An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by the movement of electrically charged objects. EU contract FP7-SST-265772 in the Sustainable Surface Transport call in Framework Program 7. Para entender como um motor eletrico funciona e importante entender como o eletroima funciona. Agora digamos que voce pegue seu eletroima feito com prego, atravesse um eixo no meio do prego e o suspenda no meio de um ima tipo ferradura, conforme mostrado na figura abaixo. Voce pode ver que esse movimento de meia-volta e simplesmente devido a maneira como imas se atraem e repelem naturalmente. It is now a century since the Norwegian genius Kristian Birkeland proved that the phenomenal a€?northern lightsa€™ or aurora borealis is an earthly connection with the electrical Sun. This articleA is for the curious, those who are eager to discover some reasonable answers about life, the universe and everything (as far as it is possible today) free of old beliefs that have shackled progress for centuries. In a broadly interdisciplinary inquiry such as this, communication itself can pose quite a challenge.
Given the extreme fragmentation of established science today it is difficult to imagine that the enterprise as a whole could ever a€?correlate all its contents.a€? Yet extraordinary strides toward that a€?somedaya€? envisioned by Lovecraft may now be possible through a new approach a€“ one in which electrical phenomena receive the full attention they deserve, and all appropriate fields of evidence are included. This introduction will present a new a€?deep focus lensa€? for viewing the physical universe, from sub-atomic particles to galactic realms unknown before the Hubble telescope. The Electric Universe model is a coherent a€?Big Picturea€? of our situation in the universe, spanning many disciplines. The pieces of the Electric Universe a€?Big Picturea€? are supplied by some remarkable individuals, most of them unknown and who have lived or are living a€?quiet, unobtrusive livesa€? away from universities. For me, enlightenment began with the controversial polymath and author of Worlds in Collision, Immanuel Velikovsky.
It became clear to Velikovsky that Newtona€™s concept of gravity was insufficient to explain the reported behaviour of the planets.
Since then sceptical scholars have shown Velikovskya€™s historical perspective of cataclysmic events to be wrong. This short explanation may seem contrived until the wealth of supporting evidence can be presented.
The Electric Universe model grew from the realization that a new plasma cosmology and an understanding of electrical phenomena in space could illuminate the new work being done in comparative mythology.
The result is now a a€?Big Picturea€? that emphasizes our dramatic prehistory and essential connectedness to the universe.
The implications of electrical activity between planets will be profoundly disturbing for those who have built their cosmology around the weak force of gravity, acting in an electrically sterile universe. On the other hand, cosmologists cannot explain why spiral shapes are so common and they have only ad-hoc explanations for galactic magnetic fields. More recently, inter-galactic magnetic fields have been discovered which is the final straw to break the camela€™s back.
Why do we accept such science fiction as fact when an Electric Universe predicts spiral shapes, magnetic fields and jets? Plasma physicists argue that stars are formed by an electromagnetic a€?pincha€? effect on widely dispersed gas and dust.
The late Ralph Juergens, an engineer from Flagstaff, Arizona, in the 1970a€™s took the next mental leap to suggest that the electrical input doesna€™t stop there and that stars are not thermonuclear engines! Earth-like planets and moons are similarly a€?borna€? by electrical expulsion of part of the positively charged cores of dwarf stars and gas giants. Electric discharges between closely approaching bodies takes the form of a€?thunderbolts of the godsa€?, or distinctively shaped helical plasmoids. Jupitera€™s thunderbolt raises questions about the history of mankind and the Earth that have never before been asked.
Planetary geologists are not trained to recognize electric arc scarring otherwise they would have seen at a glance the characteristic cathodic surface erosion and cathode jets on Io. Most people are unaware that we have no understanding of how lightning is created in clouds. This image (left)A is a NASA artista€™s view of lightning on Venus during the descent of one of the Pioneer probes.
It seems that when a dwarf star or gas giant planet a€?gives birtha€? to a rocky satellite, parent and child usually remain closely bound.
