Electromagnetic Shielding Materials (Heat-Shrink Shield Tube) for Noise Seal, View Shielding Materials, HOTTY Product Details from HOTTY POLYMER CO., LTD. Our items undergo processing that includes selecting products, quality checks, and careful packaging for shipment. Electromagnetic shielding works from a combination of (1) radiated emission reflection loss at the metal shield and (2) metal absorption loss.
Consequently, one or more internal shielded rooms could be added where the more sensitive items would be located, and the entire building shielding can be correspondingly reduced. However, if the same skin shielding were applied to the inside of the outer walls, this would not work as the electrical wiring in the outside walls is still not protected.. The applied shielded building skin is therefore placed on the outside with sheet metal building walls bonded where joined. One mil of aluminum foil provides 96 dB of shielding.  So there exists sufficient shielding. Basically, an adhesive spray is made on the mounting material back and the foil is placed thereon. One possible option to the above foil is to use copper or aluminum paint, applied by brush, roller or spray.
Regarding electrical gaskets used to seal the adjoining metal sides, Figure 10 shows options available from companies like Tech-Etch for the engineering community. Figure 11 shows the shielded building including building skin, shielded  windows, shielded HVAC and elevator shacks and other external elements.
Also, as shown at the lower left, Figure 11, telecom leads, control and signal leads, and AC power leads must enter the building.
The sketch of Figure 11 illustrates the situation repeated thousands of times throughout a state or a country of a developed nation.
Remember, the only shield current that should flow is from the terminated, direct radiated EMI onto the building shield, per se.
If the building were built on sand or some non-moisture holding soil, or a drought existed in the area, then the grounding system will not work as well (or poorly). As it develops, the entire discussion may be academic from an EMP point-of-view since few non-government buildings are EMP protected (shielded) in the first place today. Windows cannot employ electro-chrom glass as this blocks light with little shielding, nor can one have a few microns (very thin film) of vapor-deposited metal on the window as a shield since one could not then see through the window. Therefore, a metal screen mesh (Figure 12) is considered for covering the windows which passes almost all the light (optically) but blocks the EMP radiated transmissions by 80 dB below 12 MHz (depends on the mesh screen spacings). For shielding solar panels, do not use higher OPI as the light transmissivity begins to suffer and this will adversely affect the solar panel efficiency of converting sunlight into electricity. The interconnecting wiring between and among all solar panels, inverter (if micro-inverters are not used) and the down conductors to the service entrance panels must also be shielded to 80 dB. As explained above, the cable shields are bonded to the building shield usually at a metal grounding plate welded to the building shield at cable entrance (see above discussion on building grounding). An EMP unprotected solar rooftop typically consists of panel mounting racks, solar panels, interconnecting cables, one inverter (or a micro-inverter at each panel), down conductor cables to a power-select transfer switch (connects utility power or solar panels), and backup batteries. Solar panels usually contain 1st generation silicon solar cells (the work horse for generation of space electricity for 40 years) which have the highest light conversion efficiency. The average of 5 kW applies for about five hours per day and falls off as the sun moves toward the horizons.
Of course, a solar installation would be instantly burned out in an EMP incident, so the entire installation must be EMP protected. After mounting the framework racks on the building roof, the shielded solar panels are then affixed thereto.
Shield the panels completely inside of the solar glass window face and bond them to the frame which provides complete metallic coverage of the other five sides. The micro-inverter is a small DC-AC  converter which takes a typical 12 VDC output from a solar panel and converts it to 120 VAC or other user load value. Their primary disadvantages are that they have a higher equipment initial cost per peak watt than the equivalent power in a central inverter, and micro-inverters are normally located near the solar panel, where they may be harder to maintain. When the total rooftop solar load exceeds about 10 kW, micro-inverters are usually not used and the inverter takes over. Figure 15 shows two of several HV EMP surge suppressors available for addressing the wide variety of needs and applications. A smart meter (Figure 16) is usually an electrical meter that records consumption of electric energy in intervals of an hour or less and communicates that information at least daily back to the utility for monitoring and billing purposes. Since the smart meter is mounted on the outside of a building, it will have to be shielded to 80 dB to match the EMP threat. Contractually, it is necessary in performance tests to demonstrate EMP-protection compliance with the 80-dB shielding requirements over the designated frequency spectrum. While the building EMP and solar EMP compliance tests can be done simultaneously, in the early stages it may be best to do each separately. How does one know if the installed EMP pro-tection will work (cause no electronic failures) if or when an EMP burst happens?
