When a hazardous substance release is reported in the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Emergency Response Program sets its response procedures into motion. Response actions fall into three main categories, depending on the urgency of the situation. EPA has conducted several thousand response actions since the Emergency Response program began in 1980, and has directed and monitored many other actions carried out by those responsible for the contamination. Experience has demonstrated that not all emergency response or removal actions classified under the National Contingency Plan (NCP) are equally urgent.
Classic Emergencies: Those actions where the release requires that on-site activities be initiated within minutes or hours of the determination that a removal action is appropriate. Time-Critical Actions: Those actions where, based on an evaluation of the site, EPA determines that less than six months is available before site activities must be initiated. Non-Time-Critical Actions: Those actions where, based on an evaluation of the site, EPA determines that more than six months is available before on-site activities must begin. Despite the nation's best efforts to prevent spills, almost 14,000 oil spills are reported each year, mobilizing thousands of specially trained emergency response personnel and challenging the best-laid contingency plans. The National Response Center (NRC) is the federal government's national communications center, which is staffed 24 hours a day by U.S.
Reports to the NRC activate the National Contingency Plan and the federal government's response capabilities.
Once EPA learns of a potential hazardous substance release, an established set of procedures is followed to investigate the site, evaluate the threat, and determine the best course of action.
Prior to initiating an emergency response action, the OSC will conduct an off-site preliminary assessment of the release and the site's characteristics. Once EPA determines the type of emergency response action needed, response personnel take special precautions to ensure that they are protected from the threats posed at the site. As response personnel enter the site of the release, they gather additional information and further evaluate the site risks and hazards present.
Site investigations are essential to protect the health and safety of response personnel and others during emergency response actions.
Fish & Wildlife Service personnel participate as members of an integrated response team, responding to chemical and oil spills.
As the federal government's lead agency in responding to oil spills in inland waters, EPA is responsible for monitoring and, if necessary, directing spill response efforts.
The On-Scene Coordinator (OSC) is the federal official responsible for monitoring or managing federal responses to oil spills.
If the OSC determines that federal involvement is needed, the OSC will assume control of all spill response operations at the site and will obtain and direct all needed resources, such as cleanup personnel and equipment.
For oil spills that require a greater scope of federal support and resources, the OSC may activate the Regional Response Team to provide broader technical advice, equipment, or manpower to assist with a response. The On-Scene Coordinator (OSC) is the federal official responsible for monitoring or directing responses to all oil spills and hazardous substance releases reported to the federal government. Most releases or spills are small and are cleaned up by the responsible party or local response agencies. Evaluating response actions provides information that is useful for designing or improving spill response plans. The National Response System (NRS) routinely and effectively responds to a wide range of oil and hazardous substance releases. At the heart of the system is the National Contingency Plan (NCP), which ensures that the resources and expertise of the federal government are available immediately for oil or hazardous substance releases that are beyond the capabilities of local and state responders.
Because a hazardous substance release or an oil spill could occur virtually anywhere and at any time, EPA and a network of federal, state, and local responders stand ready 24 hours a day to contain and clean-up the discharged oil and released chemicals. One of EPA's major tasks is to coordinate contingency planning efforts with other agencies to ensure that emergency responses are carried out quickly and with maximum effectiveness.
Contingency plans describe the information and processes for responding to hazardous substance emergencies, including the roles and responsibilities of the different responding agencies, the location and availability of response resources, the process for conducting the response, and other actions necessary to ensure a safe and effective cleanup. The National Contingency Plan Overview (National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan - 40 CFR Part 300) is the federal government's primary plan for preparing for, and coordinating with, other emergency responders.
The federal government also prepares Regional and Area Contingency Plans that coordinate effective responses within each of the 10 standard federal regions and other designated Areas covering Alaska, the Caribbean, and several islands in the Pacific.
At the local level, Local Contingency Plans are developed to prepare and organize local resources in the event of the accidental release of hazardous substances. Federal on-scene coordinators, who are the federal government's frontline staff during an incident, may develop an On-Scene Coordinator (OSC) Contingency Plan for responses in the OSC's area of responsibility.