The exceedingly thin atmosphere of such stars has the essential water and carbon compounds to mist down onto planetary surfaces.
Our education systems are not suited to the broad interdisciplinary knowledge required in an Electric Universe.
The Electric Universe takes a simplifying leap by unifying the nuclear forces, magnetism and gravity as manifestations of a near instantaneous electrostatic force.
At the level of the atom, the Electric Universe model takes a lead from the work of Ralph Sansbury, an independent New York researcher. For the first time the highly successful quantum theory gains a physical explanation in terms of resonant motion of charged particles, mediated by a near-instantaneous electrostatic force. Einsteina€™s Special Theory was designed to define simultaneity in a universe where the fastest force or signal was restricted to the measured speed of detection of light from a distant source. Einsteina€™s famous mathematical expression E=mc2, equating energy and mass is known by almost everyone. The powerful electric discharges that form a stellar photosphere create the heavy elements that appear in their spectra.
We are not hopelessly isolated in time and space on a tiny rock, orbiting an insignificant star in an insignificant galaxy. Wallace Thornhill (or Wal as he is known), graduated in Physics at Melbourne University in 1964 and began postgraduate studies with Prof. Wal has published several books with David Talbot (author of The Saturn Myth) a€” the first titled Thunderbolts of the Gods and the second, The Electric Universe, on the combined subjects of the recent history of the solar system and the Electric Universe. The electric field is present when the lamp is plugged in, due to the voltage difference between the connectors. Electromagnetic radiation has a magnitude (size) and a frequency (time-dependent periodic variation). The quantities B and H are related to each other by the magnetic permeability (µ) of the medium that they exist in. Se voce ligar uma bateria ao eletroima de modo que o polo norte apareca conforme mostrado, a lei basica do magnetismo diz a voce o que acontecera: o polo norte do eletroima sera repelido pelo polo norte do ima tipo ferradura e atraido pelo polo sul do ima tipo ferradura. O importante para um motor eletrico e ir uma etapa adiante, de modo que, no momento em que esse movimento de meia-volta se completar, o campo do eletroima tenha o sentido invertido. The answer may be found in the inertia of prior beliefs and the failure of our educational institutions. It requires a beginnera€™s mind and a broad forensic approach to knowledge that is not taught in any university.
Typically, the greatest difficulties in communication will occur when one is questioning something already a€?knowna€? to be true. The Electric Universe is a holistic answer to myopia* a€“ that narrowing of vision which naturally accompanies the fragmentation of knowledge and learning.
It highlights repeated electrical patterns at all scales that enable laboratory experiments to explain the strange, energetic events seen, for example, in deep space, on the Sun, and on Jupitera€™s moon, Io.
For those with a sense of history this fact should serve to increase curiosity rather than dull it.
In 1950 he demonstrated an interdisciplinary, comparative technique for uncovering hard evidence of planetary catastrophe from the recorded memories of the earliest civilizations.
And it certainly could not answer the obvious question, a€?why do the skies look so peaceful now?a€? This allowed a dogmatic response by academia to Velikovskya€™s seminal breakthrough.
However, his basic premise of planetary encounters has been confirmed and the details fleshed out to an extraordinary degree. However, it highlights the crucial distinction between the planetary catastrophism of the Electric Universe and that of neo-catastrophists who attempt to explain the evidence for planetary encounters in terms of cometary phenomena.
In return the images of events witnessed in the prehistoric sky and their sequence could help unravel the recent history of the Earth, Mars and Venus.
No longer do we have to look at ourselves and the universe through the distorting sideshow mirrors of modern science.
This strange, dogmatic oversight guarantees that nothing will remain in future of the fanciful Big Bang theory or the simplistic story of the formation of the solar system. The unheralded a€?Galileo of the 20th centurya€?, Halton Arp, has proven that the universe is not expanding. Incredible gravitational models involving invisible a€?black holesa€? have had to be invented in a desperate attempt to explain how the attractive force of gravity can result in matter being ejected in a narrow jet at relativistic speeds.