Instead of a simulated EMP burst, seven or more test frequencies are used in accordance with the  Bode Plot shown in Figure 17.
Figure 17 also depicts the frequency-domain (X-axis is frequency) manifestation of the time-domain pulse just mentioned. While testing details are beyond the scope of this article, in concept testing is quite simple.
The test configuration is first calibrated as a reference with both transmitter and receiver configurations on the outside (step 1). The tests are repeated for the other remaining three (or more) sides of the building, recording the shielding effectiveness of each side for all seven frequencies.
As observed, testing for grounding effectiveness will show up in the above open air shielding effectiveness tests.
The second part, Part 2, addresses the shielding of small buildings up to large houses, small and large commercial shopping malls and industrial manufacturing and big box replenishment structures.
Don White, registered professional engineer, retd., holds BSEE and MSEE degrees from the University of Maryland.
At Don White Consultants, he published a bimonthly trade journal called EMC Technology magazine circulated over four continents. A recent study reveals radiation from solar events is unlikely to affect earth & the dose of radiation emitted during the events isn’t enough to harm people. This paper reports the need of protection from electromagnetic rays which have harmful effect on human brain and tissue as well as electronic devices and gadgets.
Cite this paper: Subhankar Maity, Kunal Singha, Pulak Debnath, Mrinal Singha, Textiles in Electromagnetic Radiation Protection, Journal of Safety Engineering, Vol. If you require further details regarding the transaction data, please contact the supplier directly.
While we strive to provide the most accurate and timely stock and availability information, availability information may become out of date and may change between the time you added an item to cart and the time your order is received. The first component develops from the ratio of the arriving wave impedance and that of the metal.
The benefit of shielding the entire building to 80 dB (amount discussed earlier) means that nothing else inside needs to be shielded. For example, suppose aluminum foil or sprayed copper paint on the outside walls, ceiling and floor (bonded and secured) are used to produce 45 dB shielding. Shielded rooms of the quality offered by the EMC manufacturers are shielded to about 120 dB and represent a huge overkill in performance and price, and therefore, would not be used here. Each of the six sides of the building (roof, basement floor, and four sides) is bonded along its entire length.
What constitutes the basic material under the building skin or envelope, such as with vinyl siding? However, the foil overlap should approximate one inch (2.5 cm), as shown in Figure 9, and a masking tape used to secure the overlap junction. An electrical bonding agent or gasket (described below) is used to electrically connect the building facade with each window and door periphery. Many different electrical gaskets available for selection of the correct type for any particular application.
The figure also shows other electrical gaskets use in bonding other types of mating  electrical parts.
Radiated EMI (or EMP) is coupled to a cable shield where EMI surface, common-mode currents, Ic, are grounded at the shielded building entrance (assuming a best case in which the building is shielded). It should not contain additional currents that come from any cable entry ground  which can exceed the terminated EMI surface current on the building by large amounts. For those situations, all the interior electronics are fried in an EMP event – grounded or not. Grounding is an important part of the protection system, but shielding and filtering are of equal concern. Although a one micron (very thin film) of silver  deposited on glass offers an RF shielding effectiveness of 80 dB, it also blocks the optical transmission. For each such door, a vestibule must be generated such that a set of two doors is used with interlocks so that not more than one door can be opened at any time. Batteries are used for nighttime power and overcast days when the solar panel power output is insufficient. In the northern hemisphere, there is less in winter and higher latitudes and more in summer and lower latitudes.
