According to Open Security Architecture (OSA), Security Architecture may be defined as, "the design artifacts that describe how the security controls (security countermeasures) are positioned, and how they relate to the overall IT Architecture. To the right is an image of how ISSS defines a Security Architecture's relationships and dependencies within the general framework of an IT architecture. Security is something that is not visible to a business' operations but holds an important purpose of protecting valuable information systems and information assets to a business.
Architecture may be defined as, "a set of design artifacts, that are relevant for describing an object such that it can be produced to requirements (quality) as well as maintained over the period of its useful life (change). Commonly referred to as NIST, the National Institute of Standards and Technology is a federal agency that is a part of the Department of Commerce. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has a long, rich, and well-rooted history. NIST has a wide range of purposes, including providing technology, measurements, and standards for products and services such as “the smart electric power grid and electronic health records to atomic clocks, advanced nanomaterials, and computer chips.”6 NIST is located in both Gaithersburg, MD and Boulder, CO.
Embedded to the left is a video where you can learn more about exactly what NIST is all about. The Federal Information Security Management Act, often referred to as FISMA, has an implementation project that aims to protect the Nation's critical information infrastructure. All in all, these suggestions, along with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 and the Information Technology Management Reform Act of 1996, aim to create a cost-effective risk-based policy for security.
The goal of this strategy is to keep responsible officials aware of their current security programs. NIST provides many frameworks to follow in order to ensure safety for an information system. Select baseline security controls; apply tailoring guidance and supplement controls as needed based on risk assessment.
Implement security controls within enterprise architecture using sound systems engineering practices; apply security configuration settings. Determine risk to organizational operations and assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation; if acceptable, authorize operation. Continuously track changes to the information system that may affect security controls and reassess control effectiveness. NIST carries out its mission through many programs and is a vital resource for developing security architectures. Can be used as support by helping administrations ensure that the system or resources have not been harmed by hackers, insiders or technical problems. Users of the systems know that they are being audited, which creates individual accountability.
Audit trails help in clarifying moments when a system may crash by being able to review the activity prior to the situation.
Along with Audit Trails, NIST has a collection of documents that relate to audit and accountability of security system controls and to ensure compliance with policies and procedures.
Needless to say, it is great that our Nation is finally addressing the need to have a stable and protected cyber infrastructure. The International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium, often referred to as (ISC)2, is the leading organization in information security education and training. Access Control Systems are defined by the CBK as a “collection of mechanisms that permit managers of a system to exercise a directing or restraining influence over the behavior, use and content of a system”. There are two major methods of controlling who has access to a system, through Discretionary Access Control (DAC) and Mandatory Access Control (MAC). Relevance: Access Control is important to cybersecurity because it allows the protection of databases and systems by controlling who has access. The Telecommunications and Network Security Domain “encompasses the structures, transmission methods, transport formats and security measures to provide integrity, availability, and confidentiality for transmissions over public and private communication networks and media”. This includes the physical aspects of telecommunication such as hubs, routers and switches as well as the OSI Model, which dictates how networks communicate, an example is shown to the right. Relevance: Management can increase security by using proper telecommunications to build a solid network and then securing it so that it is protected from unwanted, outside communications.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has compiled a list of industry wide standards for information security. Information security governance and risk management “entails the identification of an organization’s information assets and the development, documentation, and implementation of policies, standards, procedures, and guidelines that ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability.” Information Security Governance is the way in which Information Security is directed and controlled. Risk is a huge part of any business, and in order to be successful a company must be able to properly mitigate their risk. Relevance: Cybersecurity is achieved by following the acronym CIA, which stands for confidentiality, integrity, and availability. This addresses the principles, means, and methods of disguising information to ensure its integrity, confidentiality, and authenticity. The systems development life cycle outlines the steps necessary to initiate the process of creating new or updating and evolving current systems. In addition to the system development life cycle, there are also many different development methods. Relevance: Through Software Development Security, cybersecurity exists because of the security controls that prevent security risks to a software application. Cryptography entails the identification of an organization’s information assets and the development, documentation, and implementation of policies, standards, procedures, and guidelines that ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability. When it comes to encryption there are two main types of ciphers, substitution and transposition. Relevance: Information is kept protected from hackers by encryption and validation which allows only authorized users to access the pertinent information. Security architecture and design relates to everything an organization does in terms of information security. In addition to these models, there are other guidelines and evaluation criteria to analyze the current or planned infrastructure in an organization. Something to consider as the design is being developed is whether or not to create an open or closed system. Relevance: The security architectures discussed are used in cybersecurity by focusing on certain attributes of security that ensure information is protected at every level.
