Yesterday I attended a professional development session with educator, author, parent and blogger Will Richardson.  In his books and on his blog Will has been writing for years about challenging our tradional thinking about education and questioning how we can change our systems to make the learning process more relevant for our students. Tsunamis are waves in the ocean or lakes generated by abrupt vertical movement of the seafloor or lake floor by earthquakes (Fig. In the openA ocean tsunami waves are generally only a few tens of centimetres high, but as they approach shore they may grow to heights of 10 m or more (Fig.
Unlike earthquake-triggered tsunamis, the waves created by landslides, whether triggered by earthquakes or not, have only a local impact.
The tectonic plates that underlie the Pacific Ocean are being subducted beneath continental margins around the perimeter of the ocean basin. Prior to 1987, assessments of theA tsunami hazard on the west coast of North America were based on the impact of distant Pacific-wide tsunamis, but in the last two decades scientists have recognized that the west coast of North America is also vulnerable to tsunamis generated at the Cascadia subduction zone, where the Juan de Fuca plate is being thrust beneath the North America plate, from northern California to central Vancouver Island (Fig.
Are tsunami waves triggered by a great plate-boundary earthquake at the Cascadia subduction zone a threat to lives and property in the coastal lowlands of the Strait of Georgia?
If these model predictions are valid, we conclude that the sea dikes of the southern margin of the Fraser delta may be overtopped byA tsunami waves about two hours after a great earthquake if the tsunami arrival coincides with a high tide and a strong onshore wind.
Of the subduction zones that surround the North Pacific, only the Alaska-Aleutian margin represents a significant tsunami threat to the west coast of Canada. Earthquakes on faults within the North America plate represent an additional tsunami hazard to coastal communities of the Pacific Northwest. What is less certain, however, is the tsunami potential posed by submarine faults beneath the Strait of Georgia? A strong local earthquake could conceivable cause a landslide at the front of the Fraser River delta, where it slopes into deep waters of the Strait of Georgia. Landslide-induced tsunamis are particularly dangerous because the waves may locally be very large and the warning time very short.
It has long been recognized that the western front of the Fraser delta is at risk from submarine landslides. Researchers have investigated the ability of large submarine slope failure at the southwestern delta front.A  They conclude that a large slide could generate tsunami waves up to 18 m high on the east shores of Galiano and Mayne Island, but that the tidal flats of the delta foreshore would deflect and reduce wave energy, meaningA thatA waves at the shoreline in Tsawwassen would likely not exceed two metres.
This approach is based on the observation that when tsunami waves recede, the inundated area can be determined by mapping the sediments they have left behind.
Professors John Clague (Department of Earth Sciences, Simon Fraser University) and Ian Hutchinson (Department of Geography, SFU) completed a study of near-surface sediments beneath the plain of the Fraser delta in the summer of 2005.
A large portion of those said it was because they lacked an emergency kit or an emergency plan.
Step by step guides on how to build an emergency kit and plan are available from both the Federal and Provincial governments.
Officials say you should be prepared to be on your own for a minimum of 72 hours by developing a household plan and putting together an emergency kit.
Matthew Colling with the BC Red Cross says the kit is important, but it’s only half of the equation. In most emergency situations, DROP down onto your hands and knees before the earthquake knocks you down. COVER your head and neck (and your entire body if possible) under the shelter of a sturdy table or desk. Another tip – keep your emergency preparedness kit well-stocked and in an easily accessible location. The earthquake has also prompted a renewed appeal for people to avoid calling 911 unless they are in a genuine emergency. Surrey RCMP Staff Sergeant Dale Carr says minutes after the earthquake hit the coast of B.C.
The situation was the same as that experienced by E-Comm, the 9-1-1 dispatch service for much of the South Coast.
Robertson urges people to utilize the media and government resources to obtain earthquake information. Brian Fong with 72 Hours in Burnaby sells earthquake kits, complete with water, rations, shelter, and first-aid supplies.
He says his company started getting online orders for kits a mere half an hour after the earthquake struck. To retrieve your password, enter your email address below and your password will be sent to you.
So, take a few minutes to make the effort to make sure you are secure in an unsure world, by getting your earthquake kit all set.
Elsewhere in the world an earthquake was reported in Mexico and two strong quakes were reported new Indonesia. If you live in areas at risk for earthquakes, make sure to have an emergency earthquake kit ready at all times. What countries are on the list of who has an earthquake early warning system that can provide a mass broadcast early warning that can provide precious seconds of warning for one to drop, cover, and hold on? With or without an earthquake early warning system in your area, make sure your have your earthquake kit ready. It's been a year since an earthquake brought a devastating tsunami with its massive destruction to the Japanese coastal areas.
Each disaster around the world brings devastation and sadness, but also an opportunity to learn and prepare ourselves for the day that our neighborhood might sadly be in the headlines. If you live in earthquake country, be prepared with an earthquake kit designed to protect your supplies in an earthquake and to support you after an earthquake. In a severe earthquake, second only to surviving yourself is making sure that your earthquake emergency survival kit makes it through the initial earthquake with your emergency supplies intact. It is critical then that your emergency supplies be protected from the falling debris that can crush your unprotected earthquake supplies.