Even small amounts of shading debris or snow lines on any one solar panel, or a panel failure, does not disproportionately reduce the output of an entire array.
These issues are usually surpassed by micro-inverters having higher durability and simplicity of initial installation.
This can be accomplished by using the same 20 OPI wire mesh screen engulfing the entire meter on the front and back as discussed earlier for windows and panels.
So the smart grid is more susceptible if it is using on-line digital generation and computation of data. This will facilitate diagnostics-and-fix as needed.  The building compliance test must be done first. Otherwise, testing would be impossible since all other devices in the area would be burned out.
This is shown in the insert at the left within Figure 17 and represents the test specifications for EMP testing and compliance.

A small van or pickup truck at the left in Figure 18 contains a scanning oscillator or sweeper which feeds a power amplifier which drives radiating test antennas pointing at the building to the right. Tests are made at the seven frequencies indicated in the drawing, and the RF attenuator settings recorded. Then for each frequency, the corresponding four side shielding effectiveness are compared and the smallest dB value selected. For the outside, the more severe the climate and weather, the more rapid degradation and variance in performance is expected.  In addition to shock safety, building grounding will determine how well the building EMP shielding has held up.
So a building’s earth and grounding should be tested by a licensed and certificated technician to add to the insurance protection in some periodic basis.
Part 1 addressed a plan to EMP protect communities, villages, towns and small cities in sufficient quantities and sizes to maintain some defined semblance of our civilization lifestyle following an EMP burst. Details including shielding, bonding, grounding, surge suppression and filtering were covered.
He is past CEO of three Electro-magnetic Compatibility companies in  metro Washington, D.C.
He was the technical editor and wrote many of the tutorial articles.  Don is past president of IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Society. He began his career as an audio and video test engineer for Ampex Corp., the manufacturer of audio and video tape recorders. He is a former member of IEEE Broadcast Society, and is now part-time electronics consultant and a part-time non-fiction science writer.
IntroductionElectromagnetic shielding is the process of limiting the penetration of electromagnetic fields into a space, by blocking them with a barrier made of conductive material. Part 2 of the article presents methods and techniques for EMP protection of buildings, solar rooftops and other structures. The second comes into play when the skin depth of the metal exceeds about 50% of the metal thickness. So existing climate controls, cell phones, iPhones, iPads, laptop computers, peripherals, and all the rest of electrical and electronic devices can continue to be used.
This reduces the needs of the remaining shielded rooms, cabinets or enclosures to 35 dB as shown in Figure 8. Do not spray the foil adhesive in the 2.5 cm region as metal must be bonded to metal without any other material in between to ensure a high conductivity and good shielding. One major benefit of the paint approach is the relatively easy application by spraying and the avoidance of foil overlaps, and electrical gaskets except at windows, doors, etc.
Of course, to a new building just being planned or being built, this is not an issue as the bottom floor shield is extended beyond outer frame footprint to be bonded to outside shielding.
No grounding is required.  However, there are other concerns such as if the shield becomes charged up to any voltage above ground level due to whatever stray radiations (or accidental connection of a hot AC lead to building skin), it constitutes a shock hazard to entering and exiting people. Since the cable shield and the building shield may be at a different voltage, the entering cable shield must be bonded to the building shield (usually a metal plate.
It is typically assumed that the EMI currents will flow down the ground rod(s) (see Ig) and dissipate harmlessly into the absorbing earth.  Some EMI currents (Is), however, still flow on the building shield (that skin current is capacitive coupled back to ground to close the loop). The degree to which it is exceeded is a direct measure of the reduction loss in building shielding effectiveness. This OPI is mentioned since mesh shielding is usually reported in OPI by manufacturers, and is available up to 100 OPI. This will avoid a fortuitous situation in which both doors are temporarily open at the moment an EMP incident occurs, which would otherwise compromise the entire integrity of the building shielding effectiveness.
However, to ensure the benefits of flexibility, knitted-wire mesh shielding can be used on all cabling instead.  All shielding must have an overcoat of weather sealant or outer jacket if not placed inside a conduit.