In terms of security architecture, access control refers to varying exertions of control about one individual’s right of entry into a control room, network, or device. A major part of operational security, is understanding where you are vulnerable and how to compensate for it.
A simple way to help avoid the issues above would be to install redundancy into the operational design so that if something were to go wrong it would still be able to function properly while repairs were being made. Relevance: Operations security helps to maintain secure hardware and media devices throughout an organization. Disaster recovery has become an important part of the business practices of any organization because of the devastating effect that data loss would have on business. It is important to note that a BCP is useful if it remains up to date with the systems and operations it’s meant to aid, and a way to do this is to identify weaknesses in a company’s system and make sure that there is a standard protocol if such a problem were to occur; that being said, there are three aspects of the business that need to be addressed in an organization’s BCP. Due to the risks today involved with not backing up data, one of the best ways to avoid an IT disaster is to not let one happen in the first place.
The field of IT and Security Architecture is full of a multitude of legal policies that stem from a variety of international, federal, and industry wide regulations.
These acts work to protect sensitive and private information that can be subject to numerous crimes. All businesses should have some form of an incident response team whether it’s internal, external or a combination of the two. Just as anything else, ethics is a major part of information security especially due to the severity of the consequences if there were to be a breach in security. Relevance: Industry spanning standards and legal regulations assist in maintaining fair practices. Of the many security measures that go into play within a company, one of the most overlooked is the maintenance of data integrity within a company’s departments. In addition to the physical security of hardware and access controls, there is also the more literal sense of physical security through the surrounding environment. Intellectual property laws seek to protect the rights of creators to their works by giving them property rights to their creations. Signed into law by President Clinton on October 28th, 1998, the formal legislation is divided into five different titles. Title I – WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act of 1998: Implements the treaty. Title II – Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act: Allows for limitations in liability of online copyright infringement. Title III – Computer Maintenance Competition Assurance Act: Allows the creator and owner of a computer program the eligibility to make reproductions when necessary.
Title V – Vessel Hull Design Protection Act: Creates a system that works to protect original designs.
This bill aims to eliminate access to different sites that host or contribute to the movement and facilitation of pirated material. The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) is a plurilateral agreement for the purpose of establishing international standards for intellectual property rights enforcement. Open source is a development method for software that harnesses the power of distributed peer review and transparency of process.
The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources. The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form. The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software. The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field of endeavor. The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties. The rights attached to the program must not depend on the program's being part of a particular software distribution. The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software.
No provision of the license may be predicated on any individual technology or style of interface.
NIST defines the term Industrial Control System (ICS) as a “general term that encompasses several types of control systems, including supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, distributed control systems (DCS),and other control system configurations often found in the industrial sectors and critical infrastructures”44. The software architecture of SCADA System is multi-tasking and is based upon a real-time database (RTDB) located in one or more servers. SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) systems emerged at the same time that Industrial Control Systems were being implemented into factories and power generating facilities47. One or more field data interface devices, usually Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), or PLCs, which interface to field sensing devices and local control switchboxes and valve actuators. A communications system used to transfer data between field data interface devices and control units and the computers in the SCADA central host. Business continuity is back on the agenda, as companies recover from a year of snow, ash clouds, and snow again. Severe weather, flu pandemics, power failures and transport chaos: events that disrupt a business come in many guises.
