Films premiering include the works of Hollywood stars Zach Braff, Abigail Breslin, Pierce Brosnan, James Caan, Nicolas Cage, Helena Bonham Carter, Jessica Chastain, Viola Davis, Judi Dench, Gerard Depardieu, Richard Dreyfuss, Jesse Eisenberg, Chiwetal Ejoifor, Idris Elba, Dakota Fanning, Jenna Fischer, James Franco, Bill Hader, Josh Hartnett, Val Kilmer, Ben Kingsley, Mila Kunis, Cory Monteith, Thandie Newton, Haley Joel Osment, Daniel Radcliffe, Emma Roberts, Peter Sarsgaard, Amy Smart, Emma Thompson, Stanley Tucci, Kanye West, Jay Z and many more. The 2013 American Film Market will screen 402 films, including 321 Market Premieres and 75 World Premieres, from 51 countries.  Films in 30 languages will be screened for more than 8,000 buyers and industry professionals from more than 70 countries. The business of independent motion picture production and distribution reaches its peak every year at the American Film Market for Hollywood.  The global film industry converges in Santa Monica for eight days of deal-making on films in every stage of development and production, as well as screenings, conferences, networking and parties. With 8,000 industry leaders from more than 70 countries, 700 screenings and the industry’s largest Conference Series, AFM is the pivotal destination for independent filmmakers, directors, distributors, financiers, industry executives, producers, talent, writers, the international media and all those who provide services to the worldwide motion picture industry. Jacqueline MaddisonJacqueline Maddison is the Founder and Editor-in-Chief of Beverly Hills Magazine. Beverly Hills MagazineBeverly Hills Magazine is the official community magazine for the world famous city of Beverly Hills, California. Primary Colors: On the Sun Valley and Miami Film Festivals in the Hour of Republican Reckoning! Some titles that blur the gray line between ideology and pleasure could well have been fodder for battle between the just-concluded New York Asian Film Festival (NYAFF) and the Asian American International Film Festival (AAIFF), which runs July 24-August 3. Asian American Achievements has a few good films, but is limited to what has been made independently by and about Asian Americans over the past year. Exploring Asian Filmscapes is by far the most consistently impressive, in large part because guest co-curators L. Roy and Hui have assembled a lineup of Asian films that often takes you on insistently unsettling journeys to the margins. Asian CineVision (ACV), the guiding force behind the festival, began in Chinatown in 1975 as a grassroots organization called Chinese Cable TV (CCTV). The imprimatur of Chinese auteur Jia Zhang-ke is all over this strong debut that he produced, part of his kickstarter “Wings” project. Xuesong (a tour-de-force by Tao Hong; see photo above) is an attractive if unembellished convenience-store clerk in the stultifying backwater of Baisha.
The film is less about this nuclear family than it is about Xuesong and her relationships with three men, including her spouse, each fulfilling a different need. The outsider status of the production (only the featured leads are professionals) gels nicely with the storyline, which graceful reframing and long tracking shots help to convey. The tall palmyra trees distinctive to the Jaffna area and the dune-like landscape are perfect backdrops for the formidable figure of Him, his increasing paranoia, and the illicit activities he engages in. Leong and editor Greg Louie marvelously document the high ups and low downs of basketball icon Jeremy Lin’s athletic life.
But if you are out for evidence of a love life, indeed of any social life outside his family network, you will be disappointed.
To its credit, the film doesn’t get into the Linsanity craze until nearly 20 minutes before the end. Fortunately, Leong had commenced shooting before Lin became a known quantity, so he was in a unique position to chart his evolution.
Lin is not naive about the negatives in becoming an Asian American basketball star in the U.S. A politically active and opportunistic woman, Swanie (Shamaine Centenera Buencamino), and her estranged pre-op transsexual son, Joanna (Anthony Falcon), are by chance involved in the parallel acquisition of necessary permits and payment of outrageous sums to bury two of the characters. We see a number of other television programs (setting the stage for a potent final scene), mostly news announcements about designer Vidal Valler’s assassination by gay Filipino Adolf Payapa, a very distant relative of Swanie living in New York.
The solution is a hilarious fake funeral that is perfectly executed, especially when it comes apart.
Like most transvestites, Joanna endures taunts and degrading questions, especially in this conservative, religious, and macho society. This classic, big-budget Indian film from 1975 is showing in 3D — an extra layer of shock on top of its general bizarreness.
Self-consciously evoking the work of Sergio Leone, this is a colorful example of the melange known as the masala western (“something for everyone,” says Roy). After their final release, they head overland to the provincial town of Ramgarh and the nearby luxury ranchhouse owned by their erstwhile foe, former Sheriff Thakur (Sanjeev Kumar).
Along the way they meet colorful characters, such as Basanti (Hema Malini), a tangewali (buggy driver) who never stops talking, although it does not prevent her from becoming Veeru’s love interest. Malini is a talented South Indian dancer whom Sippy puts to good use in several obligatory musical numbers.
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The 2013 ATA Fall Forum coincides with the world-renowned Toronto International Film Festival. To purchase Film Festival tickets, please visit the Toronto International Film Festival website or click the image below. The Asian American International Film Festival handed out the 2012 Awards for feature and short films before the closing night screening of Michael Kang’s Knots, at the Clearview Chelsea Cinemas in New York on August 5, 2012.
Knots director Michael Kang and writer and star Kimberly-Rose Wolter at the 35th Asian American International Film Festival Closing night screening of Knots, at the Clearview Chelsea Cinema in New York on August 5, 2012.
