’s surrender in 1945, “Viet Minh” nationalists, quoting Thomas Jefferson, declared an independent Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV). This unexpectedly quick Russian success not only caught the United States off guard, caused tensions across the Western world, and propelled a nuclear “arms race” between the US and the USSR. It only hastened the arms race, with each side developing increasingly advanced warheads and delivery systems. But the effects were more gruesome than expected, causing nuclear fall-out and radiation poisoning in nearby Pacific islands. Anti-nuclear protests in the United States and abroad warned against the perils of nuclear testing and highlighted the likelihood that a thermonuclear war would unleash a global environmental catastrophe. After the end of the war, American and Soviet rocket engineering teams worked to adapt German technology in order to create an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).


While the American space program floundered, on September 13, 1959, the Soviet Union’s “Luna 2” capsule became the first human-made object to touch the moon. Soon, in cooperation with university-based computer engineers, ARPA would develop the world’s first system of “network packing switches” and computer networks would begin connecting to one another. At the University of California, for example, thirty-one professors were dismissed in 1950 for refusing to sign a loyalty oath.
The CPUSA began its public life in 1921, after the panic subsided, but communism remained on the margins of American life until the 1930s, when leftists and liberals began to see the Soviet Union as a symbol of hope amid the Great Depression. Anti-communists were driven to eliminate remaining CPUSA influence from progressive institutions, including the NAACP and the CIO.
Such alarmist depictions of espionage and treason in a ‘free world’ imperiled by communism heightened a culture of fear experienced in the 1950s. During the Cold War, he was condemned by the American press and neither his music nor films could be purchased in the U.S. The playwright Arthur Miller, whose popular 1953 The Crucible compared the red scare to the Salem Witch Trials, wrote, “In America any man who is not reactionary in his views is open to the charge of alliance with the Red hell.
Having fought and died abroad to for American democracy, blacks were told to return home and acquiesce to the American racial order.
During the 1952 campaign, Eisenhower, who was in all things moderate and politically cautious, refused to publicly denounce McCarthy.
McCarthy’s investigation in February-March 1953 resulted in several resignations or transfers. In 1958, radical anti-communists founded the John Birch Society, attacking liberals and civil rights activists such as Martin Luther King Jr. Like Ho Chi Minh, Cuban leader Fidel Castro was a revolutionary nationalist whose career as a communist began in earnest after he was rebuffed by the United States and American interventions targeted nations that never espoused official communist positions.
Suddenly American foreign policy had to ensure foreign markets and secure favorable terms for American trade all across the globe. Critics believed that the advent of a “standing army,” so feared by many Founders, set a disturbing precedent. American officials feared that anti-colonial resistance would breed revolution and push nationalists into the Soviet sphere. Moreover, Kremlin propaganda pointed to injustices of the American South as an example of American hypocrisy: how could the United States claim to fight for global freedom when it refused to guarantee freedoms for its own citizenry? By July 1991 the Warsaw Pact had crumbled, and on December 25 of that year, the Soviet Union was officially dissolved.
Whether measured by the tens of millions killed in Cold War-related conflicts, in the reshaping of American politics and culture, or in the transformation of America’s role in the world, the Cold War pushed American history upon a new path, one that it has yet to yield.
It got control of the Multnomah County Republican Party, and probably several others as well. In fact, if you're not familiar with copyright law and fair-use doctrine, you should read it anyway.
The report indicates that about 3.5 percent of inmates reported sexual contact with staff members that involved the use of force of coercion.
The BJS survey found eight facilities in which more than one in 10 incarcerated youth reported that they had been forcibly sexually assaulted by a staff member in the previous 12 months.
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The political landscape was altered drastically by Franklin Roosevelt’s sudden death in April 1945, just days before the inaugural meeting of the United Nations (UN). The United States had intervened militarily against the Red Army during the Russian civil war, and when the Soviet Union was founded in 1922 the United States refused to recognize it. The July 1944 United Nations Financial and Monetary Conference, more popularly known as the Bretton Woods Conference, created the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the forerunner of the World Bank, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD). Amid these conditions, the Communist parties of France and Italy gained nearly a third of the seats in their respective Parliaments.
Polish leader Jozef Cyrankiewicz was rewarded with a five-year, $450 million dollar trade agreement from Russia for boycotting the Marshall Plan. A month later, communists in the north established the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK). Yet France moved to reassert authority over its former colony in Indochina, and the United States sacrificed Vietnamese self-determination for France’s colonial imperatives. The USSR successfully tested a hydrogen bomb in 1953, and soon thereafter Eisenhower announced a policy of “massive retaliation.” The US would henceforth respond to threats or acts of aggression with perhaps its entire nuclear might. Yet at the same time, peaceful nuclear technologies, such as fission and fusion-based energy, seemed to herald a utopia of power that would be clean, safe, and “too cheap to meter.” In 1953, Eisenhower proclaimed at the UN that the US would share the knowledge and means for other countries to use atomic power. The “race for survival,” as it was called by the New York Times, reached a new level.24 The Soviet Union successfully launched a pair of dogs (Belka and Strelka) into orbit and returned them to Earth while the American Mercury program languished behind schedule. Then, many communists joined the “Popular Front,” an effort to make communism mainstream by adapting it to American history and American culture. .
The Taft-Hartley Act (1947) gave union officials the initiative to purge communists from the labor movement.
Political opposition, thereby, is given an inhumane overlay which then justifies the abrogation of all normally applied customs of civilized intercourse. At long last, have you left no sense of decency?” In September, a senate subcommittee recommended that McCarthy be censured.
Many interventions in Asia, Latin America, and elsewhere were driven by factors that were shaped by but also that transcended anti-communist ideology.
