Emergency Whistle - Hero Provisions Please upgrade to Internet Explorer version 9 or download Firefox, Opera, Safari or Chrome. BlaaaBlaaa sagt dir in Sachen Mode, Beauty, Shopping, Living etc., von Montag bis Freitag, was kommt, wo du es bekommst, was wo abgeht und wonach man sich gerade umdreht. Das BlaaaBlaaa Forum ist dein erweiterter Freundeskreis fA?r die Fragen des Alltags: Stylediskussionen, Beautytricks, Reisetipps.
An electronic ballast system is disclosed for operating one or more fluorescent lamps having a subsystem with universal input from 108V to 305V, a battery, along with a battery charger and associated logic, that provides for emergency lighting, as well for operating at least one of the fluorescent lamps.
Get an Instant Coupon TODAY by email and you willalso receive news, deals, and exclusive offers.
The electronic ballast system includes a circuit that allows for a fluorescent lamp to be energized without the preheating of it cathodes, as well as includes a circuit for power factor correction that uses of an average current mode implemented by a pulse-width modulator to derive a power factor for the electronic power circuit that approaches unity. The electronic ballast system according to claim 2, wherein said second inverter ballast circuit further comprises means for supplying said oscillating current of said second inverter to said first fluorescent lamp. The electronic ballast system according to claim 2, wherein said first inverter ballast circuit further comprises fault control logic arranged in parallel with said first fluorescent lamp and connected to an output and an input of said first sweep frequency circuit and having means for disabling said first sweep frequency circuit when said first fluorescent lamp becomes inoperable. The electronic ballast system according to claim 5, wherein said second inverter ballast circuit comprises means for supplying an oscillating current of said second inverter ballast circuit to said first fluorescent lamp.
The electronic ballast system according to claim 5, wherein said first inverter ballast circuit comprises a sweep frequency circuit and fault control logic arranged in parallel with said first fluorescent lamp and connected to an output and an input of said sweep frequency circuit and having means for disabling said sweep frequency circuit when said first fluorescent lamp becomes inoperable.
Die gute Georgette, wie nett, hat sich nA¤mlich allen erdenklichen Ladylike-NotfA¤llen verschrieben wie z.B.
Electronic ballast systems typically convert a low frequency alternating current source having a relatively low frequency in the range from 50 to 60 Hz to a higher frequency typically in the range of 30-40 kHz. The conversion commonly involves a two stage process, wherein the ac oscillation having a frequency of 50 to 60 Hz is first rectified to a dc voltage and then this dc voltage is chopped at a higher frequency to produce alternating current in the frequency range of 30-40 kHz, which is used to excite the fluorescent lamp.
The electronic ballast circuits advantageously perform the desired function for operating fluorescent lamps and reduce the energy consumption, compared to non-electronic ballast circuits, and especially compared to incandescent lamps. However, the conventional electronic ballast circuits typically employ a preheat operating mode that needs to be completed before the fluorescent lamp is excited so as to sequence it into its continuous and efficient running mode.
It is desired that an electronic ballast circuit be provided that eliminates the need for preheating the fluorescent lamp before the fluorescent lamp is rendered operative into its continuous operating and efficient running mode.Electronic ballast circuits are typically selected to have parameters that operate for particular input frequency oscillation.
Haryana government rechristens Gurgaon as Gurugram, Mewat as Nuh Laughing Buddha: Which one to use and where to place? For example, the electronic ballast circuit may have parameters selected so as to operate with the 110 volt, 60 Hz typically found in the United States, whereas other ballast circuits may have parameters selected to operate with 220 volts, 50 Hz typically found in European countries. Pratyusha Banerjee suicide case: Boyfriend Rahul Raj Singh granted anticipatory bail HTC 10 launched, here’s all you need to know about this flagship smartphone FEATURED Veenu Paliwal, the beloved woman biker who died living her passion Here's what Abhishek Bachchan loves about his wife Aishwarya Global surge in wild tigers for the first time in 100 years Afghan MP threatens woman reporter to cut off her nose after she Watch Virat Kohli shaking a leg to ‘Patiala Peg’ at Rohit Ghost or Odd God!