This year, the Asian American International Film Festival, presented by Asian Cinevision (ACV), featured 50 New York premieres-narrative and documentary features, and shorts-of all genres from The Philippines, Taiwan, China, Japan, Korea, UK, Canada and across the Asian Diaspora. Presenter Kelly Zen-Yie Tsai, a spoken word artist, presents the AAIFF Audience Choice Award for Narrative Feature to Lily Mariye for Model Minority at the Clearview Chelsea Cinemas in New York on August 5, 2012. Delon De Metz, Nichole Bloom, Lily Mariye and Chris Tashima at the 35th Asian American International Film Festival screening of Model Minority, at the Clearview Chelsea Cinemas in New York on August 4, 2012. The film stars Nichole Bloom as Kayla, an underprivileged Japanese American girl with a drug addict mom (Jessica Tuck) and an alcoholic dad (Chris Tashima), who endangers her promising future as an artist when she becomes involved with a drug dealer (Delon De Metz). A Model Minority team: Three-time Grammy nominee, saxophonist Boney James shows off his wife’s Audience Choice Award for Narrative Feature for Model Minority, at the 35th Asian American International Film Festival, at the Clearview Chelsea Cinemas in New York on August 5, 2012. The One to Watch Award was presented to director Jayshree Janu Kharpade for her short film FIRE IN OUR HEARTS. The Emerging Director Award for Narrative Feature was awarded to director Vincent Sandoval for his film SENORITA. The jurors for The Emerging Director Award for Narrative Feature award included film critic John Anderson, executive director of Film Society of Lincoln Center Rose Kuo and award winning Art Director Wing Lee. The Excellence in Short Filmmaking Award was awarded to MY SPIRITUAL MEDICINE, directed by Liang Cheng. AAIFF’12 awards presenter Kelly Zen-Yie Tsai and actor Takahiro Morooka, who accepted the award for My Spirtual Medicine on behalf of director Liang Cheng.
The jurors for The Excellence in Short Filmmaking Award included award-winning filmmaker Buboo Jakobsson, actor Ken Leung and film distributor Cindi Rowell. Jodi Long, a filmmaker and actor, who is currently appearing on Sullivan and Son with Steve Byrne, at the 35th Asian American International Film Festival, at the Clearview Chelsea Cinemas in New York on August 4, 2012. Supercapitalist producer Joyce Yung, Jane Ann Valentine, Knots writer and star Kimberly-Rose Wolter, Knots director Michael Kang, Pun Bandhu, Derek Ting, writer, producer and star of Supercapitalist at the 35th Asian American International Film Festival screening of Knots, at the Clearview Chelsea Cinemas in New York on August 5, 2012.
Sponsors The 35th Asian American International Film Festival is made possible with public funds from the National Endowment for The Arts, by the New York State Council on The Arts, with the support of Governor Andrew Cuomo and the New York State Legislature and the New York City Department of Cultural Affairs. John Woo, Executive Director of ACV, June Jee, Knots writer and star Kimberly-Rose Wolter, director Michael Kang and actor Yoko Honjo; Beth Rosenthal Finkel, MSW Senior Manager, AARP, Kelly Zen-Yie Tsai, David Kim, Vice President for Multicultural Markets and Engagement, AARP, and Model Minority actor Chris Tashima, at the 35th Asian American International Film Festival closing night screening of Knots at the Clearview Chelsea Cinemas in New York on August 5, 2012. The Asian American International Film Festival (AAIFF) is produced by Asian CineVision (ACV), a nonprofit media arts organization devoted to the development, promotion and preservation of Asian and Asian American film and video. Johnny Loves Dolores filmmaker Clarissa De Los Reyes, Andrew Eisenman, Bing Magtoto and Steven Payne at the Clearview Chelsea Cinemas in New York on August 4, 2012. Like other major innovations such as the automobile, electricity, chemicals and the airplane, cinema emerged in most Western countries at the same time. In the late eighteenth century most consumers enjoyed their entertainment in an informal, haphazard and often non-commercial way.
First, most Western countries started to deregulate their entertainment industries, enabling many more entrepreneurs to enter the business and make far larger investments, for example in circuits of fixed stone theaters.
At the end of the nineteenth century, in the era of the second industrial revolution, falling working hours, rising disposable income, increasing urbanization, rapidly expanding transport networks and strong population growth resulted in a sharp rise in the demand for entertainment. At this moment, in a second stage, cinema emerged and in its turn destroyed this world, by industrializing it into the modern world of automated, standardized, tradable mass-entertainment, integrating the national entertainment markets into an international one.
In the early 1890s, Thomas Edison introduced the kinematograph, which enabled the shooting of films and their play-back in slot-coin machines for individual viewing. After the preconditions for motion pictures had been established, cinema technology itself was invented.
For about the first ten years of its existence, cinema in the United States and elsewhere was mainly a trick and a gadget. Between the mid-1900s and 1914 the British and French markets were growing at roughly the same rates as the U.S. The prices the Nickelodeons charged were between five and ten cents, for which spectators could stay as long as they liked. Note: The length refers to the total length of original negatives that were released commercially.
See Bakker 2005, appendix I for the method of estimation and for a discussion of the sources.
Once Nickelodeons and other types of cinemas were established, the industry entered a new stage with the emergence of the feature film.