However, despite the clear dangers, only around half of all businesses are said to have a business continuity plan, and even fewer have one that can really be considered effective. Stuart Hotchkiss, author of the recent BCS book Business Continuity Management: In Practice, believes the problem goes deeper. This lack of preparation comes despite evidence that disruption can be fatal to a business. As Forrester Research points out, one reason for low levels of preparedness is that it can take a headline-grabbing disaster to force boards to pay attention to business continuity. For IT departments, though, it is vital to recognise that a good business continuity plan has both IT and non-IT elements.
To do this, IT departments can turn to technologies such as remote and mobile working and, increasingly to cloud-based services, from simple online backups or Google Apps to more complex systems employing cloud infrastructure to store data remotely and run backup copies of applications. Good communications management is also essential: companies need to ensure that they can circulate alternative email addresses and contact numbers of key personnel, and that staff working on a Plan B can connect to backup services, for example if the main VPN or datacentre is down.

The fact that good continuity measures go beyond IT recovery plans emphasises the need for IT to be part of a multi-disciplinary team.
Then, the project planning team needs to look at the organisation's business processes, to see which need protecting or replicating. Forrester calculates that business continuity and disaster recovery should account for six to seven per cent of IT budgets. Stuart Hotchkiss' Business Continuity Management: In Practice is available from the IT PRO bookstore. This document is intended to help you to audit & review your business continuity and disaster recovery plan.
A growing area of concern for many businesses, Security Architecture, including frameworks and controls, must be implemented in order to ensure proper security and safety for a business. The design artifact describe the structure of components, their inter-relationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time” (OSA). NIST has been “laying the technical foundation” of the United States since it was chartered by the U.S. This helps the general public and other agencies to understand their purpose, objectives, and strategy. You'll learn about many of the projects and technologies that NIST uses to help improve our nation.
One of these frameworks is the Risk Management Framework, which is concerned with the management of organizational risk. This can help prevent these same problems from occurring again and help in the recovery process. To become a certified professional, a CISSP must pass a test on the Common Body of Knowledge, or CBK, which creates a framework for information security terms and principles. Discretionary Access Control gets its name because who has access to a system is entirely at the owner or system creator’s discretion.
This domain deals with telecommunications and the way that communication is conducted over the internet.
This list is known as the 27000 Series, and is applicable to any organization big or small.
It is a set of rules that address the security of the internet and create guidelines that help businesses persevere, especially in the face of major disruption to normal business operations or excessive risk. Another security framework available to companies is the Control Objectives for Information and related Technology or CobiT framework.
Before it can mitigate risk, it needs to understand what about their business is actually at risk.
By following these principles, management can achieve a level of security that can protect information assets, manage risk and be applied to all the other domains.
These are the controls that are found within systems and applications and also the steps included in developing them.
There are three types of controls that can be implemented depending on the incident at hand: Preventive controls (before event), detective controls (during event), and corrective controls (after event). The developer of the security knows the appropriate control method to keep a software protected from any attacks. Information is encrypted and validated to keep its security, allowing only authorized people to access that information.
The difference being a substitution replaces the original values while a transposition cipher simply rearranges the original values18.
From hardware, to software, to physical security, a strong design and infrastructure can only help a business operate. These were first developed by the US Department of Defense in what is known as the Orange Book21. An open system is one that is able to interact with another system, while a closed system can only interact with similar systems23.
According to the National Institute of Standards and Technology, one of the most complicated aspects of managing a large network is securing admission to it. A simple vulnerability test can help an organization realize where their weakest links are and how to go about strengthening them. It’s also common to see some of these issues arise during times of changes being made to systems. There are different types of disasters that could come affect organizations, these including natural disasters, such as floods and earthquakes. Hot sites refer to a second location that is ready for use in the case of an emergency where the original business location is not longer operating. This also includes a documented process as to which devices and data will be brought back first and how to bring them back in a safe and controlled manner30. Therefore, the recovery team can respond by restoring the business processes that will still let the business function fairly normal31.