Taken together, these activities and resources form the cornerstone of our country's ability to respond to hazardous substance emergencies regardless of their nature, size, or location. Together, EPA and state and local governments form an effective partnership at all points in the emergency response process as part of our country's National Response System, a multi-layered network of individuals and teams from local, state, and federal agencies, industry, and other response organizations. The Superfund law grants the Emergency Response program and the Superfund program the authority to respond to hazardous substance emergencies.
The Superfund Response program is primarily responsible for long-term responses, which involve complex and highly contaminated sites where it often requires several years to fully study the problem, develop a permanent remedy, and clean up the hazardous waste. Sometimes, when an EPA On-Scene Coordinator (OSC) or other emergency responder comes to the scene of a hazardous substance release, he or she immediately knows that extra technical help will be needed.
Members of EPA's Radiological Emergency Response Team (RERT) inspecting a potentially hazardous site. Environmental Response Team: The Environmental Response Team (ERT) is a group of EPA technical experts who provide around-the-clock assistance at the scene of hazardous substance releases, offering expertise in such areas as treatment, biology, chemistry, hydrology, geology, and engineering.
National Response Team: The National Response Team (NRT) is an inter-agency group that provides guidance prior to an incident and, when requested, technical and financial assistance during an incident.
Regional Response Teams: Regional Response Teams (RRTs) also are interagency groups that consist of representatives from federal, state, and local governments. Individual states are members in their respective Regional Response Teams, which are established and maintained in the National Response System to provide On-Scene Coordinator (OSCs) with support and assistance in responses to release incidents at the Regional level. The NRT is responsible for distributing technical, financial, and operational information about hazardous substance releases and oil spills to all members of the team. Science and Technology Committee, chaired by EPA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration in alternating years, provides national coordination on issues that parallel those addressed by the Scientific Support Coordinator on an incident by incident basis. EPA inspectors look for hazardous spills in obvious places such as chemical plants and factories, but also visit sites like this high school chemistry lab to ensure no materials are creating a danger for students. The NRT ensures that the roles of federal agencies in the NRT for emergency response are clearly outlined in the National Contingency Plan (see the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan Overview). Training is the key to the federal strategy for preparing for oil spills or hazardous substance releases. The NRT supports Regional Response Teams (RRTs) by reviewing Regional or Area Contingency Plans to maintain consistency with national policies on emergency response. EPA personnel chair the National Response Team and cochair all Regional Response Teams (RRTs). Holders of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan Implementing Plan for the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station are responsible for keeping it updated by incorporating amendments, which may be issued from time to time.
This public document is administered by the Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services of Ontario. The Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act (EMCPA) requires and authorizes the formulation of the plan. Procedures : Based on all of the above plans, procedures are developed for the various emergency centres to be set up and for the various operational functions required. It is necessary that everyone involved in the preparation and implementation of the Provincial Nuclear Emergency Response Plan employ common terminology. An accident in which the effects, both actual and potential, are expected to be confined within the boundaries of the nuclear facility. An accident in which the effects are so localized that their impact can be satisfactorily dealt with by local emergency response personnel (police, fire, etc.) with possibly some outside technical assistance. A declaration of a provincial emergency may also be made by the Premier if the urgency of the situation requires that it be made immediately. The emergency requires immediate action to prevent, reduce or mitigate the dangers posed by the emergency. The Legislative Assembly may by resolution extend the length of an emergency for additional periods of no more than 28 days, for as many times as required. An emergency declaration made by the Premier lapses after 72 hours, unless confirmed by the LGIC. The PNERP Master Plan sets out the principles, concepts, organization, responsibilities, policies, functions and interrelationships, which will govern all nuclear and radiological emergency management in Ontario. The PNERP Implementing Plans apply the principles, concepts and policies contained in the Master Plan, in order to provide detailed guidance and direction for dealing with a specific nuclear or radiological emergency.
Separate response plans have been developed to deal with accidents at the Pickering, Darlington and Bruce Power nuclear generating stations as well as for the Chalk River Laboratories and the Fermi 2 installation in Monroe, Michigan. This Plan provides generic guidance on dealing with radiological emergencies caused by sources not covered by the other Implementing Plans.