The feature film emerged when cinema owners discovered that films with a far higher quality and length, enabled them to ask far higher ticket prices and get far more people into their cinemas, resulting in far higher profits, even if cinemas needed to pay far more for the film rental.
Because the quality race happened when Europe was at war, European companies could not participate in the escalation of quality (and production costs) discussed above.
Because it could not participate in the quality race, the European film industry started to decline in relative terms. Sunlight, climate and the variety of landscape in California were of course favorable to film production, but were not unique. The effect of sound film in Europe was to increase the domestic revenues of European films, because they became more culture-specific as they were in the local language, but at the same time it decreased the foreign revenues European films received (Bakker 2004b).
In Britain, the share of releases of American films declined from eighty percent in 1927 to seventy percent in 1930, while British films increased from five percent to twenty percent, exactly in line with the requirements of the 1927 quota act. Because film production costs were mainly fixed and sunk, international sales or distribution were important, because these were additional sales without much additional cost to the producer; the film itself had already been made. First, because cinemas had mostly fixed costs and few variable costs, a film’s selling capacity needed to be at least as large as fixed cinema costs plus its rental price. The second reason for limited price competition was the opportunity cost, given cinemas’ production capacities.
To make sure film revenues reached above cinema fixed costs, film companies transformed films into branded products. To secure an audience, film producers borrowed branding techniques from other consumer goods’ industries, but the short product-life-cycle forced them to extend the brand beyond one product – using trademarks or stars – to buy existing ‘brands,’ such as famous plays or novels, and to deepen the product-life-cycle by licensing their brands. Thus, the main value of stars and stories lay not in their ability to predict successes, but in their services as giant ‘publicity machines’ which optimized advertising effectiveness by rapidly amassing high levels of brand-awareness. Stars and stories marked a film’s qualities to some extent, confirming that they at least contained themselves.
Already from the late 1930s onwards, the Hollywood studios used the new scientific market research techniques of George Gallup to continuously track the brand-awareness among the public of their major stars (Bakker 2003). Another noteworthy feature is that the labor productivity in entertainment varied less across countries in the late 1930s than it did in 1900. Another way to measure the contribution of film technology to the economy in the late 1930s is by using a social savings methodology.
A third and different way to look at the contribution of film technology to the economy is to look at the consumer surplus generated by cinema. All the measures show that by the late 1930s cinema was making an essential contribution in increasing total welfare as well as the entertainment industry’s productivity. After the Second World War, the Hollywood film industry disintegrated: production, distribution and exhibition became separate activities that were not always owned by the same organization. The consequence was a sharp fall in real box office revenue in the decade after the war (Figure 5).
European production companies could better adapt to changes in post-war demand because they were already flexibly specialized. Several European companies attempted to (re-)enter international film distribution, such as Rank in the 1930s and 1950s, the International Film Finance Corporation in the 1960s, Gaumont in the 1970s, PolyGram in the 1970s and again in the 1990s, Cannon in the 1980s. From the 1990s onwards further growth was driven by newer markets in Eastern Europe and Asia.
The take-off of the film industry in the early twentieth century had been driven mainly by changes in demand. Gomery, Douglas, The Coming of Sound to the American Cinema: A History of the Transformation of an Industry.
Jonathan Wolf, AFM Managing Director and Executive Vice President of the Independent Film & Television Alliance, made the announcement. The change in title a couple of years later marked a sensible shift in direction that paved the way for the AAIFF, which today includes off-screen programs like workshops, panels, and brief script and filmmaking competitions that invigorate up-and-comers.
The hot, boring town is a few hours from the escape hatch of Chongqing, a large city that is a magnet for new money. Quesong recalls the disappointment expressed by Cai’s mother when she gave birth to a girl. Like most of Jia Zhang-ke’s films, the sets are authentic, the feel neorealist, the camera work mobile, the sound primarily ambient. Him (Dharshen Dharmaraj) is a former Tamil Tiger recruiter in Jaffna whose charisma enabled him to enlist many of the town’s young people to fight a civil war that they lost. After he moves in with his ex, a draft dodger who is now a widow with a young child, locals toss a shrouded corpse into his garden. He ends up tending to the man’s amazingly optimistic, battered, and also unnamed “Wife” (Niranjani Shanmugaraja), a woman who has lost everything, including pride (it is intimated that she was repeatedly raped in a camp). Softer scenes, such as when Him prays at the local Hindu temple or joshes around with Wife’s innocent kids, help maintain a suitably smooth editing rhythm. I specify “athletic” because the film concentrates almost exclusively on Lin and the sport. This may be best, because the extremely private Lin is really a typical American suburban kid, a child of California, gawky and inarticulate (most sentences begin with “like”), who is driven when it comes to hoops and courts but otherwise lacks edge. Foregoing spectacle (except for game footage) in favor of an individual’s checkerboard quest, it follows his journey from Palo Alto High, through his two-week winning rampage in 2012 when he finally proved himself while subbing for benched New York Knicks point guards, up until the validation he had been desperately seeking, a $25 million, three-year contract with the Houston Rockets.
That is the nature of basketball, but Leong’s focus on Lin in the games keeps it from rambling into an overlong sports montage. Yet she is happy and generous — she gives up her breast transplant money to contribute to her friend’s burial — a self-sufficient clothing designer with a loving boyfriend and a sensible head on her shoulders. Sholay flouts conventions of genre, characterization, and narrative (killings are repeated in slo-mo; an out-of-place offhand comment often marks the transition to a new setting and situation).