In order to protect ones sensitive information, a possible preventive measure today is through cloud computing.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO), has issued a wide variety of multi-industry spanning policies.
Simply put, no system is 100% safe from any attack, and without an incident response a business may not be able to react quickly enough or even at all. To help understand the ethical behaviors of an information security professional, the Computer Ethics Institute has written a set of “Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics”34.
While it is true that not all members of a company have access to crucial information, it must be considered that those who do can deal a major blow to the information security within an organization. This includes the building and walls, any surrounding fencing and even the locks on the doors to secure rooms. Copyright legislation is a piece of a larger entity of the law known as intellectual property, defined as creations of the human mind. Provisions include the requesting of court orders to bar advertising networks and payment facilities from conducting business with infringing websites, and search engines from linking to the sites, and court orders requiring Internet service providers to block access to the sites.
The agreement aims to establish an international legal framework for targeting counterfeit goods, generic medicines and copyright infringement on the Internet, and would create a new governing body outside existing forums, such as the World Trade Organization, the World Intellectual Property Organization, or the United Nations.
The promise of open source is better quality, higher reliability, more flexibility, lower cost, and an end to predatory vendor lock-in. Where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, there must be a well-publicized means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable reproduction cost preferably, downloading via the Internet without charge. The license must explicitly permit distribution of software built from modified source code.
For example, it may not restrict the program from being used in a business, or from being used for genetic research. If the program is extracted from that distribution and used or distributed within the terms of the program's license, all parties to whom the program is redistributed should have the same rights as those that are granted in conjunction with the original software distribution. For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on the same medium must be open-source software.
ICS are used in industries such as electrical, water treatment, oil and natural gas, chemical, transportation, pharmaceutical, pulp and paper, food and beverage, and manufacturing.
SCADA is a type of Industrial Control System which runs as a software package that is interfaced to hardware and operates on the supervisory level. While all of this evolution towards more open-based standards has made it easier for the industry to integrate various diverse systems together, it has also increased the risks of less technical personnel gaining access and control of these industrial networks.”50 Although SCADA Systems run on their own industrial networks and are separated from corporate networks, they are still vulnerable to attack. But creating a good continuity plan neither just about planning for disasters, nor a task for IT alone, says Stephen Pritchard.
Bharat Thakrar, the global head of BT Global Services’ business continuity portfolio, puts the percentage of companies with that have a BC plan at 48 per cent, with the figure for SMEs “even lower”. According to research carried out by RISE, a cloud-based provider of data centres, which recently launched a business continuity service, 20 per cent of companies will suffer an outage. But there are other ways to focus directors' minds on the issue, including the risk of falling behind competitors – who will be more attractive to customers and more profitable if they suffer fewer failures – and the pressure of industry regulation. For Magnus Leask, IT director of Fast Track, a sports marketing company that runs events such as the Aviva UKA (Athletics) Grand Prix, the cost of continuity planning is low, when set against the cost of lost business. Conventional, IT focused disaster recovery keeps systems running, but does little, for example, to help employees caught out by the weather.
Few organisations will be able to protect all their processes, systems or applications to the same degree. Businesses need to test both the practicalities of their BC arrangements – can staff reach a recovery centre, do emergency communications work – as well as the technical recovery of IT systems and data. But for IT directors who have had to deal with an outage, it is testing that can make the difference between survival, and failure.