Seen in such a way, the Cold War was just a bi-product of America’s new role as the remaining Western superpower.
But in the postwar world, American leaders eagerly set about maintaining a new permanent military juggernaut and creating viable international institutions.
And when faced with such movements, American policy dictated alliances with colonial regimes, alienating nationalist leaders in Asia and Africa.
In such ways the Cold War connected the black freedom struggle, the Third World, and the global Cold War. Hungary, Poland, Czechoslovakia, and the Baltic States (Latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania) were freed from Russian domination. This went badly for them on at least one occasion in Oregon, when their victim (a white guy whom they suspected of having seduced a 16-year-old girl) figured out who they were and sued them. Since the Klan was a secret society, the promise was that you could find out what it was all about by coming to one of these things, and the people who arrived were then played masterfully by the recruiter, who would finish the evening with sometimes hundreds of new $10 memberships — $4 of which, if he was a top-level kleagle, he got to keep. It's important for all of us to know what's ours -- that is, what's in the public domain -- to avoid infringing others' rights, and to defend our own rights as co-owners of the public domain. Although Roosevelt was skeptical of Stalin, he always held out hope that the Soviets could be brought into the “Free World.” Truman, like Churchill, had no such illusions. The “Bretton Woods system” was bolstered in 1947 with the addition of the General Agreements on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), forerunner of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
American officials worried that Europe’s impoverished masses were increasingly vulnerable to Soviet propaganda. On May 23, the western half of the country was formally renamed the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the eastern Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic (GDR) later that fall.
Ho Chi Minh turned to the Soviet Union for assistance in waging war against the French colonizers in a protracted war. Both sides, then, would theoretically be deterred from starting a war, through the logic of “mutually-assured destruction,” (MAD). They even used the same launch vehicle on October 4, 1957, to send Sputnik 1, the world’s first human-made satellite, into orbit.
Despite countless failures and one massive accident that killed nearly one hundred Soviet military and rocket engineers, Russian ‘cosmonaut’ Yuri Gagarin was launched into orbit on April 12, 1961. Library of Congress.Alger Hiss, the highest-ranking government official linked to Soviet espionage, was another prize for conservatives.
During the Popular Front era, communists were integrated into mainstream political institutions through alliances with progressives in the Democratic Party. Film mogul Walt Disney and actor Ronald Reagan, among others, testified to aid investigators’ attempts to expose communist influence in the entertainment industry. A political policy is equated with moral right, and opposition to it with diabolical malevolence. In popular culture, one of the most popular films of the decade, The Ten Commandments (1956), retold the biblical Exodus story as a Cold War parable, echoing (incidentally) NSC 68’s characterization of the Soviet Union as a “slave state.” Monuments of the Ten Commandments went to court houses and city halls across the country. Although joined by Cold War liberals, the weight of anti-communism was used as part of an assault against the New Deal and its defenders.
Regardless, the postwar rise of US power correlated with what many historians describe as a “national security consensus” that has dominated American policy since World War II.
When Czechoslovakia received $200 million of American assistance, Stalin summoned Czech foreign minister Jan Masaryk to Moscow. Astronaut Alan Shepard accomplished a sub-orbital flight in the Freedom 7 capsule on May 5. The CPUSA enjoyed most of its influence and popularity among workers in unions linked to the newly formed Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). In January 1947, anti-communist liberals formed Americans for Democratic Action (ADA), whose founding members included labor leader Walter Reuther and NAACP chairman Walter White, as well as historian Arthur Schlesinger Jr., theologian Reinhold Niebuhr, and former First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt.
A group of writers, directors, and producers who refused to answer questions were held in contempt of Congress. Even those liberals, such as historian Arthur Schlesinger, who had fought against communism found themselves smeared by the red scare. And so the United States was now more intimately involved in world affairs than ever before.
If the survey is accurate, one in five kids at this facility reported being sexually assaulted by a staff member. John Kennedy would use America’s losses in the “space race” to bolster funding for a moon landing.
Communists also became strong opponents of Jim Crow segregation and developed a presence in both the NAACP and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU).
This ‘Hollywood Ten’ created the precedent for a ‘blacklist’ in which hundreds of film artists were barred from industry work for the next decade.
General MacArthur, growing impatient and wanting to eliminate the communist threats, requested authorization to use nuclear weapons against North Korea and China. The CPUSA, moreover, established “front” groups, such as the League of American Writers, in which intellectuals participated without even knowing of its ties to the Comintern. Monmouth in New Jersey, McCarthy publicly berated officers suspected of promoting leftists. After a hung jury in July 1949, he was convicted on two counts of perjury (the statute of limitations for espionage having expired). But even at the height of the global economic crisis, communism never attracted many Americans.
McCarthy’s badgering of witnesses created cover for critics to publicly denounce his abrasive fear-mongering. Movements for social justice, from civil rights to gay rights to feminism, were all suppressed under Cold War conformity.
Truman, unwilling to threaten World War III and refusing to tolerate MacArthur’s public insubordination, dismissed the General in April.
Although later evidence certainly suggested their guilt, the prominent convictions of a few suspected spies fueled an anti-communist frenzy.
Even at the peak of its membership, the CPUSA had just 80,000 national “card-carrying” members. On June 23, 1951, the Soviet ambassador to the UN suggested a cease-fire, which the US immediately accepted.
From the mid-1930s through the mid-1940s, “the Party” exercised most of its power indirectly, through coalitions with liberals and reformers. When news broke of Hitler and Stalin’s 1939 non-aggression, many fled the Party, feeling betrayed. Robert Oppenheimer, “Atomic Weapons and American Policy,” Foreign Affairs (July 1953), 529.



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