It is set in a rugged, rocky landscape, not quite Monument Valley but a South Indian setting that could pass for a southern Californian Hollywood locale.
The protagonists are two engagingly underworld pals, Jai (heartthrob Amitabh Bachchan in the film that made his name) and Veeru (Dharmendra, a fine comic and the better actor), who pass through corrupt towns and surreal prisons (in a silly extended sequence, a warden imitates Chaplin imitating Hitler in The Great Dictator).
He employs them as guns-for-hire to capture the regional bandit leader, Gabbar (an effectively creepy Amjad Khan), who has decimated his family and torn off his limbs as punishment for a conviction.

But the most powerful musical scenes are those in which Jai and Veeru, both handsome, lithe, and virile, sing and carouse on the road. Your general web browsing experience will be much improved if you upgrade for free to Internet Explorer 7, Internet Explorer 8 or Google Chrome.
If you own the rights to any of the images and do not wish them to appear on the site please contact us, and they will be promptly removed! This is your chance to see the year's best early-release films and to run into Hollywood celebrities. Laura Innes, Helen Slater, Takayo Fisher, Courtney Mun and Marc Anthony Samuel are also featured, along with music by three-time Grammy nominee, saxophonist Boney James.
Mariye, wrote, directed and shares producing credits with James, whose music is featured on the soundtrack. Special Support is provided by Macy’s, Wells Fargo, AARP, Woo Creative, Art Works, NYCulture, AMP Viacom, and the many friends of ACV. AAIFF is the nation’s longest-running festival of its kind and a leading showcase for the best in independent Asian and Asian American film and video. When making a trip they could suddenly meet a roadside entertainer, and their villages were often visited by traveling showmen, clowns and troubadours.
The effect of this boom was further rapid growth of live entertainment through process innovations.
In the mid-1890s, the Lumiere brothers added projection to the invention and started to play films in theater-like settings. First, it was an international process of invention, taking place in several countries at the same time, and the inventors building upon and improving upon each other’s inventions.
Before 1896 the coin-operated Kinematograph of Edison was present at fairs and in entertainment venues.
Around 1910, when larger cinemas emerged in hot city center locations, more closely resembling theaters than the small and shabby Nickelodeons, prices increased.
Before 1915, cinemagoers saw a succession of many different films, each between one and fifteen minutes, of varying genres such as cartoons, newsreels, comedies, travelogues, sports films, ‘gymnastics’ pictures and dramas.
The discovery that consumers would turn their back on packages of shorts (newsreels, sports, cartoons and the likes) as the quality of features increased set in motion a quality race between film producers (Bakker 2005).
The Danish Nordisk company invested heavily in long feature-type films, and bought cinema chains and distributors in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. First of all, since the sharply rising film production costs were fixed and sunk, market size was becoming of essential importance as it affected the amount of money that could be spent on a film. The large existing American Northeast coast film industry and the newly emerging film industry in Florida declined as U.S. Companies could easily rent out excess studio capacity (for example, during the nighttime B-films were made), and a producer was quite likely to find the highly specific products or services needed somewhere in Hollywood (Christopherson and Storper 1987, 1989). The main innovator was Warner Brothers, backed by the bank Goldman, Sachs, which actually parachuted a vice-president to Warner.
What it did do was industrialize away most of the musicians and entertainers that had complemented the silent films with sound and entertainment, especially those working in the smaller cinemas. It is difficult to completely assess the impact of sound film, as it coincided with increased protection; many European countries set quotas for the amount of foreign films that could be shown shortly before the coming of sound. While the rent paid varied depending on perceived quality and general conditions of supply and demand, the ticket price paid by consumers generally did not vary. If we consider a film’s ‘capacity to sell spectator-hours’ (hereafter called selling capacity) as proportional to production costs, a low-budget producer could not simply push down a film’s rental price in line with its quality in order to make a sale; even at a price of zero, some low-budget films could not be sold. A seven-hundred-seat cinema, with a production capacity of 39,200 spectator-hours a week, weekly fixed costs of five hundred dollars, and an average admission price of five cents per spectator-hour, needed a film selling at least ten thousand spectator-hours, and would not be prepared to pay for that (marginal) film, because it only recouped fixed costs. A main feature distinguishing foreign markets from domestic ones was that uncertainty was markedly lower: from a film’s domestic launch the audience appeal was known, and each subsequent country added additional information.
With the emergence of the feature film, they started to pay large sums to actors, actresses and directors and for rights to famous plays and novels. After a film’s release, information such as word-of-mouth and reviews would affect its success. Part of the reason is that cinema technology made entertainment partially tradable and therefore forced productivity in similar directions in all countries; the tradable part of the entertainment industry would now exert competitive pressure on the non-tradable part (Bakker 2004a). If we assume that cinema did not exist and all demand for entertainment (measured in spectator-hours) would have to be met by live entertainment, we can calculate the extra costs to society and thus the amount saved by film technology. Contrary to the TFP and social savings techniques used above, which assume that cinema is a substitute for live entertainment, this approach assumes that cinema is a wholly new good and that therefore the entire consumer surplus generated by it is ‘new’ and would not have existed without cinema. After the mid-1950s, real revenue stabilized, and remained the same, with some fluctuations, until the mid-1990s.
First, production by a few large companies was replaced by production by many small flexibly specialized companies. The British film production industry, for example, had been fragmented almost from its emergence in the 1890s. All of them failed in terms of long-run survival, even if they made profits during some years.
Film industries from outside the West also grew substantially, such as those of Japan, Hong Kong, India and China.