Generators are not normally used since unless protected they would burnout in an EMP burst, and they require fuel which may not be available after an EMP incident. A small micro-converter can be built into the shielded solar panel near its output connector (this is to be done at the time of solar panel assembly back at the factory) or mounted separately next to the panel. Each micro-inverter obtains optimum power by performing maximum power point tracking for its connected panel.
If they were located outside the EMP shielded building they would have to have cabinet shielding of 80 dB plus cable surge suppressors and shielded cabling.
Such an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) differs from traditional automatic meter reading (AMR) in that it enables two-way communications with the meter.
Then, maintaining the same distance between transmitter and receiver, both are moved as shown in step 2 with the receiver configuration moved mostly to the middle of the building and attenuator settings again recorded to get the same levels as in step 1. Also, if the building is large (several floors or acres in size), the transmitter may be located in a helicopter or blimp. As stated earlier, the soil loaminess  (somewhat dark, and good for growing grass or other vegetation) makes for good grounding as it holds moisture.
These actions generate new products and services, new markets and create millions of new jobs. He later became the Transmitter Supervisor for a broadcasting company with transmitter locations on mountaintops, subject to severe lightning and significant EMI problems due to many types of closely packed transmitters.
Though conventional textile materials are not suitable for this purpose, but modification of them in form of composites or other they can be used for this purpose.
Typically it is applied to enclosures, separating electrical devices from the outside world, and to cables, separating wires from the environment the cable runs through. Dual Elastomer Gaskets have a dual-layer construction that combines a highly-conductive outer layer and non-conductive core.2.
As such, Part 2 covers details of shielding, bonding, grounding, and cable or device surge suppression and filtering.
However, shielding a building to 80 dB in some cases become expensive (for example, more than 10% of the entire building cost). For commercial it may be aluminum composite panels, copper or stainless steel sheets, weather-board, etc. The object is to divert the EMI (induced electromagnetic interference shield currents) and grounded to earth, where they are harmlessly dissipated. This shielding is to be done back at the factory where the panels are manufactured for quality control and long-life performance. Unless the entire solar rooftop assembly is to be shielded separately, the shielded unit requires an HV surge suppressor at the cable connectors. The difference between the attenuator settings in step 1 and step 2 constitutes the building shielding in dB.
Various approaches of preparing textile electromagnetic shield have been described here with relative merits and demerits. Shielding is a very popular method of protecting electronic and electrical equipment and human beings against radiated electromagnetic energy. The core is made of flexible, high-tensile silicone rubber which has extremely low compression set.3. These apply to structures from sheds and rooms to small and large homes, and to commercial and industrial buildings less than about five floors in height. These and other materials are dependent on whether or not the building already exists or has not yet been designed or built. That’s why the building skin must be grounded (earthed) to satisfy the National Electrical Code.
It may need to be impregnated with bauxite (an aluminum base particulate) or proprietary grounding compounds to permit better earthing into a much lower impedance sink.
Recent advancements of application of conductive polymers in the field of electromagnetic shielding are also taken into account.
The materials or protector which protects a body, environment or a circuit from harmful electro-magnetic radiation is called shield.
The outer layer is densely packed with conductive metal particles, giving it its high conductivity.4. Most specifics of this discussion are beyond the scope here and involve important architectural matters. Conductive polymer treated textile materials showed superior electrical property as electromagnetic shield. Shields are used either to isolate a space (a room, an apparatus, a circuit etc.) from outside sources of electromagnetic radiation, or to prevent the unwanted emission of electromagnetic energy radiated by internal sources.
The conductive layer can be applied only where needed, making it possible to save money on high-cost conductive material.5. If about half is facing roughly south and 80% is useful to hold the solar panels, then up to 72 solar panels can be mounted.
Traditionally, such shields are based on the use of stiff metallic materials with well-known electromagnetic properties. Plastics with a metallic coat or with metal fibres injected during the molding stage are used also.
