The essential elements required to make a building earthquake safe are as given in Figure 1. Clipping is a handy way to collect and organize the most important slides from a presentation.
Researchers in the UK have developed a simple and cheap technology using which earthquake-hit buildings can be made safe and habitable again. Recent tests showed that a damaged building repaired using the technique could withstand a major earthquake. It is designed for use on reinforced concrete frame buildings — a common construction technique around the world.
Concrete works well under compression but not when pulled under tension and this is why it has to be reinforced for use in construction.
The team tested the technique on a full-scale, two-storey building which had inadequate reinforcing to withstand earthquakes. During the first test, the building was very near collapse following a small earthquake similar in scale to a magnitude 4 on the Richter scale having about 10,000 times less energy than the Haiti earthquake.
According to professor Pilakoutas, the new technology will not only speed up the response to major earthquakes but could also prevent the damage happening in the first place.
The cost of the materials for a typical small building column is about 20 pounds and it would take a crew of two people around two hours to complete the strengthening. Recently, assistant professor William Barnhart from the University of Iowa in the US showed that GPS and satellite data can be used in a real-time, coordinated effort to fully characterise a fault line within 24 hours of an earthquake, ensuring that aid is delivered faster and more accurately than ever before. On an international scale, it dramatically reduces the time between when an earthquake happens, when buildings start to fall down, and when aid starts to show up, Barnhart wrote. If you use a smartphone running Android, then it's time you started paying much more attention to your security. Researchers hope to give building owners a number of different options at a variety of price points to retrofit their buildings and make them safer.
Non-ductile reinforced concrete buildings are among the most common structures in the United States. Structures built prior to the 1950s in California and prior to the 1980s in the central and southeastern United States were typically not designed with proper details to perform adequately during earthquakes. Through a grant provided by the National Science Foundation, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technologya€”along with partners at Virginia Tech, Rice University, Howard University and the University of California, Los Angelesa€”are testing retrofits that potentially can make these buildings safer and more secure. Georgia Tech and its partners are studying how a full-scale reinforced concrete building reacts during large-scale testing.
According to DesRoches, it is unusual for researchers to build such a massive structure allowing this type of testing. Originally, the research team tried to locate an existing building they could test, but they then realized there were benefits to building a new structure. The building was constructed so that it was sliced up into bays, allowing researchers to actually test different portions of the building separately and evaluate different retrofit measures.
Researchers mounted a shaker on top of each research bay, clamping it down to the building. Through a grant provided by the National Science Foundation, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology a€” along with partners at Virginia Tech, Rice University, Howard University and the University of California, Los Angeles a€” are testing retrofits that potentially can make these buildings safer and more secure. With this equipment, researchers replicated the 1940 El Centro earthquake and the 1994 Northridge earthquake. The research involved testing three retrofits to strengthen the building's columns after an initial series of tests on the virgin structure or bare columns. In older reinforced concrete buildings, the transverse reinforced is spaced too far apart a€“ typically around 12-16 inches apart.
In the old buildings, there are not enough non-ductile columns and they are spaced too far aparta€”typically about 16 inches apart.