Cinema industrialized entertainment by standardizing it, automating it and making it tradable. 2002) and comprised almost entirely of entertaining generic fiction; the latter, smaller, older (b. Here I focus on the on-screen component, reviewing the five must-see feature-length films, listed in alphabetical order. She has successfully crossed over to screenwriting and directing, creating an artwork as spot-on socially critical as it is boldly cinematic.
She is responsible, but her untamed, abusive carpenter husband, Cai (Guo Xiaodong), squanders his earnings, drinks too much, and explodes at the drop of a hat.
The director subtly contrasts Quesong’s isolation, behind a cash register or at home on the couch, with the camaraderie found in men-only spots like the neighborhood gaming parlor and shared by guys out clubbing with hookers. Quan Ling even includes a performance piece, a signature Jia Zhang-ke motif, but hers takes place in an empty, abandoned auditorium in which Wu sings to Quesong while pretending he is in front of a full house. Having done an obligatory stint in rehab after the 2009 surrender, he is the only fellow from town to return alive (except for those who recruited, then emigrated instead of going to battle). The theme of burial keeps popping up: a rifle from the war hidden underground, his mother’s jewelry dug up so that he can pay extortion fees for a necessary driver’s license.
The store is a front for a substantial smuggling operation in this coastal city, and Him is “set up,” in his own words, to participate. Yes, the tight bond with, and support from, his immigrant parents and American-born brothers are there, as are the reconnection with his Taiwanese ancestry and his powerful Christian faith. A very nice guy, it appears, but all his blankets are covered with cartoon and space kitsch. Leong also had access to family home movies and video from high school onwards that provide context and continuity. Leong inserts excerpts from talk shows in which people like Jon Stewart and David Letterman spit on the absurd vitriol accompanying his rise to fame, like a newpaper caricature of his head popping out of a fortune cookie. Arcenas deftly interweaves the stories behind the deaths of three different Filipinos and the aftermath, milking them for black comedy and poignancy, and using them as weapons to expose rampant bureaucracy and corruption. Horses carrying extras gallop by, and Sippy stages elaborate shootouts with his leading men.
Not to be outdone, Jai falls in silent love with his host’s widowed daughter-in-law, as introverted as Basanti is outer-directed. Their lackadaisical manner, and the sheer number of mutual caresses — which come to a head in a tragic, intensely melodramatic climax — undermine the love scenes and songs they have with the women.
He was not going to allow anyone to become impatient until the 200-minute running time had run out. Wanting to quit sex work in Manila and start a new life, Sofia, a transgender woman, reinvents herself as Donna in the small town of Talisay to look after her friend’s son. Mendoza and Theresa Navarro after the screening of Yes, We’re Open at the 35th Asian American International Film Festival, at the Clearview Chelsea Cinemas in New York on August 4, 2012. From the 1910s onwards, each year billions of cinema-tickets were sold and consumers who did not regularly visit the cinema became a minority. This entry cannot do justice to developments in each and every country, given the nature of an encyclopedia article. Seasonal fairs attracted a large variety of musicians, magicians, dancers, fortune-tellers and sword-swallowers. At the turn of the century, the production possibilities of the existing industry configuration were fully realized and further innovation within the existing live-entertainment industry could only increase productivity incrementally. The scientist Jean Marey completed the first working model of a film camera in 1888 in Paris. This connects to Joel Mokyr’s notion that in the nineteenth century communication became increasingly important to innovations, and many innovations depended on international communication between inventors (Mokyr 1990: 123-124).
This changed when Nickelodeons, fixed cinemas with a few hundred seats, emerged and quickly spread all over the country between 1905 and 1907. They varied from between one dollar to one dollar and-a-half for ‘first run’ cinemas to five cents for sixth-run neighborhood cinemas (see also Sedgwick 1998). After the mid-1910s, going to the cinema meant watching a feature film, a heavily promoted dramatic film with a length that came closer to that of a theater play, based on a famous story and featuring famous stars.
They all started investing heavily in portfolios of feature films, spending large sums on well-known stars, rights to famous novels and theater plays, extravagant sets, star directors, etc. This meant that the cinema-owner who bought a film, would receive all the marginal revenues the film generated.
Many made high profits during the war from newsreels, other short films, propaganda films and distribution. Its strategy ended when the German government forced it to sell its German assets to the newly founded UFA company, in return for a 33 percent minority stake. Exactly at this crucial moment, the European film market disintegrated, first because of war, later because of protectionism.
It would be extremely costly for European companies to re-enter international distribution, produce large portfolios, jump-start film quality, and establish a new brand of films – all at the same time (Bakker 2005). Although many other sound systems had been tried and marketed from the 1900s onwards, the electrical microphone, invented at Bell labs in the mid-1920s, sharply increased the quality of sound films and made possible the change of the industry. This led to massive unemployment among musicians (see, for example, Gomery 1975; Kraft 1996). Because they essentially were copyrights rather than physical products, theoretically the costs of additional sales were zero.
It only varied by cinema: highest in first-run city center cinemas and lowest in sixth-run ramshackle neighborhood cinemas. While a film’s audience appeal across countries was not perfectly correlated, uncertainty was reduced. This is still a major characteristic of the film industry today that fascinates many people. The young age at which stars reached their peak, and the disproportionate income distribution even among the superstars, confirm that stars were paid for their ability to generate publicity.
Further, fame of stars is distributed disproportionately, possibly even twice as unequal as income.