The cosmic magnetic fields simply delineate the electric currents that create, move and light the galaxies. The a€?pincha€? is created by the magnetic force between parallel current filaments that are part of the huge electric currents flowing inside a galaxy. That explains the dichotomy between the dense rocky planets and moons and the gaseous giant planets. Such plasmoids were sculpted by many ancient cultures when depicting Jupiter hurling his thunderbolt.
When it comes to dating planetary surfaces, plasmoids cause characteristic electrical arc scarring in the form of sinuous channels and neatly circular craters with steep walls and occasional central peaks. And the most distant planet, Neptune, has the most violent winds in the solar system though it receives very little energy from the Sun. Venus has smog-like clouds that are not expected to generate lightning and yet the planet suffers intense lightning. Our solar system, with its widely spaced orbits and chaotic features, appears to be the result of a recent cosmic a€?traffic accidenta€?.

Instead of being a€?spookeda€? by the concept of action-at-a-distance, like most physicists this century, the Electric Universe accepts it as an observational fact.
Foremost is the simple recognition of the basic electrical nature of matter and the primacy of the electrostatic force** in matter interactions. Gravitation is much weaker than electric forces and therefore of no importance in the atom. A quantum electron orbit is one in which the exchange of energy between all of the sub-particles in the nucleus of an atom and those in an orbiting electron, sum to zero over the orbit. With an electrostatic force of near-infinite speed acting between the sub-particles of all matter, relativity theory reduces to classical physics. However, most textbooks go on to use the word a€?mattera€? in place of a€?mass.a€? But nowhere has it been shown that mass and matter are interchangeable. The later years were spent in the prestigious IBM Systems Development Institute in Canberra, working on the first computer graphics system in Australia. The magnetic field is only present when the lamp is switched on, because  that's when current flows in the cable. The frequencies of electromagnetic radiation ranges from static electric and magnetic fields, through radiofrequency and infrared radiation, to x-rays.
Digamos que voce tenha criado um eletroima simples enrolando 100 voltas de fio em um prego e conectando os terminais do fio a uma pilha. The electricity courses invisibly in the darkness over great distances along thin power lines. It is no coincidence that Scandinavian scientists led the way in showing that we live in an Electric Universe. On matters of underlying principle, the confidence behind established ideas can be so high that discussion itself may seem quite senseless. But for those who instinctively seek out unifying principles, the new horizons will be at once breathtaking and hopeful. For those with the courage to see clearly, the required a€?unlearninga€? of fashionable ideas carries no real cost whatsoever. The Electric Universe works backward in time using observations rather than forward from some idealised theoretical beginning. A plasma is formed if some of the negatively charged electrons are separated from their host atoms in a gas, leaving the atoms with a positive charge. Most revolutions in science have come from people who taught themselves outside the academic system and were not constrained by the fallacies and fashions of the day.
His method was forensic in that he looked for reports of physical events of a highly unusual nature that were nonetheless corroborated globally by totally separate cultures. Several pioneering researchers in this new field now agree that awe-inspiring planetary encounters did occur in pre-history. By accepting data over a far wider span of knowledge and human existence than conventional cosmology allows, the Electric Universe model began to provide pragmatic and common sense answers to many questions that seem unrelated. This difficulty highlights the fact that quantum a€?mechanicsa€? applied to atoms is a theory without physical reality. The model is able to successfully account for the observed shapes and dynamics of galaxies without recourse to invisible dark matter and central black holes. It is far more effective than gravity in concentrating matter and, unlike gravity, it can remove excess angular momentum that tends to prevent collapse. This seemingly wild conjecture is supported by the global stories of prehistoric planetary encounters. Such a model provides one reason why the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) project is unlikely to succeed.
Anyone who has tried to force two like poles of magnets together has demonstrated action-at-a-distance. It also rests upon the simple assumption that the proton, neutron and electron are composed of smaller charged particles, orbiting each other in a classical sense in stable, resonant orbits.