Provincial ministries, agencies, boards and commissions shall develop their own plans and procedures to fulfil the responsibilities as outlined in the appendices to Annex I. The emergency plans and procedures of nuclear installations deal with their onsite responsibilities. This is a plan jointly developed and adopted by the federal governments of Canada and the United States for early notification, coordination of activities and provision of mutual assistance between the two countries in the event of a nuclear or radiological emergency in North America with transboundary implications.
Health Canada administers the Federal Nuclear Emergency Plan (FNEP), which can be activated to manage and coordinate federal response activities for a nuclear emergency requiring a multi-jurisdictional or multi-departmental off-site response. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC), an independent agency of the Government of Canada, is the national regulator for the nuclear industry in Canada which includes any actions taken in response to the radiological or nuclear aspects of an emergency. In the event of a nuclear emergency, the federal government will liaise with the provinces and territories as well as with neighbouring countries and the international community as outlined in Appendix 19 to Annex I. The regulation of nuclear energy has been deemed to be a matter of national concern that goes beyond local or provincial interests. The province has exclusive jurisdiction for matters of property and civil rights in the province and for all matters that affect the public health, safety and environment of the province.
Pursuant to section 6, the federal Governor in Council can declare a public welfare emergency, which includes an emergency caused by a real or imminent accident, pollution resulting in danger to life or property, social disruption or breakdown in the flow of essential goods and services, so serious as to be a national emergency. Pursuant to section 14, the Governor in Council must consult the provinces that are affected by the emergency before issuing a declaration of public welfare emergency. Pursuant to section 8, while a declaration of a public welfare emergency is in effect, the Governor in Council may make necessary orders or regulations that are necessary to deal with the emergency. This act assigns responsibility to the Minister of Public Safety for the coordination of emergency management activities including the development and implementation of federal civil emergency plans in cooperation with other levels of government and the private sector. The Commission is given exceptional powers including the power to make any order in an emergency that it considers necessary to protect the environment or the health and safety of persons or to maintain national security and compliance with Canada’s international obligations.
Compensation to third parties for injury or damage caused by a nuclear incident, as defined in the Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act, would be assessed and paid under the provisions of this Act.
This legislation governs the transportation of dangerous goods (including radioactive goods) and the accidental release of ionizing radiation exceeding limits established by the Nuclear Safety and Control Act. The provincial government has jurisdiction over public health and safety, property and the environment within its borders. The legislative authority for emergency management, planning and response for Ontario is the Emergency Management and Civil Protection Act (EMCPA).
The PNERP is formulated by the Lieutenant Governor in Council (LGIC) under section 8 of the EMCPA.
The LGIC assigns responsibilities for formulating emergency plans in respect of specific types of emergencies to ministers (section 6 of the EMCPA). Pursuant to section 3 (4) of the EMCPA, the designated municipalities shall formulate plans to deal with the off-site consequences of nuclear emergencies caused by the corresponding nuclear installation (Annex A). These plans should also contain, where applicable, arrangements for the provision of services and assistance by county departments, local police services, fire services, EMS, hospitals and local boards. As required by section 8 of the EMCPA, municipal nuclear emergency response plans shall conform to the PNERP and be subject to the approval of the Solicitor General (this function is fulfilled by the Minister of Community Safety and Correctional Services). As required by section 5 of the EMCPA, plans of lower-tier municipalities shall conform to the plans of their upper tier municipality.


Pursuant to sections 2(3) and 3(4) of the EMCPA, every municipality, in developing their emergency management program, must identify and assess the various hazards and risks to public safety that could give rise to emergencies.
Where the upper tier municipality is not the designated municipality under this PNERP it may, with the consent of its designated municipalities, coordinate the nuclear emergency plans for those municipalities. In the event of a declared emergency, the LGIC or the Premier may order a municipality to provide support or assistance to designated municipalities or to affected municipalities.
Support and assistance may include, but shall not be limited to, personnel, equipment, services and material.
The responsibilities of provincial ministries, municipalities, federal departments and organizations, nuclear installations and their operators for nuclear emergency response and for the purposes of implementing this plan, are given in Annex I.