It shows that Lana Turner was a rising star, Gable was consistently a top star, while Stewart’s popularity was high but volatile. Cinema had made possible a massive growth in productivity in the entertainment industry and thereby disproved the notions of some economists that productivity growth in certain service industries is inherently impossible. It is therefore not surprising that cinema caused the lowest efficiency increase in Britain, which had already a well-developed and competitive entertainment industry (with the highest labor and capital productivity both in 1900 and in 1938) and higher efficiency increases in the U.S. For an individual consumer, the surplus is the difference between the price she was willing to pay and the ticket she actually paid. Southern California became an industrial district for the film industry and harbored an intricate network of these businesses, from set design companies and costume makers, to special effects firms and equipment rental outfits (Storper and Christopherson 1989). The only postwar entry strategy that was successful in terms of survival was the direct acquisition of a Hollywood studio (Bakker 2000). At the same time, the European Union started a large scale subsidy program for its audiovisual film industry, with mixed economic effects.
After its early years, the industry experienced a quality race that led to increasing industrial concentration.
1978), and more diverse, a politicized showcase in which fiction, documentaries, and hybrids share pride of place. Are the cliches valid — that the culture of fatalism is well-entrenched in most of Asia, and that the end of life is less feared than in the West? It overlapped with the other: films with a sense of periphery, of lesser heard voices from South and Southeast Asia. Although he remains a striking presence — very dark, handsome, and beefy — he has lost his allure.
Louie neatly stitches together scenes such as Lin dribbling today and Lin dribbling as a youth — probably a miss in lesser hands. Even more insidious is Lin’s realization that the Golden State Warriors had picked him up after Harvard as a marketing tool to ensnare the northern Californian Asian community into the ticket office. She latches on to the myth rooted in the case of Gianni Versace-killer Andrew Cunanan that Filipinos are victims all over the world.
But the bad guys-versus-lawman set-up at the beginning of the film, which takes place during a train robbery right out of American silent films, evolves into a scenario in which the enemies bond to challenge another, more threatening group of outlaws. At the finale, the two fiancees look shocked, as if only now they realize that they are not the primary beloveds. This is surely opium for the masses, but it is great fun and refreshingly outrageous — the perfect counterpoint to the AAIFF’S more reverent fare. But her past soon catches up with her when she gets involved in the complex politics of a local election, and her two lives cannot be kept apart.
In Italy, today hardly significant in international entertainment, the film industry was the fourth-largest export industry before the First World War. This entry also limits itself to the evolution of the Western film industry, because it has been and still is the largest film industry in the world, in revenue terms, although this may well change in the future.
Only a few large cities harbored legitimate theaters, strictly regulated by the local and national rulers.
Second, it was what Mokyr calls a typical nineteenth century invention, in that it was a smart combination of many existing technologies. From this time onwards cinema changed into an industry in its own right, which was distinct from other entertainments, since it had its own buildings and its own advertising. A few survived and became the Hollywood studios most of which we still know today: Paramount, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (MGM), Warner Brothers, Universal, Radio-Keith-Orpheum (RKO), Twentieth Century-Fox, Columbia and United Artists. In the film industry, these revenues were largely marginal profits, as most costs were fixed, so an additional film ticket sold was pure (gross) profit. They also were able to participate in the shift towards the feature film, substantially increasing output in the new genre during the war (Figure 2).
The market size was further diminished by heavy taxes on cinema tickets that sharply increased the price of cinema compared to live entertainment.

First of all, the ‘sharing’ of inputs facilitated knowledge spillovers and allowed higher returns.
If entry did happen, the Hollywood studios could and would buy successful creative inputs away, since they could realize higher returns on these inputs, which resulted in American films with even a higher perceived quality, thus perpetuating the situation. Sound increased the interests in the film industry of large industrial companies such as General Electric, Western Electric and RCA, as well as those of the banks who were eager the finance the new innovation, such as the Bank of America and Goldman, Sachs. Film production involved high endogenous sunk costs, recouped through renting the copyright to the film.
Cinemas used films to produce ‘spectator-hours’: a five-hundred-seat cinema providing one hour of film, produced five hundred spectator-hours of entertainment. Yet the huge sums paid for stars and stories are not as irrational and haphazard as they sometimes may seem. Likewise, because ‘stories’ were paid several times as much as original screenplays, they were at least partially bought for their popular appeal (Bakker 2001a).
Film companies, aided by long-term contracts, probably captured part of the rent of their popularity. James Stewart was eleven percentage-points more popular among the richest consumers than among the poorest, while Lana Turner differed only a few percentage-points. This difference varies from consumer to consumer, but with econometric techniques, one can estimate the sum of individual surpluses for an entire country. After 1963 the number of screens increased again steadily to reach nearly twice the 1945 level in the 1990s. Second, they outsourced part of their film production and most of their production factors to independent companies. Arthur Rank, while the production sector, a network of flexibly specialized companies in and around London, boomed.
By 1997, ten years after the start of the program, a film made in the European Union cost 500,000 euros on average, was seventy to eighty percent state-financed, and grossed 800,000 euros world-wide, reaching an audience of 150,000 persons. In the 1950s they had experienced difficulties with obtaining broadcasting licenses, because their reputation had been compromised by the antitrust actions.
Remembering the Forgotten War recalls exceptional small Italian festivals like Turin, Bologna, and Pesaro that nearly exhaust the cinematic documentation of a specific topic or era.