They are the dominating forces in the nucleus, but of no importance at large distances from it. Because they cannot be screened very easily, they are efficient at larger distances than electric forces. Exchange of energy takes the form of distortion of a particle to form an electrostatic dipole or a move to a new resonant orbit. This leaves open the question of what we are measuring when we determine the speed of light.
Before entering university, he had been inspired by Immanuel Velikovsky through his controversial best-selling book, Worlds in Collision.
He was the technical support for the computing facilities in the Research Schools at the Australian National University, which gave him excellent access to libraries and scientists there.
O prego se transforma em um ima e tem um polo norte e um polo sul enquanto a bateria estiver conectada. Para inverter o campo magnetico basta mudar a direcao do fluxo dos eletrons no fio (invertendo a corrente que vem da bateria). We see the universe through the filter of tales we are told in childhood and our education systems reward those who can best repeat them. This difficulty is aggravated by fragmentation of the process by which information is gathered and evaluated. The terror Lovecraft envisioned is only the first rush of uncertainty, when ideas long taken for granted are thrown into question by facts and simple reasoning previously ignored. It provides simple answers to problems that are now clothed in fashionable metaphysics and mysticism. The negatively charged electrons, and the positively charged atoms (known as positive ions) are then free to move separately under the influence of an applied voltage or magnetic field.
It has been well documented that modern institutions of science operate in such a way as to enforce conformity and prevent research and publication of revolutionary ideas. Then by applying scientific knowledge of cause and effect, it was possible to build a very detailed model of the sequence of those events. Nor can they account for abundant evidence of fresh looking planetary cratering and scarring. The weirdness of quantum theory has been attributed to the subatomic scale to which it applies.
It explains simply the powerful electric jets seen issuing along the spin axis from the cores of active galaxies.
So planetary orbits are stabilized against gravitational chaos by exchange of electric charge through their plasma tails (Venus is still doing so strongly, judging by its a€?cometarya€? magnetotail, and it has the most circular orbit of any planet) and consequent modification of the gravity of each body. They are responsible for Jupitera€™s Great Red Spot and the a€?spokesa€? in Saturna€™s rings. So to use our situation as a measure of a normal planetary system will give wildly misleading ideas of how life begins and estimates of the likelihood of life elsewhere in the universe. Any advanced civilization on such a planet will be unaware that the universe exists outside its own stellar environment, and radio communication through the glow discharge of the star is impossible! That is, the energy exchanged between those sub-particles in elastic deformation during each orbit sums to zero.
The speed of light in galactic terms is exceedingly slow, requiring about 150,000 years to cross our galaxy. Wal experienced first-hand the indifference and sometimes hostility toward a radical challenge to mainstream science. Se o campo do eletroima for invertido precisamente no momento final da meia-volta de movimento, o motor eletrico girara livremente.
The specialization of intellectual inquiry carries with it certain risks when assumptions within one discipline rest upon prior assumptions in other disciplines. The a€?piecing together of dissociated knowledgea€? will only require us to confront the deep contradictions in things experts have long claimed to know.
It concludes that the crucial requirement for understanding the universe is to take fully into account the basic electrical nature of atoms and their interactions. Finally, the model enabled specific predictions to be made and confirmed a€“ a requirement of a good scientific theory.
And if anyone believes that Newtona€™s laws guarantee a stable planetary system a€“ think again!
Besides, in an Electric Universe comets are not the apocalyptic threat to the Earth imaginatively portrayed by artists. Lines in the spectrum of that galaxy show a shift toward the red compared with the same lines from our Sun. But now that we have quantum effects in something the size of a galaxy, this convenient nonsense is exposed. Recent results from mapping the magnetic field of a spiral galaxy confirm the electric model. Minutes or hours of electrical scarring can produce a surface like that of the Moon, which is later interpreted in ad hoc fashion to be billions of years old. The most benign situation for life in an Electric Universe is inside the electrical cocoon of a brown dwarf star. However, the astronomer Halton Arp has shown that the redshifts of entire galaxies are quantized which requires some form of near instantaneous, galaxy-wide communication at the sub-atomic level. Yet astronomy is stuck in the gas-light era, unable to see that stars are simply electric lights strung along invisible cosmic power lines that are detectable by their magnetic fields and radio noise.