The Province shall support and coordinate the response to the off-site consequences of a nuclear emergency and may, where warranted and appropriate, issue operational directives and, emergency orders (in the event of a declared emergency) under the EMCPA.
Even though nuclear facilities are designed and operated according to stringent safety standards, emergency preparedness and response must operate on the basis that mechanical failure, human error, extreme natural events or hostile action can lead to nuclear or radiological emergencies. All plans should be so devised as to be able to deal effectively with a broad range of possible emergencies. An appropriate balance should be struck between risk and cost when assessing the level of emergency preparedness required. Exposure to radiation should be kept as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) within the context of the risks and costs of such avoidance.
As much preparedness as is practicable should be done in advance to enable a rapid, effective and efficient response to a nuclear or radiological emergency.
Preparedness should include a program of public education for people who might be affected, to inform them of plans, and to help them cope with a nuclear emergency. As far as is practicable, operational measures (especially alerting and notification systems) and protective measures should be devised and implemented to avoid significant radiation exposure.
A policy of truth and openness should be followed in providing information to the public and media during a nuclear or radiological emergency. Remaining indoors with doors and windows closed and external ventilation turned off or reduced. Measures which protect against external contamination and radiation exposure (as a result of a radioactive cloud or plume or deposited contamination). Measures which protect the food chain from radioactive contamination, and prevent the ingestion of contaminated food and water. Banning consumption and export of locally produced milk, meat, produce, and milk-and meat-producing animals.
The main challenge that Ontario faces in this area would arise from an emergency at a nuclear installation4. Taking the above into consideration, as well as the various types of nuclear accidents that could potentially occur in Ontario, a basic offsite effect has been selected to serve as the main basis for nuclear emergency management. Detailed planning and preparedness shall be carried out in Ontario for dealing effectively with the basic offsite effect of a nuclear installation accident. An accident or event could occur which could result in a more severe offsite effect, though the probability of such an occurrence is very low. Detailed planning and preparedness will establish an effective basis to deal with an emergency caused by any type of nuclear installation accident.
The zone around the nuclear installation within which detailed planning and preparedness shall be carried out for measures against exposure to a radioactive plume. A larger zone within which it is necessary to plan and prepare measures to prevent ingestion of radioactive material. Many steps and safety precautions must be followed to ensure a swift and effective response to the emergency. When a release is first reported, responders may not know all the necessary information such as how the release occured, the extent of the damage, or even what hazardous substances are involved. Once information has been gatherered about the release, responders can determine what type of response action should be taken.
The threats confronted by the EPA Emergency Response program vary greatly in size, nature, and location, and have involved EPA in incidents requiring unusual or complex emergency response actions.
For example, situations involving fire or explosions or imminent, catastrophic contamination of a reservoir may require prompt and expeditious attention, while certain situations involving abandoned hazardous waste drums or cleanup of abandoned industrial facilities may not. Although many spills are contained and cleaned up by the party responsible for the spill, some spills require assistance from local and state agencies, and occasionally, the federal government.
EPA usually learns about a spill from the responsible party, who is required by law to report the spill to the federal government, or from state and local responders.
It is the responsibility of the NRC staff to notify the pre-designated On-Scene Coordinator (OSC) assigned to the area of the incident and to collect available information on the size and nature of the release, the facility or vessel involved, and the party(ies) responsible for the release. First, EPA designates an On-Scene Coordinator (OSC) to evaluate the incident and determine the appropriate response agency. The preliminary assessment helps to identify specific hazards and determine the appropriate response measures and safety measures needed to ensure the health and safety of the responders.
When entering the site, response personnel wear personal protective gear to shield or isolate them from the chemical, physical, and biological hazards that may be encountered on the site.
Response personnel use this information to further refine their response activities and the safety measures being taken. The information gathered is absolutely critical to enable responders to proceed confidently and safely, and to ensure that local communities receive accurate information about the potential for adverse health effects. If the spill affects inland waters, then an EPA OSC will be designated for the incident; a USCG OSC will be designated for spills to coastal waters and the great lakes.