DesRoches continues, "What we're trying to do in an earthquake is limit the deformation, particularly in an area where we know it is vulnerable. Now researchers will spend the next three to six months combing through and analyzing all the data they've gathered during six months of testing. Meanwhile, researchers are looking at a number of ways to continue utilizing the structure. The first bay that they tested without any retrofit is significantly damaged, so they are looking at ways to repair it. Four years after the January 2010 earthquake, 145,000 people still remain homeless in Haiti.
New, stronger concrete that can better withstand an earthquake isn't much good if it's too expensive to use. University of Adelaide research is producing new materials that could help protect important buildings and other structures from terrorist attacks. The robots are cominga€”to help run your life or sell you stuffa€”at an online texting service near you.
Using your skin as a touchscreen has been brought a step closer after UK scientists successfully created tactile sensations on the palm using ultrasound sent through the hand.
Self-driving cars are more likely to hurt than help public safety because of unsolved technical issues, engineers and safety advocates told the government Friday, countering a push by innovators to speed government approval. Glenn Martin was sitting in a bar with his college buddies 35 years ago when they got to wondering: What ever happened to flying cars and jetpacks?
Thousands of people live and work in concrete buildings that have not been… (Los Angeles Times )Concrete structures may look sturdy and durable, but the ones built without steel reinforcing bars, known as rebar, are actually brittle and run the risk of collapsing in a strong earthquake.
Answer: In so far as anything can be made to be earthquake resistant, the answer is yes - however, that comes with a few caveats.
After tremblors hit the area in 2008, causing the evacuation of buildings and construction sites in the city, the Dubai Municipality (DM) told Construction Week that earthquakes posed no risk to the city's high rise towers.
By contrast, Tokyo and much of Japan is classified in Zone 4 - the most at risk of a major earthquake.
While most people seem to agree that the UAE is a low-risk zone for earthquakes, the Council of Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) says caution still needs to be shown. The CTBUH recommends a 'performance based' approach to seismic design be introduced in the UAE, similar to systems used in Japan and China.
This would require new building designs to be exposed to a series of computer simulated earthquake events consistent with any potential seismic hazard at the site.
Technical director at Hyder Consulting Angus MacFarlane told CW in 2008 that they carry out such tests for all of their building projects which include the Burj Dubai, Emirates Towers and Burj Al Arab.
Save or share your relevant files like activites, homework and worksheet.To add resources, you must be the owner of the section. The technology has been developed by researchers from the University of Sheffield in south Yorkshire. The technology involves wrapping metal straps around each floor of the building which are then tensioned either by hand or using compressed air tools. Unlike other repair methods, it does not require expensive materials or a high-level of technical knowledge, making it ideal for use in the developing world. The researchers were unable to make the building fall during a major earthquake similar in scale to the magnitude of 7 on the Richter scale. This testing shakes the structure, allowing researchers to assess different kinds of techniques to make similar buildings more durable so they don't collapse during an earthquake.
This shaker produced more than 100,000 pounds of force, and researchers could control the sort of harmonic load or non-harmonic load needed. By monitoring hundreds of instruments attached to the structure, researchers were able to get a detailed understanding of what exactly took place at different points in the building and essentially get a picture of the entire structure at any point during testing.

The idea is when you wrap the columns with something very strong, you actually confine them. When testing the retrofits, researchers start with low levels of shaking and gradually build up to larger levels of shaking.
24 is placing the spotlight on efforts by property owners and municipalities to retrofit older buildings and improve their ability to withstand earthquakes. That's a problem Los Angeles cannot continue to ignore.Building codes in the city were changed after the 1971 Sylmar earthquake to require that all concrete buildings be constructed with more steel support.
The DM ensured all towers over four storeys high adhered to the internationally-used Uniform Building Code 97 (UBC) and it certified all buildings over four stories to a Zone 2A standard, which assumes buildings can withstand local earthquakes up to 5.5 on the Richter scale.
Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation have identified concrete buildings constructed before roughly 1980 in the Los Angeles area.
This occurs as a result of the Earth’s axis of rotation being tilted in relation to its orbit around the sun. According to DesRoches, when you squeeze the column in such a way, you increase the ductility and the strength of the column.
We could have made it half as strong with half as much material and still received good performance from it. Another law requires that owners changing the use of an old building must meet up-to-date seismic standards, including those for concrete.
But no retrofitting has been required for the rest of the older buildings.That leaves many more out there that could possibly collapse. Ravi has over 6 years of experience and has been actively involved in editorial groups of many US and UK based news portals. A Times investigation published this week revealed that more than 1,000 older concrete buildings in Los Angeles may be vulnerable. Each time, property owners have fought tenaciously against what they say would be a prohibitively expensive requirement. So far, they have successfully quashed all such proposals.It's past time for the city to be more assertive about dealing with this potentially catastrophic problem. A spokesman for Mayor Eric Garcetti said that, at the mayor's direction, an official at the city's Department of Building and Safety contacted the Berkeley-led researchers this week and asked for the list but was turned down.
That information needs to be easily available to people who work and live in these buildings or are considering doing so. That way they can seek more information from their landlords about what retrofitting has or has not been done.Garcetti raised a concern Wednesday about the city's legal liability in putting out such a list, noting that a building owner might sue if his property was mistakenly included and its value went down. Officials are right to consult with their lawyers about how to approach this touchy subject. Other California cities have made public the addresses of buildings that possibly needed some kind of retrofitting without legal problems.That said, retrofitting concrete buildings can be hugely expensive.
The initial engineering assessments alone a€” before any retrofitting even starts a€” can cost tens of thousands of dollars. That may be manageable for developers of luxury lofts and condos who can pass on the costs to tenants and buyers.
For many other property owners, including those whose buildings house renters and lower-income Angelenos, it can be an onerous expense.The city should look for ways to create incentives and defray costs for building owners.
In San Francisco, where a law is in place requiring the retrofitting of wood-framed "soft story" buildings, the city is helping owners retrofit through a loan that is repaid as a property tax assessment. But Los Angeles is bigger than San Francisco, and retrofitting concrete buildings is a more costly task.It's understandable that Garcetti would want to approach this complicated issue carefully, not hastily.

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Rubric: Business Emergency Preparedness


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