The history of science is sanitized to ignore the great controversies of the past, which were generally a€?wona€™ by a vote instead of reasoned debate.
No one can be an expert on everything, and when considering possibilities outside onea€™s personal expertise, it is only natural to defer to what specialists in other studies claim to know. With the courage to see clearly, the adventure itself could well be a€?the most merciful thing in the worlda€?, adding new insights into the greatest dramas of early human history and vital perspective to humanitya€™s situation in the cosmos.

Strangely, this is not the case in conventional cosmology where weaker magnetism and the infinitely weaker force of gravity rule the cosmos.
So, one of the more important properties of a plasma is that it can conduct electrical current.
Some of the predictions he made were outrageous at the time: Venus would be near incandescently hot, Jupiter would emit radio noise, the Moon rocks would be magnetised, and so on. The survivors of global upheaval felt it imperative that the memory be preserved and passed down faithfully to future generations in the expectation that the a€?godsa€? would return.
Such pictures are entirely fanciful because a comet would be disrupted electrically by a cosmic thunderbolt before it hit the Earth.
Arp discovered that high and low redshift objects are sometimes connected by a bridge or jet of matter. Impacts between large bodies are avoided and capture rendered more probable by exchange of electric charge between them. Radiant energy is then evenly distributed over the entire surface of any planet orbiting within the chromosphere of such a star, regardless of axial rotation, tilt, or orbital eccentricity. A simple calculation shows that the sub-particles that form an electron must travel at a speed far in excess of the speed of light a€“ some 2.5 million light-years per second, or from here to the far side of the Andromeda galaxy in one second!
At large distances electric forces are usually not so important because of a screening effect. It seems simpler and more sensible to suggest that both nuclear and chemical energy is released or absorbed by the rearrangement of the resonant orbits of charged particles. It is not the most hospitable place for life since small changes in the distant Sun could freeze or sterilize the Earth. Today NASA does science by press release and investigative journalism is severely inhibited.
But what are the consequences of this when theoretical suppositions, though perceived as fact, cannot account for compelling new fields of data?
Lovecraft did not realize that the a€?terrifying vistasa€? are but a mirage seen through an open door. Such a simplification may suit a theoretical physics based on electrical neutrality of matter in Earthly laboratories but it does not apply in space where plasma dominates. Yet the question is hardly ever asked, let alone answered, a€?what produces the observed stability of the solar system?a€? Velikovsky was convinced that the clue lay in his discovery that electrical forces dominate the incredibly weak force of gravity at times of planetary close encounters.
The memorialization took the form of architecture, ritual and story to re-enact the apocalyptic power of the planetary gods over human destiny. The only visible evidence remaining would be an electric arc crater like Meteor Crater in Arizona. His discovery sounded the alarm in some halls of Academe and since nobody likes a loud noise a€“ particularly if they are asleep a€“ the knee-jerk response was to attack the guy with his finger on the alarm button. The resulting internal electrostatic forces prevent stars from collapsing gravitationally and occasionally cause them to a€?give birtha€? by electrical fissioning to form companion stars and gas giant planets. And for the sceptics, subdued electric arc machining of a planet-sized body continues to this day on Jupitera€™s innermost moon, Io.
It is why the Earth has lightning stretching into space in the form of a€?red spritesa€? and a€?blue jetsa€?, and why tethered satellites a€?blow a fusea€?.
So the electrostatic force must act at a speed which is almost infinite on our scale for the electron to be stable. For example, a positive charge attracts negative charges to its neighborhood so that they screen off the field from the positive charge. With the Special Theory gone, and the universe in communication with its parts effectively in real-time, there can be no time travel and space and time are independent. It is then common sense to suggest that mass is the measured response of a system of charged particles to an external electrostatic force.
We dona€™t know the ultimate source of the electrical energy or matter that forms the universe.