Recently attention has been paid to light weight and flexible materials, such as textiles covered with conductive layer. These materials, owing to their flexibility, durability, ease of manufacturing and application, are considered promising for shield of electro-magnetic radiation[1]. The instant invention related to electromagnetic shielding fabrics, and more particularly fabric formed entirely of metal coated synthetic yarns. It is well known that exposure to long term or acute electromagnetic radiation can have harmful effects on human tissue, and furthermore, it is also known that electromagnetic radiation can interfere with certain bio-electronic devices, such as pacemakers, which are essential to the daily lives of affected people.
The recent proliferation of electronic devices, such as cell phones, and computer equipment, that emit low levels of electromagnetic radiation, or interference, has significantly increased the problem and created a need of everyday shielding garments.
In this regard, a variety of electromagnetic shielding fabrics, and garments formed produced in order to prevent electromagnetic radiations.2.
Mechanism of Electromagnetic ShieldingWhen electro-magnetic rays pass through a medium or object then these rays interact with molecules of the medium or object.
Electromagnetic Shielding EfficiencyElectromagnetic Interference Shielding Efficiency (EM SE) value expressed in dB is defined as the ratio of the incident to transmitted power of the electromagnetic wave. Mathematically -Where P1(E1) and P2(E2) are the incident power (incident electric field) and the transmitted power (transmitted electric field), respectively.By measuring the reflectance (Re) and the transmittance (Tr) of the material, the absorbance (Ab) can be calculated using following equation.
Where, Re and Tr are the square of the ratio of reflected (Er) and transmitted (Et) electric fields to the incident electric field (Ei), respectively, as following These S factors can be measured by instruments to evaluate absorbance.4. Different Methods of ShieldingWe can protect ourselves or else from electromagnetic radiation by covering with an electro-conductive media which can generate and transport free charges. It is known that artificial fibers, for example, polyester fibers, polyamide fibers, polyacrylic fibers and cellulose acetate fibers, exhibit a very poor electric conductivity and one highly hydrophobic.

Therefore, when an artificial fiber mass is rubbed, static electricity is generated and accumulates on the fibers. Sometimes, the voltage of accumulated static electricity reaches a very high level of several kilovolts. Also, the above-mentioned accumulation of static electricity on the fiber mass is dangerous that is, the discharge of static electricity result in a spark capable of igniting flammable mixtures, such as an ether-air mixture, which are commonly found in hospitals, especially in operating rooms. It is also known that natural fibers, such as animal hairs and silk, exhibit a relatively high hydrophilic property and this property causes the natural fibers to exhibit a relatively high electric conductivity at a relatively high humidity due to a relatively high content of moisture absorbed in the natural fibers.
This moisture content can avoid the above-mentioned annoyance and danger which is derived from the accumulation of static electricity. However, when the natural fibers are placed in an atmosphere of low humidity, static electricity will build up on the fibers, so as to cause the above-mentioned annoyance. The most effective manner for preventing the above-mentioned undesirable phenomena is to utilize fibers having a high electrical conductivity[2]. But these ordinary non-conductive materials do not serve as effective electromagnetic shield. For this purpose, metallic fibers, fibers plated with a metal, fibers containing therein carbon black as an electrically conductive material and fibers coated with a polymeric dope containing an electrically conductive material are known as electrically conductive fibers are used. However, conventional electrically conductive fibers are not necessarily satisfactory for practical use.
For example, metallic fibers exhibit a very poor recovery from bending and are easily broken when processed or used. Also, it is difficult to mix spin, mix weave or mix knit the metallic fibers with organic polymer fibers.
