An electromagnetic pulse, or EMP, is burst of electromagnetic radiation from an explosion or a suddenly fluctuating magnetic field. In Exodus, Clark Kent placed the kryptonite key into his ship's slot to destroy the ship in order to stop Jor-El. In Reunion, Oliver Queen created an EMP arrow which could generate a small pulse that shorted out electrical devices nearby. In Legion, Rokk Krinn and Garth Ranzz, two members of the Legion of Super-Heroes, combined their powers and created an electromagnetic pulse which temporarily put Brainiac offline. The most devastating threat is posed by an electromagnetic pulse, or EMP, and a former member of the congressional EMP commission says both the North Korean and Iranian nuclear programs are focused on taking out our nation’s power grids. During nuclear warfare, communications will be more critical to military operations than at any other time. Degradation of the signal resulting from changes in the medium characteristics (a transient effect). The first should be approached with an eye toward various or alternative post-effect countermeasures. The strength of EMP is best appreciated by comparing it to various electromagnetic energy generators. A frequency analysis of EMP reveals frequency radiation from the extremely low frequency (ELF) band to the super high frequency (SHF) band. The relative source strength and area coverage of radiated fields for different heights of burst are summarized in table J-2.
Modern communications and electronics equipment are increasingly susceptible to EMP due to the extensive use and application of microcircuits, semiconductors, and transistor technology. Communications and electronics equipment in the inventory today has generally not been designed to withstand the effects of EMP and remain operational. The capability to quickly repair and reintegrate damaged portions of the system with minimum confusion and maximum efficiency is of primary concern. To prevent or reduce "coupling" with the energy from EMP, wires and cables (to include output coaxial types) should be shielded and properly grounded.
Antennas and their connecting cables should be disconnected from radio sets when not in use. All users of communications equipment and systems must remember that the EMP threat is real and the use of nuclear weapons on the battlefield of the future will require viable measures to enhance communications survivability and mission accomplishment. The reaction from the ship caused a massive explosion, creating an EMP wave that overturned the truck with Jonathan and Martha Kent inside it.
Later, it was used by Duncan Allenmeyer in his astral form when he attempted to kill Oliver and Lex.
Emil Hamilton gave Clark an EMP grenade to stop John Corben, who had been transformed into a cyborg with a kryptonite heart. We know that from the EMP commission because, in their open source-military writings, they describe using a nuclear weapon to eliminate the United States as an actor from the world stage by means of an EMP attack,” said Dr.
Thus, every commander must understand the effects that nuclear detonations have on electronic equipment.


Of the gamma rays, X-rays, and neutrons which comprise nuclear radiations, gamma rays are the dominant cause of EMP. Several electromagnetic energy sources and associated power densities are listed below along with the power density needed to drive a typical radio receiver. Most of the energy is concentrated in the high frequency (HF) and very high frequency (VHF) ranges. These devices normally cannot handle the voltage and current surges that result from EMP coupling. To enhance its survivability and permit mission accomplishment, measures must be taken to reduce the vulnerability of communications equipment to EMP. Degradation of communications systems must be avoided and it is the responsibility of all personnel associated with communications to reduce EMP susceptibility as much as possible.
All equipment not absolutely required in primary systems should remain disconnected and stored within a sealed shelter or other shielded enclosure for protection from the EMP. Selection of the proper antenna, to include operation required, size, installation, and polarization, should be paramount in planning procedures. All commercial power facilities are extremely susceptible to EMP and their use would provide a direct path to vulnerable communications components. Although cables and wires with damaged shielding or connectors may be operational, they should be replaced to ensure that proper shielding is maintained. It also disrupted electrical power throughout the county, briefly delaying Lex Luthor's honeymoon flight. However, they were rescued by Clark, who sped in front of the EMP arrow and reflected the pulse back to the source. After Clark found Corben, he used the grenade and was able to momentarily disable the cyborg, but Corben was able to restart almost instantly. This appendix discusses the electromagnetic pulse (EMP), its effect on communications and electronics equipment, and protective measures to enhance the survivability of communications systems.
Clearly, EMP can deliver to a radio receiver a billion times the power necessary for reception. Where the source region is not touching the ground in some cases, the strength is low or has no effect. System, component, or subcomponent susceptibility can also be related to size and level of power handling capability. While progress is being made in some cases to ensure EMP hardening in the procurement stage of future equipment, most communications equipment presently in the inventory will have to be used unhardened. Initially, all planning should provide for alternate means for passing priority traffic in an EMP environment. This measure will reduce the likelihood of all equipment being simultaneously damaged by EMP and will provide for backup components to reinstall affected systems. Excess lengths of cables in use should never be left wound on a cable reel but should be taken off the reel and pulled out in a straight line to avoid having loops in the cables.
Narrow bandwidth antennas requiring high power for operation reduces the EMP coupling effect.


Communications shelter doors, access panels, vents (if possible), and all other apertures should be kept closed or shielded to reduce the direct entry of EMP fields into the shelter. Although an explanation of EMP can be quite technical, it is discussed in this appendix in nontechnical terms. Because of the high energy of the original gamma rays, the electrons are projected away from the burst point at approximately the speed of light.
Normally, the smaller the individual component, the lower its power handling capability and, consequently, the greater its susceptibility.
Thus, measures to reduce vulnerability to EMP must be implemented by the users in the field. Since only a portion of a total communications system is likely to be affected by EMP, routing must consider the hardiest systems for the highest priority traffic.
When cables are not needed, or are installed for possible operation, they should not be connected to the equipment. Honeycomb screens are available for vents which allow the vents to open during operation while simultaneously shielding against EMP. Particular attention should be paid to a rapid repair capability, with necessary parts and facilities. The focus is on what commanders and communications personnel need to know about EMP and how they can best use measures to reduce the consequences that may result from it. Thus, a virtual wall of fast-moving electrons is generated as the radiation sweeps outward in an expanding spherical wave. This responsibility requires commanders at all levels to incorporate SOPs and directives concerning methods of installation and operation of communications equipment to enhance survivability and mission accomplishment. Burying the cables a foot or more will reduce their exposure to EMP fields and subsequently reduce the collected energy.
Equipment spare parts should be checked periodically to ensure their level of fill conforms to established directives. This process creates a region of high charge and strong currents (called the source or deposition region) which may extend for several thousand meters from the point of burst for a small-yield, low-altitude detonation, to several thousand kilometers for a high-yield, high-altitude burst. During field exercises and tests, maximum emphasis should be placed on compliance with EMP related directives.
Within this region, the charge separation and currents produce strong electric and magnetic fields; and, if the current density is unproportional, a broad bandwidth, high amplitude radio frequency electromagnetic pulse is radiated. Shields on all cables should be physically connected to the grounding systems where provided on communications equipment. Additional measures should not preclude the use of visual, sound, and extensive messenger services (air, motor, and foot) to replace systems rendered nonoperational by EMP damage.
The outer atmospheric burst (height of burst (HOB) more than 50 km) and the near-surface burst (HOB less than 2 km) are the only ones of concern to ground-based systems as far as EMP is concerned.



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