In part, this was a result of choosing the lesser seen cinema of Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka rather than merely focusing on the larger, better known cinema of India. Is this coincidence, curatorial acumen, sign of a general wave of Asian and Asian Diaspora films, or all of the above? Xuesong and Cai are reciprocal spies, peeking at each other’s emails and cell-phone call lists. He is a constant reminder to the townspeople of their failed dreams and lost children, a pariah on whom they pin blame and project grief. When he does perform, it is often mediated by sports commentators, with his agent and assorted coaches reflecting on Lin, what he’s endured, and what makes him tick. Joanna takes charge of the fight in the morgue and at the cemetery in Manila to properly bury an elderly friend, a neighborhood soda vendor. Redemption for the lawbreakers in phase one comes quickly; it does not wait for the usual obstacles that only delay a grand climax. Jai and Veeru are so much closer than BFFs that you could imagine this film in the festival’s LGBTQ program, and I do not think that is a projection. As the random fates of individuals are linked and changed by the radio wave, love, in all possible forms, burgeons. In 1891, he filed an American patent for a film camera, which had a different moving mechanism than the Marey camera.
Many different innovations in the technologies which it combined had been necessary to make possible the innovation of cinema.
Lumiere had a group of operators who traveled around the world with the cinematograph, and showed the pictures in theaters. The emergence of fixed cinemas coincided which a huge growth phase in the business in general; film production increased greatly, and film distribution developed into a special activity, often managed by large film producers. Between 1898 and 1906, far less growth took place, and in this period it may well have looked like the cinematograph would remain a niche product, a gimmick shown at fairs and used to be interspersed with live entertainment. Because the producer did not get any of these revenues, at the margin there was little incentive to increase quality.
However, it was difficult for them to secure the massive amount of venture capital necessary to participate in the quality race while their countries were at war.
In the mid-1910s, when the feature film emerged, the European market share declined to nearly undetectable levels. Nordisk continued as an insignificant Danish film company, and eventually collapsed into receivership. The studios lowered costs because creative inputs had less down-time, needed to travel less, could participate in many try-outs to achieve optimal casting and could be rented out easily to competitors when not immediately wanted. During the 1930s, the share temporarily declined to about forty percent, and then hovered to between fifty and sixty percent.
Nevertheless, revenue data, which are unfortunately lacking, would be needed to give a definitive answer, as little is known about effects on the revenue per film. The marginal foreign revenue equaled marginal net revenue (and marginal profits after the film’s production costs had been fully amortized).
If it sold three hundred tickets, the other two hundred spectator-hours produced would have perished. Given the riskiness of film production, this reduction in uncertainty undoubtedly was important. So the low-capacity film with half the selling capacity of the high-capacity film would need to sell for under a fifth of the price of the high capacity film to even enable the possibility of a transaction.
Actually, they might be just as ‘rational’ and have just as quantifiable a return as direct spending on marketing and promotion (Bakker 2001a). Gradually these companies specialized in developing and leasing their ‘instant brands’ to other consumer goods’ industries in the form of merchandising. Additional segmentation by city size seemed to matter, since substantial differences were found: Clark Gable was ten percentage-points more popular in small cities than in large ones. This meant that the Hollywood studios would only produce part of the films they distributed themselves, that they changed the long-term, seven-year contracts with star actors for per-film contracts and that they sold off part of their studio facilities to rent them back for individual films. Second, films became more differentiated and tailored to specific market segments; they were now aimed at a younger and more affluent audience. In contrast, the average American film cost fifteen million euros, was nearly hundred percent privately financed, grossed 58 million euros, and reached 10.5 million persons (Dale 1997). They had to wait for forty years before they could finally complete what they intended.[2] Disney, for example, bought the ABC network, Paramount’s owner Viacom bought CBS, and General Electric, owner of NBC, bought Universal. Cinema made a substantial contribution to productivity and total welfare, especially before television. I’m not a fan of Diaz-Abaya’s oeuvre, but programmers are, and should be, more generous than critics.
Leong builds suspense in his treatment of the draft rounds that could make or break the young player and in his handling of the Kobe Bryant-Jeremy Lin media battle. The third death, announced on TV, is of a Filipino worker in Dubai who had died on the can in a mall he is helping construct. Despite this economic significance, despite its rapid emergence and growth, despite its pronounced effect on the everyday life of consumers, and despite its importance as an early case of the industrialization of services, the economic history of the film industry has hardly been examined. The result of this was that commercial, formalized and standardized live entertainment emerged that destroyed a fair part of traditional entertainment.
Third, cinema was a major innovation in the sense that it was quickly and universally adopted throughout the western world, quicker than the steam engine, the railroad or the steamship. After a few years films became a part of the program in vaudeville and sometimes in theater as well. However, until about 1914, besides the cinemas, films also continued to be combined with live entertainment in vaudeville and other theaters (Musser 1990; Allen 1980). From 1907, however, a new, sharp sustained growth phase starts: The market increased further again by two orders of magnitude – and from a far higher base this time. Between about 1908 and 1912 the Edison-backed MPPC had restricted quality artificially by setting limits on film length and film rental prices. When outright sales made way for the rental of films to cinemas for a fixed fee, producers got a higher incentive to increase a film’s quality, because it would generate more rentals (Bakker 2005). Even if they would have managed it may have been difficult to justify these lavish expenditures when people were dying in the trenches. The eleven largest Italian film producers formed a trust, which terribly failed and one by one they fell into financial disaster. Hollywood also attracted new creative inputs through non-monetary means: even more than money creative inputs wanted to maximize fame and professional recognition. All companies large or small had to take into account foreign sales when setting film budgets (Bakker 2004b).