In case of a fiber plated with a metal, it is required to form a uniform, continuous plated metal layer on the surface of the fiber. In order to satisfy the above-mentioned requirement, the surface of the fiber is required to be smooth and highly polished.In order to prepare a continuous layer of plated metal possessing a uniform thickness, it is necessary to carefully and accurately carry out the plating operation. Also, the metal-plated fiber is disadvantageous in that the plated metal layer is easily peeled off from the fiber during processing or use, and has a poor durability in use and a metallic color which is sometimes undesirable for textile use. The fiber coated with a polymer dope containing an electrically conductive material, for example, carbon black and silver particles, is disadvantageous in that the coating operation is expensive and the coating layer is easily peeled off from the fiber during processing. In order to provide the fiber containing therein carbon black as an electrically conductive material and having a proper conductivity, it is necessary that the carbon black is contained in a large amount of at least 15% based on the weight of the fiber matrix polymer. This large amount of carbon black causes the fiber-producing process to be difficult, complex and expensive. Furthermore, the carbon black-containing fiber has a gray or black color which is sometimes undesirable for textile use. The latest development is the applications of intrinsically conductive polymers such as polyacetylene, polyanylene, polypyrrole, polythiophene etc. Metalizing of Textile FabricTextile fabrics had been coated with metals such as copper, nickel, silver and combination of thereof since last two decades in industrial scale. The metallization of fibres and fabrics is usually based on methods such as laminating with aluminium foils, dyeing with copper sulfide or electroless plating with certain metallic components. Electroless metal plating is a non electrolytic method of deposition from solution which is explainable by mixed potential theory, a combination oxidation and reduction processes[3].
The driving force for this reaction arises from the potential difference that exists between metal solution interface and equilibrium electrode potential for the cathodic and anodic half reaction.
In a typical electroless plating system, copper reduction and formaldehyde oxidation are cathodic and anodic reactions respectively. Plating is initiated upon catalysed surface, and is sustained on the catalytic nature of the metal of the surface. This method has advantages such as coherent metal deposition, excellent conductivity and shielding effectiveness, applicability to complex shaped material and non-conductors so that it applies to all fibre substances.Surface modification and coating of fabrics using Physical vapor deposition (PVD) technologies is relatively new[4].
PVD coatings of woven or nonwoven fabrics are also an important step in producing a variety of new thin film composites for new applications.
Depending on the evaporation conditions, PVD coated fabrics can present quite different surface properties.
Reactive metal deposition induces both textural and chemical changes at the substrate surface.
Some products from metalized fabric are Flectron (Monsanto, presently APM, USA), Shieldex (Siemens, Germany), REMP (REMP, Switzerland), Shintron (Shinto Chemitron Co.
The shielding efficiency of these metalized textile fabrics mainly works in principle of energy reflection and not its absorption. Hence, there have been searches for materials with greater capability of absorbing electromagnetic radiation.
In recent years many patents have appeared which deal with the problem of producing textile fabrics with ferromagnetic properties[1].
Such products can be applied as flexible screens for attenuating electromagnetic radiation, to produce cores in transformers, motors, generators, etc., and to produce filters to remove substances showing magnetic properties from air and water. Ferromagnetic textile fabrics can be produced by spreading suitable substances on surfaces, or by their introduction into fibre polymers.The copper wire and stainless steel wire were wrapping with polyamide filaments to reduce the friction and tenacity during weaving and knitting process, enabling the successful weaving and knitting of hybrid conductive yarn, RTCY namely.
The co-woven-knitted fabric and woven fabric were fabricated with RTCY to reach desired electromagnetic shielding properties[5]. The multilayer lamination of various thickness and SS fiber content are responsible for blocking the electromagnetic interference in different frequency[5].Figure 2.
Sparavigna, Shielding Effectiveness Evaluation of Metallized and Poly pyrrol e-coated Fabrics, Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, vol. Sparavigna, Polypyrrol e-coated Nonwovens for Electromagnetic Shielding, 2008, Journal of Industrial Textiles, vol. Knitted Fabric for Electromagnetic ShieldingThe literature indicates that knitted fabric reinforced polymer composites are suitable for making complex shaped components.
Hence, in this study conductive polymer composites were made using knitted fabric reinforcement. Polypropylene (PP) was chosen as the matrix material and knitted glass fibers as the reinforcement[7].