It covers the status of the plan itself, and explores in some depth the content of the plan, embracing everything from business function definition to post disaster recovery actions. Congress on March 3, 1901.3 NIST became the “first physical science research laboratory of the federal government,” despite its creation at the very beginning of the technology age. Therefore, users will be less likely to go against security policy if they know their actions are being recorded in the audit log or trail. In order to develop this framework, NIST is involving key stakeholders by issuing a Request for Information to the public to encourage public involvement in developing the Cybersecurity framework. The Common Body of Knowledge consists of ten domains, at the center of each domain are the core information security and assurance principles, confidentiality, integrity, and, availability. The Access Control System is separate from the Physical Security domain in that Access Control Systems are an electronic part of the system that authenticates who is allowed to use the system as a whole and, more specifically, what parts they have access to. These policies and rules should be driven into the core competencies of the organization, and in order to do so it needs to start with upper-level management. This framework “defines goals for the controls that should be used to properly manage IT and to ensure that IT maps to business needs”14. Only after a proper and thorough risk analysis can management then determine what security policy and procedures are best suited to protect them. Within the security sector, software development is profoundly related to the architecture of software and keeping the software secure.
Another popular development method is prototyping, which involves creating a sample of the final product then having the customers review it and make adjustments. Controls can also be distinguished by their nature, there are four different types of natures of a control: physical, procedural, technical, and legal or regulatory. The roots of encryption can be traced back to Egypt when hieroglyphics replaced words, but now encryption has evolved into something so much more complex15. Algorithms are another form of encryption, but tend to be more complex due to their mathematical nature. Luckily there are a few models to help get companies started, and these models are listed below20.
Just as technology is always advancing, it’s necessary to keep the evaluation criteria updated. An open system is more likeable amongst consumers due to its flexibility, but it also poses as a greater risk because its vulnerability also increases. The principal model of access control throughout the industry is Role Based Access Control (RBAC), which, in short, is a method of confining access to a network to solely approved users. To combat this, companies should have a clearly outlined process as to how to go about making changes. Unfortunately, there are a variety of man-made disasters such as terrorist attacks and computer viruses that pose a major threat to information. Cold site is not ready for immediate use and therefore might take a few days to get started.
It is suggested that through the use of the cloud that companies transport their data to other offices and store it on offsite systems. It has specific rules for security architecture contained in the “Code of Practice for Information Security Management”; these policies have been condensed into the ISO 27000 series. Computer-aided crimes are those that require the assistance of a computer or other form of technology, while computer-targeted crimes are those where the computer is the victim32.
A trained and qualified incident response is also important because it’s a company’s line of defense if the event were to carryover into court. There has been a growing trend of hackers and insiders manipulating data within a workplace.
Security does not always have to be so heavyset on the use of technology; sometimes all you need is a couple of patrolling guards and a lock on the door, or possibly a safe.

The agreement was signed on 1 October 2011 by Australia, Canada, Japan, Morocco, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea and the United States. The license may require derived works to carry a different name or version number from the original software.
SCADA technologies appeared as far as the 1960's with simple input and output devices used to remotely monitor operations in industrial applications. The system can be penetrated at many different points and can be most easily compromised at the host or control room level. Of the remainder, half have out-of -date plans, which would never work in practice, and I would guess that only 10 per cent of companies do any kind of yearly testing,” he says.
Of those that do not have a recovery plan 43 per cent will never re-open, 80 per cent will fail within 13 months and 53 per cent fail to recoup losses incurred as a result of the incident. But an IT system that is prone to failure poses its own challenge to the business' operations.
An orderly system for recovering data and bringing applications and processes back on line should also be part of the plan, so that all employees know what is offline, and how quickly it is likely to be recovered. Only testing shows that the chain in command does work, and reveals where bottlenecks or vulnerabilities sit within systems themselves. The US had very few standards that were necessary for trade and the industrial age “was being driven by the steam engine, the railroad, and the expanding reach of electricity.” Other nations had developed standards laboratories and there was an outcry by American scientists for the United States to do the same. The auditing techniques are used to make sure frameworks, such as Risk Management Framework from above, are being implemented fairly and correctly. Since almost everyone in our Nation is an end user of our infrastructure through the Internet, it is very smart of NIST to involve those who interact with the Internet on a daily basis. These systems are concerned with four major principles, identification, authentication, authorization, and accountability.