If the OSC determines that the personnel and equipment already deployed at the spill site are inadequate, the OSC will employ spill contractors using available federal response funds or, if necessary, funds from the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund. In addition, the OSC can request support from EPA's Environmental Response Team , which is available 24 hours-a-day to provide oil spill expertise and special response equipment to the spill responders. The OSC coordinates all federal efforts with, and provides support and information to, local, state and regional response communities.
Assessment involves evaluating the size and nature of a release or spill, its potential hazards, the resources needed to contain and clean it up, and the ability of the responsible party or local authorities to handle the incident. Monitoring comprises those activities taken to ensure that the actions taken to control and clean up a chemical release or oil spill are appropriate. If the OSC decides that federal assistance is required, the OSC will obtain needed resources such as personnel and equipment. The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) requires that the OSC report all activities that take place during and after an incident. It is a multi-layered system of individuals and teams from local, state, and federal agencies, industry, and other organizations that share expertise and resources to ensure that oil spill control and cleanup activities are timely and efficient, and that they minimize threats to human health and the environment. The NRF is the federal government's comprehensive, all-hazard approach to crisis management, and provides a mechanism for coordinating federal assistance to state governments and localities. EPA's Emergency Response program has a leadership role in this National Response System that promotes coordinated emergency response actions and guarantees the availability of resources to cover all possible release scenarios.
To further ensure the readiness of its response teams, EPA provides training to emergency responders so that they have the necessary skills and use appropriate precautions when undertaking emergency response measures.
When used properly by trained personnel, a well-designed contingency plan enables response efforts to proceed smoothly and effectively, minimizes danger to cleanup personnel, reduces overall costs of cleanup by avoiding unnecessary effort, and ensures the protection of human health and the environment. The National Contingency Plan establishes the principles and structure of the unified command system and identifies the roles and responsibilities of the key players within the system.
These plans include preparedness information on a regional level and identify useful response facilities and resources available from government, commercial, academic, and other sources. Under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 (EPCRA), state governors are required to establish State Emergency Response Commissions, which in turn establish Local Emergency Planning Committees (LEPCs) for districts within the state. These plans identify probable locations of releases, the availability and location of emergency response resources, and the local structure for responding to release incidents. On the national level, the Superfund law distinguishes between short-term and long-term responses to threats posed by hazardous substances. As of August 1996, there were over 1200 Superfund sites undergoing some form of long-term cleanup.
The ERT can provide support to the full range of emergency response actions, including unusual or complex emergency incidents such as underwater releases.
They conduct pre-response planning and preparedness activities, as well as coordinate and provide advice during response actions. Prior to emergency incidents, EPA coordinates with states to ensure that state contingency plans are consistent with what was accomplished through national and regional contingency planning. Because firefighters and local police are usually the first responders at the scene of an incident, they are the first to assess the situation, identify the hazards, and take emergency measures, such as fighting a fire, securing the area, or re-routing traffic. This information is collected primarily by NRT committees whose purpose is to focus attention on specific issues, then collect and disseminate information on those issues to other members of the team. The focus of this committee is on identifying developed technology and mechanisms for applying those technologies to enhance operational response. After a major incident, the effectiveness of the response is carefully assessed by the NRT. Although most training is performed by state and local personnel, the NRT develops training courses and programs, coordinates federal training efforts, and provides information to regional, state, and local officials about training needs and courses. The NRT also supports RRTs by monitoring and assessing RRT effectiveness during an incident. The agency provides On-Scene Coordinators (OSCs), scientific support coordinators for inland spills, and Remedial Project Managers for hazardous waste remedial actions under Superfund. The agency provides guidance, policy, and technical assistance in emergency preparedness planning, training, and exercising activities for state and local governments.
NOAA contributes information about sensitive coastal environments, and furnishes data about actual and predicted meteorological, hydrological, ice, and oceanographic conditions.
The Major Organization Plans (as per Figure I on page ii) should be consistent with the requirements under these implementing plans.