Do you have an earthquake kit that is built to survive the quake and then to help you survive?
MobileAid 3-Day Emergency Earthquake Kits for 1, 2 or 4 people provide crush-resistant protection for your emergency supplies. These features mean that your emergency supplies will stand a much better chance of making it through a major earthquake undamaged in a MobileAid Emergency Earthquake Kit than will earthquake supplies stored in a regular backpack or plastic bin. Quick–access organization: Emergency preparedness supplies are organized in Quick–Response vinyl–lined pouches with carrying straps. Seating and gear-carrying platform: allows for people to be seated to rest and can be used to transport additional equipment and supplies (supports up to 300 lbs). MobileAid Emergency Earthquake Survival Kits provide superior crush protection, mobility, functionality, organization, and design.
To help you be prepared for an earthquake, see the LifeSecure full line of earthquake preparedness kits and earthquake supplies.
If you are helping to prepare a school, workplace, or other large facility, you may need to provide emergency first aid.
MobileAid Emergency Earthquake kits and Emergency Trauma First Aid Stations can help you survive by helping your earthquake supplies survive. Make sure you have your earthquake kit prepared as much of the United States is covered by earthquake zones. Many times the state of disorganization starts from something simple such as daily schedules, family obligations, many hours at work, and a lack of personal time. Your organizing challenge may be something as simple as a closet or entranceway that drives you crazy.
Maybe you have a workspace or home office that you cannot work in because being in the room stresses you out too much. Perhaps the way your home is set up and functions creates a sense of disorder and makes it difficult to get through your day-to-day tasks. Before she knew it, the room had become too crowded with clutter and belongings to be used as a spare bedroom or for anything else.
She could not understand why she could not get this particular room into shape as the rest of her home was relatively organized. Her biggest challenge was that she could not get started. Every time she went into the room to begin sorting and cleaning she got so frustrated and claustrophobic that she had to leave. The client was looking for assistance with getting the room under control, emptied, sorted, and organized so it could be used as a spare bedroom. Being on a limited budget, she did not want to purchase new furniture or complete a complex decorating project.
We worked with her to empty the room, to sort the clutter, to dispose and donate unwanted items, and to set up the existing furniture. Many of the items we used in the set up and redesign came from the pile of stuff that was in the room. The room can now be used as a spare bedroom and the client is able to go into the room without wanting to run back out of it.
Being organized assists you to reduce stress and create calm by clearing the clutter and introducing order into your life. You gain new skills for reducing and maintaining an uncluttered and organized home, home office, or business office.
We listen to your challenges, learn about your use for the space and functionality goals, and then provide ideas and solutions for your project. Follow-up visits and maintenance plans so you can continue to use and maintain your new organizing skills. Are you or a loved one downsizing into a smaller home?  Some home owners, especially seniors, find the process of downsizing from a larger home to a smaller one to be very difficult. Are you moving into a new home? Moving can be very stressful especially when you have a hectic schedule.
Would you like to refresh your decor, but do not know where to start or have the ability to do so on your own? Parm Hari, who is joining us from her current job as Vice Principal at Burnaby South Secondary School.  You can meet Ms.
2, 3).A  Because of this, they mayA cause fatalities and destroy property around the entire margin of the ocean basin.
The tsunami hazardA at a particular location along a coast depends on the tsunami potential of the local area, the exposure of the shoreline and the offshore and onshore topography of the coastal zone. At each subduction zone the interface between the converging oceanic and continental plates is locked for long periods of time, and the accumulating strain compresses and deforms the continental margin.
Their simulation model predicts that a great earthquake at the Cascadia subduction zone will generate tsunami waves about 5a€“10 m high on the outer coast (Fig.
At low tide the sea dikes would have more than two metres of freeboard and thus would restrain a tsunami wave. Faults in central and northern Puget Sound are known to have ruptured in large (M 7) earthquakes in the last few millennia. If any of these faults are active, and if the seafloor is displaced during a future earthquake, then the ensuing tsunami would likely present a hazard to coastal areas in the Strait that are orientated parallel to the fault zone.A  The southern foreshore of the Fraser River delta is therefore likely at greater risk than the western foreshore from seismic tsunamis generated by east-west trending fault zones beneath the southern Strait of Georgia.
For example, in November 1994 a submarine slide in Taiya Inlet created a wave that reached a height of nine to eleven metres at the shoreline in Skagway, Alaska, causing one fatality and over $20 million of damage.
The Fraser River discharges about 17 million tons of sediment into the Strait of Georgia each year, and much of this sediment accumulates on the steep frontal slope of the delta. No tsunami has affected this area in the historic period (the last 100 years), but what about further back in time.
If new soils are quickly deposited on top of the tsunami sediment, the tsunami event is archived in the geological record (Fig.