Copper wires or staple yarns were incorporated as conductive fillers to provide the composite material with the desired EMI SE properties. The various steps followed to produce conductive knitted fabric composite materials are described. The EMI SE of knitted composites is greatly influenced by the amount of copper in the compo site material, which can be varied by changing the knit structure, stitch density and linear density of yarns used for knitting and inlaying. Four knitted constructions such as plain knitting, weft in-laid plain knitting, 1?1 rib, and weft in-laid 1?1 rib are formed into knitted structures with conductive yams. All samples show higher EM shielding performance in the frequency range of 27-500 MHz than of 500-3000 MHz[8]. Structure of specimens (woven or knitted), ratio of copper wire in the content of yarn, number of fabric layers, reference dB value of generated signals are found influential parameters affecting EMSI. Thin copper wire containing yarn has higher EMSE comparing those specimens produced using thicker copper wire yarns. Coating Textiles with Conductive Polymer Conducting polymers are a new class of materials with an extensive delocalization of p-electrons conjugated network with wide applications in number of technologies such as energy storage, molecular recognition EMI shielding and ESD LED–opto-electronic devices and corrosion protection[10, 16, 19, 20]. Conducting polymers generally show highly reversible redox behavior with a distinguishable chemical memory and hence been considered as prominent new materials for the fabrication of industrial devices. The essential feature of the conducting polymers is that it provides p-bands of delocalized molecular orbital within which full range of semiconductors and metal behavior can be achieved through the control of the degree of band filling. Among conducting polymers, polyaniline and polypyrrole has received wide spread attention because of their environmental stability and moderate conductivity[17]. The hetero atom–N–presents in the polymer chain play an important role in the unique conduction mechanism. In order to solve the problem of unprocessibility in conducting polymers, different groups have prepared conducting composites by blending conducting polymers with insulating polymers so that the conducting composites retain the mechanical properties of the conventional polymers and electrical conductivity of the conducting polymers. Electromagnetic radiation is one of the unfortunate byproducts of the rapid proliferation of electronic devices. Due to the metallic conductivity and many other unusual properties, conducting polymers have become the focus of attention in material science.
Therefore we thought it fit to study the coating of conducting polymers on insulating fabric, so that the coated fabric can be studied for their possible application as a new material for microwave absorption and in UV–Vis–NIR range. These materials show better performance than metal fibre and powder filled composites which are susceptible to galvanic corrosion or loss of conductivity due to friction. Various aspects on the preparation of coated fabrics by polymerizing aniline and pyrrole on the insulating surface are reported. The polymerization of aniline and pyrrole on insulating fabrics like polyester cloth, glass fabrics and high silica cloth was carried out by in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization. The chemical polymerization of pyrrole in the presence of textile substrates results in the formation of electrically conducting, polypyrrole coated fabrics[11].
The conducting polymers investigated both reflect and absorb radiation, and generally have larger absorption levels than reflection.
It was found that the composite shielded EMI by absorption as well as reflection and that EMI shielding through reflection increased with the electrical conductivity and 7% of the power of the incident electromagnetic wave was absorbed by the composite. Those films showed EMI SE in the useful range of about 30 dB over a wide frequency range from 30 MHz to 1500 MHz as shown in figure 6[15].Figure 6.
Ex-static™ conductive fabric is light weight, durable conductive fabric containing 87% polyester, 13% gray BASF (carbon) fibers woven right into the fabric in an attractive diamond pattern providing surface resistivity of 105 ohms per square. Can be used to make E-field shielding bedding, appliance covers, clothing, drapes, room dividers, and anything else you can sew.
Some people claim they can sleep noticeably better when they sandwich conductive fabric into their bedcovers. It can shield low intensity radiofrequency and microwaves (with a shielding effectiveness up to 67 dB at 1 MHz and 33 dB at 1 GHz), and is an excellent E-field shield when grounded. It can be ironed on to cotton, wood, glass or paper, or rolled into a tube and then heat seal the seam.
Can be used as an antibacterial wound dressings but it also makes a great material for electrode contacts, stretchy hats, socks, gloves, or other garments[9].

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Rubric: Electromagnetic Pulse Shield


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