Know why villagers worship Royal Enfield bike in “Cop hitting a poor mother, are we going to tolerate this?” Cheap Publicity! It is desired to provide for electronic ballast system for operating one or more fluorescent lamps and having a subsystem with a battery, along with a battery charger, and associated logic to provide for emergency lighting.Electronic ballast systems that operate fluorescent lamps are commonly plagued by the disadvantage that they produce electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI). Rumoured Dabangg 3 actress Pearl Raah leaks topless With lesser personal sharing and more brand promotions; will Facebook Mahatama Gandhi's first tryst with Bihar enters 100th year After Bihar liquor ban, alcohol sellers flourish on India-Nepal border Fat to fit! It is desirable that an electronic ballast circuit be provided with a power factor correction circuit that allows for the creation of a power factor that approaches unity, thereby furthering the efficiency of the electronic ballast system.SUMMARY OF THE INVENTIONThe invention is directed to an electronic ballast system for operating one or more fluorescent lamps with universal input (from 108V to 305V) and having a subsystem with a battery, along with a battery charger and associated logic, that provides for emergency lighting. The inverter ballast circuit has a sweep frequency circuit for supplying an oscillating current to power a first fluorescent lamp without the need of preheating its cathode.BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGSFIG.
2 is a schematic illustrating the EMI filter, rectifier, and power factor correction (PFC) circuit of all of FIG.
Entonces id a ver la pelicula cuando este en cines.La pelicula estara en cines el 31 de mayo de 2013.
1.DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTSWith reference to the drawings, wherein the same reference number indicates the same element throughout, there is shown in FIG. 1 an electronic ballast system 10 for operating one or more fluorescent lamps and having the capability of providing for emergency lighting.The electronic ballast system 10 comprises an electromagnetic interference (EMI) filter 12 having input terminals L1 and N, connected to a source of current, and providing a filtered output on signal paths 14 and 16. The electronic ballast system 10 further comprises a full-wave rectifier V1 having its inputs connected to signal paths 14 and 16 of the EMI filter 12 and providing a first rectified d.c.
The emergency section 30 further comprises a diode D16 having an anode and cathode with the anode connected to the positive potential on signal path 34. The emergency section 30 still further comprises a battery having positive and negative terminals with a negative terminal connected, by way of signal path 38, to the negative potential on signal path 36 and the positive terminal thereof connected to the cathode of the diode D16.The emergency section further includes a second ballast inverter comprised of a half-bridge driver U4A, a half-bridge arrangement 40, and a high voltage tranformer T2. The second inverter circuit has an input and output arranged by means of the plurality of the switch contacts SC1 and SC2 so as to interconnect the positive and negative terminals of the battery when the second d.c.
The second inverter ballast circuit further comprises means, to be discussed with reference to FIG. 5, for energizing signal paths 42 and 44 so as to excite the fluorescent lamp of the inverter ballast circuit 28A.The electronic ballast system 10, more particularly, the EMI filter 12 is comprised of a plurality of elements as listed in Table 1, and may be further described with reference to FIG.
This electrical noise can interfere with the operation of televisions, radios, telephones, and similar equipment.
The EMI filter 12 is comprised of the common mode inductors L1 and L2, wound around the same core and operatively connected to capacitors C1, C2, and C3 arranged as shown in FIG. Additionally, the EMI filter 12 includes a fuse S11 that provides for over current protection and a varistor R1 that provides protection against high voltage spikes.
The EMI filter 12 provides a filtered output on signal paths 14 and 16, which is applied across a full-wave bridge rectifier V1 comprised of conventional diodes arranged as shown in FIG. The power factor correction circuit 22 is preferred to be implemented into the electronic ballast system 10 because the electronic ballast system 10, as well as all known ballast circuits, uses inductors which tend to reduce the power factor as seen by the source of a.c.