Planetary surfaces and atmospheres are deposited during their birth from a larger body and during electrical encounters with other planets.
And narrow experts who never left school do their glossy media a€?show and tell,a€™ keeping the public in the dark in this a€?dark agea€™ of science. The truth is always unified, and as such it can only be friendly to those who seek the truth first.
However, you will not find any textbook that gives him credit because his theory was judged to be wrong. Although he was unable to explain at the time how this would create the observed stability of the solar system, with his uncanny prescience he had pointed the way to the Electric Universe. Such a catastrophic beginning explains why civilization appeared like a thunderclap out of nowhere. Arpa€™s telescope time was denied, papers rejected, and he was forced to leave the US to pursue his work. Evidence of past planetary instabilities is written large on the surfaces of all solid bodies in the solar system. It is the stable orbital resonances of these sub-particles, both within and between particles that give rise to the phenomena of protons, neutrons, electrons and atoms.
The more massive an object, the more the electrostatic force contributes to the elastic deformation of its protons, neutrons and electrons, rather than their acceleration.
Galaxies are shaped by electrical forces and form plasma focuses at their centers, which periodically eject quasars and jets of electrons.
It is often said, a€?extraordinary claims require extraordinary proof.a€? History shows otherwise that entrenched paradigms resist extraordinary disproof.
As we pass through the door, it is not fear that goes with us, but the exhilaration of discovery. Unfortunately, with no reference points in the present behavior of the planets, the stories lost their real meaning. But there is more: Arp found that the intrinsic redshift of a quasar or galaxy took discrete values, which decreased with distance from a central active galaxy. That elucidates why stars commonly have partners and why most of the giant planets so far detected closely orbit their parent star. Other denizens of the particle a€?zooa€? are merely transient resonant states of the same charged sub-particles. This is the phenomenon seen in particle accelerators and conventionally attributed to relativistic effects. In Arpa€™s new view of the cosmos, active galaxies a€?give birtha€? to high redshift quasars and companion galaxies. The so-called a€?creationa€? of matter from energetic photons is an illusion in which pre-existing matter is reorganized into new resonant states that give the impression that a particle has suddenly materialized. It attempts to discard the observed action-at-a-distance of gravity by proposing a counter-intuitive warping of space in the presence of massive objects. But relativity reduces to classical physics in a universe where the electrostatic force has near-infinite speed.
Redshift becomes a measure of the relative ages of nearby quasars and galaxies, not their distance. The appearance of a star is determined largely by its electrical environment and can change suddenly. Antimatter is a misnomer since it too is formed from the same sub-particles as a€?normala€? matter except that the total charge is mirrored. This unnecessary complication of space is then added to the current metaphysical concepts of what constitutes the mass of an object. The first question to be asked is a€“ if it is that simple, why hasna€™t it been thought of long ago?
Plasma physicists and electrical engineers are best able to recognize plasma discharge phenomena. But space must also a€?warpa€? at near infinite speed to produce the observed planetary orbits. The answer seems to lie in the propensity for mathematical theory to supersede common sense and observation.
Common sense, observation, and parsimony of hypotheses all suggest that the electrostatic model of gravity (see below) is superior. There is also a problem of language when mathematicians attempt to provide real meaning for their symbols. We dona€™t know the age of stars because the thermonuclear evolution theory does not apply to them. There is now experimental evidence from gravity measurements at the time of a total solar eclipse that supports the Electric Universe model and discounts the General Relativity model. We do not know the age of the Earth because radioactive clocks can be upset by powerful electric discharges. Higher energy is available from resonant catalytic chemical systems than in the usual chemical reactions. Biological enzymes are capable of utilizing resonant nuclear catalysis to transmute elements. Biological systems show evidence of communicating via resonant chemical systems, which may lend a physical explanation to the work of Rupert Sheldrake. DNA does not hold the key to life but is more like a blueprint for a set of components and tools in a factory. We may never be able to read the human genome and tell whether it represents a creature with two legs or six because the information that controls the assembly line is external to the DNA.

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