Of the richest consumers, 51 percent wanted to see a movie starring Gable, but altogether they constituted just 14 percent of Gable’s market, while the 57 percent poorest Gable-fans constituted 34 percent. Third, the European film market gained in importance: because the social-demographic changes (suburbanization) and the advent of television happened somewhat later in Europe, the drop in cinema attendance also happened later there. At the same time, the feature film industry was also becoming more connected to other entertainment industries, such as videogames, theme parks and musicals.
After television, the industry experienced vertical disintegration, the flexible specialization of production, and a self-reinforcing process of increasing distribution channels and capacity as well as market growth.
His wife cries endlessly to the cameras, the more so when airplanes transporting her husband’s body land over and over again at the wrong airports.
The combined effect of liberalization, innovation and changes in business organization, made the industry grow rapidly throughout the nineteenth century, and integrated local and regional entertainment markets into national ones.
At the same time traveling cinema emerged: cinemas which traveled around with a tent or mobile theater and set up shop for a short time in towns and villages. At the same time, the average film length increased considerably, from eighty feet in 1897 to seven hundred feet in 1910 to three thousand feet in 1920.
When William Fox and the Department of Justice started legal action in 1912, the power of the MPPC quickly waned and the ‘independents’ came to dominate the industry. This further increased when percentage contracts were introduced for large city center cinemas, and when producers-distributors actually started to buy large cinemas.
For an actress, an offer to work with the world’s best directors, costume designers, lighting specialists and make-up artists was difficult to decline. The increases in Gable’s popularity roughly coincided with his releases, suggesting that while producers used Gable partially for the brand-awareness of his name, each use (film) subsequently increased or maintained that awareness in what seems to have been a self-reinforcing process.
In Britain it increased from 16,404 to 37,537 spectator-hours and in France from 1,575 to 8,175 spectator-hours. Initially, they mainly used radio for this purpose and later they switched to television (Gomery 1985). The proliferation of screens, coinciding with declining capacity per screen, facilitated market segmentation. They specialized in planning and assembling a portfolio of films, contracting and financing most of them and marketing and distributing them world-wide.
The result was that the Hollywood off-shored a large chunk – at times over half – of their production to Europe in the 1960s. With video game revenues now exceeding films’ box office revenues, it seems likely that feature films will simply be the flagship part of large entertainment supply system that will exploit the intellectual property in feature films in many different formats and markets. Cinema, then, was not only the first in a row of media industries that industrialized entertainment, but also the first in a series of international industries that industrialized services.
By the end of the nineteenth century, integrated national entertainment industries and markets maximized productivity attainable through process innovations. Finally, the Lumiere brothers filed a patent for their type of camera and for projection in February 1895. These differed from the Lumiere operators and others in that they catered for the general, popular audiences, while the former were more upscale parts of theater programs, or a special program for the bourgeoisie (Musser 1990: 140, 299, 417-20). The changing contractual relationship between cinemas and producers was paralleled between producers and distributors. As it turned out, Pathe bet on the wrong horse and was overtaken by competitors riding high on the feature film. This phenomenal growth could be explained partially by adding more capital (such as in the form of film technology and film production outlays) and partially by simply producing more efficiently with the existing amount of capital and labor. Third, television broadcasting in itself (without the social-demographic changes that increased demand for it) constituted a new distribution channel for audiovisual entertainment and thus decreased the scarcity of distribution capacity.
Revenue per screen nearly halved in the decade after the war, then made a rebound during the 1960s, to start a long and steady decline from 1970 onwards. This was stimulated by lower European production costs, difficulties in repatriating foreign film revenues and by the vertical disintegration in California, which severed the studios’ ties with their production units and facilitated outside contracting.
In France, after the First World War film production had disintegrated rapidly and chaotically into a network of numerous small companies, while a few large firms dominated distribution and production finance. The evolution of the film industry thus may give insight into technological change and its attendant welfare gains in many service industries to come. Creative inputs, for example, circulated swiftly along the venues – often in dedicated trains – coordinated by centralized booking offices, maximizing capital and labor utilization. This meant that television took over the focus on the lowest common denominator from radio and cinema, while the latter two differentiated their output and started to focus more on specific market segments. The real price of a cinema ticket was quite stable until the 1960s, after which it more than doubled. The result was a burgeoning industry, actually one of the fastest growing French industries in the 1930s.
Third, coinciding with the blockbuster movie and tax-breaks film budgets increased substantially, resulting in a higher perceived quality and higher quality difference with television, drawing more consumers into the cinema. In all countries, this increase in efficiency was at least one and a half times the increase in efficiency at the level of the entire nation. Since the early 1970s, the price has been declining again and nowadays the real admission price is about what it was in 1965.
Fourth, a rise in multiplex cinemas, cinemas with several screens, increased consumer choice and increased the appeal of cinema by offering more variety within a specific cinema, thus decreasing the difference with television in this respect. Fifth, one could argue that the process of flexible specialization of the California film industry was completed in the early 1970s, thus making the film industry ready to adapt more flexibly to changes in the market.
Paul also invented the ‘Maltese cross,’ a device which is still used in film cameras today. Sixth, new income streams from video sales and rentals and cable television increased the revenues a high-quality film could generate. Seventh, European broadcasting deregulation increased the demand for films by television stations substantially.

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