This is referred to as the top down approach, meaning these ideas and beliefs start at the top of the organizational hierarchy and trickle their way down to the rest of the company. After installing proper security policies and procedures, it is important to properly train employees and strategically allocate responsibilities. Developing secure software requires key components that make the software secure: Systems development life cycle, application environment and the effectiveness of the application security.
The creators would then take those new adjustments and create a new prototype for the customer to test.
This relates back to the risk management that is analyzed before, during, and after any business task to understand if the risk is necessary. In addition to vulnerability testing, a business continuity plan is important to develop and maintain. This ultimately comes back to access controls, but not only for those trying to make the changes.
Businesses also need to prepare themselves for human error, which accounts for 96% of errors in the workplace. Where a hot site might seem more advantageous it is significantly more expensive to upkeep compared to a cold site, something management needs to consider before selecting the “best” option29. With proper investigative procedures, an incident response team can provide the necessary evidence to the proper authorities. These data changes can have a significant effect on the upper tiers of management that make decisions based upon the data, and possible customers of whom the data could be concerning. For those more persistent intruders though, a business might need a more advanced security system that includes a detection system for unauthorized access to parts of the building. Specific rights that authors may practice include the right to prevent a copy of their work being distorted. SCADA systems are typically used for geographically dispersed assets and can be found in many infrastructure and industrial processes such as power generation (nuclear and conventional), steel production, plants, refineries, factories, water-treatment and nuclear fusion sites.
With the advancement of technology, SCADA systems have developed into advanced software, high performance microprocessors and wireless technology.
Because of the SCADA system logs data out of numerous databases, they system must have a direct connection to those databases. To help “meet the needs of electrical instruments makers and manufacturers,” lead scientists and industrialists endorsed the concept of having a standards laboratory. Our efforts stimulate innovation, foster industrial competitiveness, and improve the quality of life.” Both the mission and the vision statements of NIST provide for a clear understanding of what they are involved in, however NIST also states their core competencies as being measurement science, rigorous traceability, and the development and use of standards.
The combination of all of these programs and partnerships help NIST to achieve their mission and continuously improve the products and services that are offered in our nation. If you would like to be involved in the process, the first workshop for developing the framework will take place on April 3rd at NIST's campus in Gaithersburg, MD. Identification and authentication require users to supply information to prove that they have access. The second type of system, Mandatory Access Control, cannot grant access to any user, rather the access has to be earned.
In addition, the network security aspect then adds to the telecommunication layer by including the ways in which Internet communication is kept secure, through confidentiality, integrity, and availability.
When management is creating these security policies they often reference the Organizational Security Model, shown to the left. Companies are most vulnerable from internal risk so it is integral that all employees understand the security policies and procedures.
Plaintext is simply readable data, while ciphertext is unreadable data, and decryption is the means of translating ciphertext to plaintext16. Symmetric algorithms require both the sender and receiver have identical keys that allow them to encrypt and decrypt messages, whereas asymmetric algorithms use two unique yet related keys for its messages19.
The Rainbow Series was simply a continuation of the Orange Book, just using different colors hence rainbow, and the Common Criteria become the international guideline for information security22. First it is necessary to assign hierarchical roles to users prior to system access, secondly making sure that users are authorized within the company to access the data that may pertain to theirs or other departments, and thirdly access can only be granted if it pertains to the project at hand. This would include items such as a system reboot, emergency restart, and a system cold start, along with understanding the meaning of mean time between failure and mean time of repair. Controlling who has the authority to allow changes is also important to control and monitor.
The best way to combat disasters is to have a strong Business Continuity Plan (BCP) that way a company can remain fairly operational while it recovers. Henceforth from the issuance of this set of codes it was necessary to abide by its standards or risk being shunned for ineffective practices.