These plans are based on, and should be consistent with the PNERP and with the Provincial Implementing Plans. The terminology contained in the Glossary, Annex K, should be used for this purpose by all concerned. In a nuclear emergency, therefore, the Province will take the leading role in managing the off-site response. The Province may issue operational directives1 and emergency orders (in the event of a declared emergency), where warranted and appropriate, as further detailed in this Plan. Such a hazard will usually be caused by an accident, malfunction, or loss of control involving radioactive material.
It is not possible, without the risk of serious delay, to ascertain whether the resources normally available can be relied upon. This declaration can be renewed for one further period of 14 days, as long as it meets the test of the declared emergency. These are combined in one document since many of the features will be the same for all such potential emergencies. It would be applicable to accidents at nuclear establishments, transportation (of radioactive goods) accidents, satellite (containing radioactive material) re-entry, radiological dispersal devices (RDD), radiological devices (RD) and nuclear weapon detonation. Pursuant to sections 3 and 8 of the EMCPA, municipal nuclear emergency response plans prepared by the designated municipalities in respect of nuclear installation emergencies (Annex A) shall conform to this PNERP and, shall address the agreed-to responsibilities outlined in Appendices 15 and 16 to Annex I. Municipalities in close proximity to, or with nuclear establishments within their boundaries should include, in their emergency response plans, the measures they may need to take to deal with a radiological accident.
Other municipalities which have a radiological incident identified as one of their potential risks within their Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment should include, within their municipal emergency response plans, the measures they may be required to undertake to deal with such an emergency (see PNERP Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies). All municipal emergency response plans should provide for the development of plans and procedures involving local boards (defined pursuant to the Municipal Act, 2001, S.O. They should also include the measures required to discharge offsite responsibilities in accordance with the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and Regulations and with the responsibilities outlined in Appendix 13 to Annex I. This plan contains an Ontario Annex, which provides for liaison with Ontario, the provision of federal assistance, and provisions for obtaining international assistance, should any be requested by Ontario.
In the event of a radiological or nuclear emergency, the CNSC will monitor and evaluate the on-site response of the licensee, or in the case of an event with no identified licensee, the CNSC will oversee and regulate the response activities of the responding organizations to ensure compliance with the Nuclear Safety and Control Act and Regulations, and ensure the health, safety and security of the response staff, the public and the environment, as well as maintain compliance with Canada’s international obligations. The federal government will also manage nuclear liability issues and coordinate Canada’s response, should Canadians be affected by a nuclear emergency in a foreign country.


Therefore, the federal government maintains exclusive jurisdiction over the regulation of nuclear energy in Canada. However, where the emergency is confined to one province, the Governor in Council may only issue a declaration of public welfare emergency or take other steps when the Lieutenant Governor of the province has indicated to the federal Governor in Council that the emergency exceeds the capacity of the province to deal with it.
The orders or regulations made by the Governor in Council should not unduly impair the ability of the province to take measures, under provincial legislation, for dealing with the emergency.
Federal authorities also coordinate or support the provision of assistance to a province during or after a provincial emergency. Once a provincial declaration of emergency has been made (see section 1.3 above), the LGIC has the power to make emergency orders and may delegate these powers to a Minister or to the Commissioner of Emergency Management (CEM)2.
Emergency orders are made only if they are necessary and essential, and they would alleviate harm and damage and are a reasonable alternative to other measures. Emergency orders must only apply to those areas where they are necessary and should be in effect only for as long as necessary. During an emergency, the Premier or a minister (delegated) is required to regularly report to the public with respect to the emergency. The Premier is required to submit a report in respect of the emergency to the Assembly within 120 days following the termination of the emergency. Pursuant to section 11(1) of the EMCPA, Ministers of the Crown, Crown employees, members of municipal councils and municipal employees are protected from personal liability for doing any act done in good faith under the Act or pursuant to an Order made under the Act. Emergency plans authorize crown and municipal employees to take action under those plans where an emergency exists but has not yet been declared to exist (section 9 of the EMCPA).
In the case of those assigned to a position, implementation should also be the responsibility of any substitute, alternate or the person next in line of authority if the permanent incumbent of that position is absent or otherwise unable to take the necessary action.