Their objective was to determine whether or not any prehistoric tsunamis had crossed what are now Richmond and Delta.A A total of 33 cores were retrieved fromA sites (Fig. Jones, a seimologist at the United States Geological Survey, told the New York Times this week, "The last 17 years has been the quietest time we have ever seen. Hopefully what they did leave is a bit of a wake up call for the need for earthquake preparedness. There will be no warning when an earthquake hits, so advanced preparation will be the only preparation possible.
Those with an earthquake early warning system include: Japan, Mexico, Taiwan, Turkey, and Romania.
No government is prepared to immediately meet the needs of its entire population after a devastating earthquake. Your earthquake kit may have adequate emergency supplies to help you survive the first few days after an earthquake, but is it built to survive the initial earthquake and to protect your supplies?
These kits have a super-durable aircraft grade aluminum frame that can support over 300 lbs, but which weighs less than 9 lbs.
In an evacuation, it will be much easier to roll your emergency supplies a long distance than it will be to carry them on your back.
These features can be critical if you are left out-of-doors and have to transport additional belongings as you find suitable shelter. All of these features together will allow you to respond immediately, effectively and confidently to a major earthquake and its aftermath.
MobileAid Multi-function Trauma First Aid Stations featured the same crush-resistant frames as our earthquake kits and provide comprehensive trauma first aid supplies that meet OSHA guidelines and ANSI standards.
Sorting through items to determine what you no longer need, what you would like to keep, what to donate, and recommendations for items that may fit best in your new home.
Assisting with unpacking, setting up, space planning and furniture arrangements, placing accessories, lighting choices, and other interior decor choices are just some of the services we provide.
A Tsunamis generated by submarine earthquakes travel at subsonic speed across the ocean surface. The accumulated strain is released every few decades or centuries in great (magnitude (M) =8) plate-boundary earthquakes. Sheets of tsunami-deposited sand that record these, and earlier, plate-boundary earthquakes are widespread beneath marshes along the Pacific coasts of Oregon, Washington and British Columbia, at sites at the eastern end of Juan de Fuca Strait, and in some low-lying coastal lakes.
If the sea dikes had been weakened, or had collapsed, as a result of earthquake shaking, they might be locally breached by the tsunami even at low tide. Some low-lying areas around Puget Sound were flooded by the tsunamis generated by these earthquakes.
The unconsolidated sediments forming the delta front may also fail without a seismic trigger, and yet still produce a tsunami. Small slides are common in this unconsolidated material; however, these slides are shallow-seated and move down the delta front over a period of hours, consequently they do not produce tsunami waves. Scientists can answer this question by searching for telltale tsunami deposits in the sediments of the Fraser River delta. This protective frame features a perforated exoskeleton design with secure joints, and chrome-plated screws with shake-proof nylon aircraft lock nuts for extra strength. These stations also feature such practical extras as a flexible stretcher and first aid flag.
Hall we are also thrilled that he will be bringing his considerable expertise to the District Office. Hall at the PAC Meeting scheduled for this Monday, March 4th at 7:00 in the School Library. During these earthquakes the sea floor above the locked zone abruptly rises, generating a tsunami, and the coastal zone suddenly subsides, with flooding of low-lying areas.
As far as we are aware, however, there are no equivalent oral traditions of tsunamis from this event in the Strait of Georgia. These large waves gradually diminish in height as they move through Juan de Fuca Strait and the narrows between the San Juan and Gulf Islands. The islands at the north and south ends of the Strait of Georgia, however, effectively blocked the tsunami from reaching inland waters. The narrow, winding passages of this inland sea, however, cause rapid loss of tsunami wave energy, and we consider it highly unlikely that tsunamis generated by submarine earthquakes in Puget Sound or Juan de Fuca Strait have ever inundated the lowlands of the Fraser River delta. If these tsunami deposits can be identified and dated, then it becomes possible to reconstruct the history of tsunamis at thatA A  location.This approachhas been used to determine the incidence of tsunamis on the outer coast of Vancouver Island, in Puget Sound, and Juan de Fuca Strait. The leading edge of the first wave is forecast to reach Boundary Bay on the southern foreshore of the Fraser River delta about 2 hours and 5 minutes after the earthquake. At the east end of Juan de Fuca Strait, the largest wave from the 1964 Alaska tsunami was one to two metres high, whereas in the southern Strait of Georgia it diminished to less than 0.5 metre. I have yet to find threat one for the midwest is in the works (please comment if you know about one. The great (M=9.3) earthquake that occurred off the coast of Sumatra in 2004 is an expample of this rupture process.
We conclude therefore that tsunamis triggered by distant plate-boundary earthquakes do not constitute a significant source of hazard at the Fraser River delta. The second wave, which is approximately the same size as the first, arrives at about three hours and 30 minutes. Unlike Boundary Bay, the western foreshore of the Fraser delta lies parallel to the direction of wave travel, and the maximum wave heights on this foreshore are forecast to be much smaller (less than 0.5 metre).

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