One of the best forms of this, in terms of internal investigation and monitoring, are activity logs which can prove who was signed in during the time of the event33. One of the easiest ways to combat data deception is to require employees to change passwords regularly and to discourage the sharing of passwords among employees. Other rights that are not particularly entirely author’s rights include licensing rights that publishers may exercise of an author’s work.
SCADA systems monitor and control facility processes such as air conditioning and ventilation. This connection can be traced back to the SCADA system and eventually through an end device on a corporate network. It is apparent that NIST has very clearly identified its goals and is consistently making efforts to innovative. Examples of this can be entering a password to view an online account or submitting a pin number at an ATM to gain access to your bank account. This means that there are given set of rules or criteria that has to be met before a user is granted access. This domain applies to all forms of networking and media, both public and private and is one of the larger and more technical domains in the CBK.
There are four properties of encryption that need to be understood when using encryption: Key length, redundancy checks, hash functions, and digital signatures.
In addition to access control, management should also divide responsibilities amongst employees so that no one has a significant amount of control over their network.
There has been notable security architecture industry appointed standards, most notably the Standards of Good Practice for Information Security, which covers a variety of bases including networks, consumer technology standards, methods to avert cyber attacks, and new applications of cloud computing. One of the worst nightmares of any company would be a disgruntled IT or human resources employee taking advantage of their access and stealing customer credit information or manipulation employee records.
Important to take away from copyright is that it only protects the form of expression that ideas take, not the standalone ideas. The following list provides the various kinds of attacks that can damage a penetrated system. There is also use of biometrics, which utilizes the unique characteristics of individuals as a form of access control. This is true in military or government situations for data that is “top secret or classified”. The telecommunications and network security domain also applies to wireless networks and devices. Responsibility should also be set up in a way that allows employees to monitor and check each other so that each individual is following the separation of duties.
As the field of computer technology has grown, there have been numerous acts of Congress passed in order to regulate the field in the way of securing computer systems. To combat the dangers of data manipulation is expensive because sophisticated data checks and cross checking mechanisms after the database has been built is pricey. The system gathers and analyzes data flowing from facility processes and alerts a central base if a problem occurs, as well as the location and severity of the error. The user must gain security clearance or reach a level of authority that permits them to have access to the system. The effectiveness of application security is ensuring that the developer knows how to establish secure, stable, and efficient software, using the given and appropriate controls, that will stay free from any attack methods.
The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1984, made it punishable by federal law to knowingly access the computer of another and exploit that access in a fraudulent manner; it also criminalizes the attempt to do so and conspiring as well. When detection algorithms are applied, small file changes cannot be immediately detected because such programs are meant to detect file size differences.
The hardware found in a SCADA system is broken up into two distinct layers – the “client layer” and the “data server layer” which is in charge of the process data control activities. Authorization is the system acknowledging who the user is, and granting them permission to perform the tasks they are allowed to do. These Access Control methods cover three generic spectrums of controls, administrative, physical, and technical. Keeping software secure is a difficult process and to add on to the difficulty, it is also a costly and time consuming.
Hash functions use a large amount of data to make a small fingerprint based on the same data. Other acts related to information security are HIPAA, GLBA, Federal Privacy Act, Computer Security Act, and the Economic Espionage Act. Interestingly, one of the best controls is education within departments on the identification of deception in the workplace, as humans have shown to be good detectors of deception when issued warnings of deceptive possibilities.
Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are connected to the data servers either directly or via networks that are proprietary or non-proprietary. The system also logs all activities performed as a form of monitoring, which is the accountability factor. Many security problems are discovered during the testing or even worse, by the public after it has been officially introduced.
Despite this, human vigilance is likely to wane over time, which would keep the problem from ever fully being resolved. Physical controls are concerned with the actual surrounding environment, and technical controls speak to the hardware and software of the security system. Encryptions are not always 100% secure because the techniques used in the process can be destroyed using certain methods of attack. Encryption involves several components for it to be successful and it is often implemented incorrectly. The systems that are used for encrypting and decrypting data are referred to as cryptosystems17.

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