In addition to the obligation of Cabinet to formulate this plan, nuclear and radiological emergencies are assigned to the Minister of Community Safety & Correctional Services. Pursuant to section 3(4) of the EMCPA, municipalities have been designated to prepare plans in respect of nuclear emergencies. Appendices 15 & 16 to Annex I address the main responsibilities of the designated municipalities. Municipalities in close proximity to, or with nuclear establishments within their boundaries, should include in their emergency response plans the measures they may need to take to deal with the off-site consequences of a radiological accident.
Other municipalities which have a radiological incident identified as one of their potential risks, within their Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment (pursuant to Section 2 (3) of the EMCPA), should include, within their municipal emergency response plans, the measures they may need to undertake to deal with such an emergency (see PNERP Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies).
The Solicitor General may make such alterations as considered necessary for the purpose of coordinating the plan with the Province’s plan. Where a municipality identifies radiological risks (as per PNERP Implementing Plan for Other Radiological Emergencies), the emergency plan for that municipality must include provisions to deal with such an emergency. Once radioactive material enters the body, internal contamination decreases in accordance with the radioactive decay and biological elimination of such material. If there is a risk of radioiodine entering the body, the thyroid’s capacity to absorb it can be reduced or eliminated by taking a compound of stable iodine before, or even shortly after, the radioiodine enters the body. However, because resources are not available to make full preparations for dealing with all possible events, a judicious choice must be made to select the optimum basis for emergency management.
Formal risk analysis of nuclear reactor accidents shows that there is generally an inverse relationship between the probability of occurrence of an accident and the severity of its likely consequences. The main hazard to people would be from external exposure to, and inhalation of radionuclides. The aim of this is to ensure, to the extent possible, that no person offsite will be exposed to intolerable levels5 of radiation as a result of such an accident.
Radiation doses could be high (greater than 250 mSv [25 rem] for the most exposed person at the facility boundary). Environmental contamination could be quantitatively significant in both extent and duration.
This requires planning and preparedness to enable detection and assessment of environmental contamination, protection of the food chain from contamination, and prevention of the ingestion of contaminated food and water. Priority evacuations, if necessary, shall be undertaken within this area because of its proximity to the source of the potential hazard. All this information must be learned before any effective response effort can be carried out. Under the National Contingency Plan, EPA is the lead federal response agency for oil spills occurring in inland waters, and the U.S. Once the federal government receives the report, either through the National Response Center, EPA, or another agency, it is recorded in the Emergency Response Notification System, or ERNS. The NRC is the sole federal point of contact for reporting all hazardous substances and oil spills. If the OSC determines that EPA will take the lead in responding to the incident, the OSC will evaluate the urgency of the situation to determine the appropriate response alternative.
The selection of the type or level of personal protective equipment is based on the identification of the hazards or suspected hazards, potential exposure pathways, and the performance of the equipment in providing a barrier to these hazards. Generally, response workers entering the site conduct a visual survey for potential hazards and may perform air monitoring for potential dangers to life and health. Once notified of an oil spill, the OSC also will conduct an immediate assessment to evaluate several factors, including the size and nature of the spill, the type of oil spilled, its potential hazards, and the resources needed to contain and clean it up.
The OSC also can access various National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Scientific Support Coordinators with expertise in different aspects of oil spills, as well as support from non-governmental organizations that specialize in wildlife rescue and rehabilitation.
The results of the assessment are used to determine the need for personnel, equipment, and other resources to promptly and effectively combat the release.
Monitoring can be conducted from the site when necessary, or from an agency office if the situation appears to be under control. If sufficient resources are not available for an incident, the OSC decides who pays and can secure federal funding either from the Superfund trust fund for hazardous substance releases or the Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund for oil spills.
For example, following an oil spill, the OSC is required to file a summary report that outlines the actions taken to remedy the spill and the level of assistance provided by local, state, and federal agencies. This coordination allows federal, state, and local agencies to work together to respond to all emergencies efficiently.
Because the approaches and methods for responding to releases are constantly evolving, contingency plans also are constantly evolving and improving. These emergency planning organizations are responsible for developing local contingency plans using chemical inventory information collected as part of the law's community right-to-know provisions.
Together, the Superfund and the Emergency Response programs coordinate safe and effective response techniques for any type of hazardous substance emergency. The two principal components of the RRT are thirteen regional standing teams that provide region-wide support on communications, planning, coordination, training, evaluation, and preparedness, as well as incident-specific teams for which participation depends on the technical nature and location of the incident.
Their assessment and initial activities help the EPA OSC determine what EPA actions are necessary. The committee monitors research and development of response technologies and provides relevant information to the RRTs and other members of the National Response System to assist in the use of such technologies. The NRT may use information gathered from the assessment to make recommendations for improving the National Contingency Plan and the National Response System. The NRT may ask an RRT to focus on specific lessons learned from a particular incident and to share those lessons with other members of the National Response System.
EPA funds the Environmental Response Team (ERT), which is dispatched at the OSC's request to any response episode exceeding available regional resources. Navy oil spill containment and recovery equipment and manpower, as well as equipment for ship salvaging, shipboard damage control, and diving.
Such action will be taken in order to protect public health and safety and the environment. In either case, the CNSC will implement the CNSC Emergency Response Plan CAN2-1 November 2001. Assistance could include financial assistance where the emergency has been declared to be of concern to the federal government and the province has requested assistance. If the Assembly is not in session at that time, the Premier is required to submit a report within 7 days of the Assembly reconvening. The planning basis selected must strike an appropriate balance in considering these two factors. Site investigation also allows responders to determine the appropriate safety measures to take during the response effort. ERNS contains historical spill information for the entire country dating from 1986, and is currently available for downloading. The NRC receives all reports of releases involving hazardous substances and oil that trigger the federal notification requirements under several laws. Thanks to the Community Right-to-Know law, important information about the released substances is often easily and quickly obtained.
Because there is often little known information on specific hazards during the initial phase of an emergency response, the OSC typically directs that the most protective equipment be used at first; as more information about the hazards and conditions become available, the OSC can decide to downgrade the level of protection to match the site hazards. The OSC also will monitor any existing response efforts to determine whether additional technical support or federal involvement is necessary. In the case of oil spills, the OSC is legally required to monitor the response if the spill poses a substantial threat to the health and welfare of the public due to its size or characteristics. This assistance ensures that cleanup will not be hindered by a lack in availability of personnel or equipment on behalf of the local or state or responsible party resources. These reports can be used to identify problem areas and can be shared with other agencies who may make recommendations for improvement. EPA also provides other financial and technical support as needed to assist local communities in responding to the broad range of emergency response incidents that may occur. These short-term national responses are primarily coordinated by the Emergency Response program.
The NRT may be asked to help Regional Response Teams (RRTs) develop Regional Contingency Plans.
In this way, the RRTs can improve their own regional contingency plans while helping to solve problems that might be occurring elsewhere within the National Response System.
The ERT can provide support for site assessments, health and safety issues, action plan development, and contamination monitoring. 25) and police services operating in the area to provide necessary support and assistance required by such plans, or that which may be needed in an emergency. Response personnel use direct-reading instruments and testing equipment when performing air monitoring.
EPA OSCs have primary responsibility for spills and releases to inland areas and waters, while U.S. EPA differentiates among three types of emergency response alternatives according to the urgency of the situation, and the Emergency Response program ensures that all elements of the response system are ready to respond immediately to any hazardous substance emergency, wherever it occurs.
The NRT also reviews these plans to determine whether they comply with federal policies on emergency response.
Army Corp of Engineer equipment and expertise available for removing navigational obstructions and performing ship structural repairs. The current edition of this plan supersedes and replaces all older versions which should be destroyed. One important goal of monitoring during initial site entry is to establish work or safety zones at the site.
Since its inception in 1980, the program has compiled an impressive record of accomplishments. As the emergency response action continues, response personnel conduct periodic monitoring to ensure that any new hazards are identified promptly and that appropriate controls are implemented to protect the responders and nearby communities.
Coast Guard manages the National Response Center and maintains a National Strike Force, specially trained and equipped to respond to major marine pollution incidents. Commandant of the Coast Guard also serves as fund manager for the Oil Pollution Liability Trust Fund set up under the Clean Water Act.



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Rubric: Emergency Supply Kits



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