El reparto aun no ha sido anunciado todavia, pero segun el rumor, a Jesse Eisenberg y a Jake Gyllenhaal les han ofrecido un papel.


This lowering of the power factor disadvantageously increases the consumption of power related to the fluorescent lamps and the magnetic ballast components. Typically this reduction in the power factor and related inductive disturbances creates a 40% increase in power consumption. The power factor correction circuit 22 of the present invention performs an active correction of the power factor typically bringing it almost to unity (0.98%) and accomplishes this correction by forcing present its output signal paths 24 and 26 to follow the average primary current of the ac supplying the electronic ballast system 10.
Puede que la premisa suene un poco a fantasmada, pero me da curiosidad ver en que resulta la pelicula Now You See Me. Further, the power factor correction circuit 22 maintains a dc voltage of approximately 450 volts that is stabilized regardless of the fluctuation of the a.c. 1 and 2, the power factor correction circuit 22 comprises an inductor T1 having a first winding T1A having input and output terminals with the input terminal connected to the positive terminal 18 of the full-wave rectifier V1. The power factor correction circuit 22 further comprises a power switch Q1 having first (1) second (2) and third (3) electrodes with the first electrode (1) connected to the output terminal of the winding T1A. The power factor correction circuit 22 further comprises a diode D3 having an anode and a cathode with the anode connected to the output of the first winding T1A and a cathode connected to the positive terminal 24 of the second de output generated by the power factor correction circuit 22.Capacitive means comprised of capacitor C8 and C9, is arranged across the positive and negative terminals connected to signal paths 24 and 26. This input (Pin 4) provides the instantaneous MOSFET current derived from power switch Q1 and which current is represented by a proportional voltage signal created across an external sense resistor R7.
Pin 5 is connected, through a limiting resistor R5, to the auxiliary winding T1B of the inductor T having the primary winding T1A. This pin 8 is externally connected to a rectified diode D1 and a filter capacitor C7 as shown in FIG. More particularly, the controller U1A uses an average current control implemented by using feed forward line regulation and a variable switching frequency. A quadrant multiplier input allows external compensation to be applied to the current modulation quadrant. The output voltage value of the power factor correction circuit 22 can be adjusted by means of the resistor divider R9, R10, R8, and is typically set at 450V d.c. This rapid ignition is provided by the bi-directional arrangement of the diodes D4 and D5 operatively cooperating with capacitor C14 and C15, arranged as shown in FIG.
3 it should be noted that the fluorescent lamp 52 is connected from one side to the 100V connection and from the other side to the fluorescent lamp 52 common ground.
3 as being comprised of components C17, D9, D8, C16, R16, D7, R15, Q4, D6, and R14.In operation, if, as it was mentioned before, lamp 52 is absent, and if the half-bridge driver U2A fails to find the correct resonant frequency related to the particular fluorescent lamp 52, causing an increase in the disturbance values of current and voltage delivered to the 100V line and that are present at capacitor C17, these disturbances will be passed on to diodes D8 and D9.
The diodes D8 and D9 rectify the disturbances and deliver the rectified quantities to an electrolyic capacitor C16 and resistor R16 which, in turn, filter the rectified disturbances. The automatic reactivation of operation of the driver has not been inserted only for safety reasons intrinsic of the personnel employed to the maintenance. The electronic ballast system of the present invention allows for the direct lighting of fluorescent lamps without any preheating of the cathodes thereof, thereby, allowing the electronic ballast to service the fluorescent lamps by the provisions of only two separate wires. Particularly, these legislative requirements demand that when a building, that is frequented by the public, loses its primary source of power causing the loss of its ordinary lighting, then an auxiliary system is immediately provided for emergency purposes. Lighting for emergency purposes must clearly take into account the need to point out the exits through customized signaling, the routes of emergency egress along hallways to allow a steady flow of people out of the related building, and to ensure that alarms and fire retarding equipment are clearly identified by the emergency lighting.Typically, emergency lighting is divided into safety and backup components. The purpose of the safety light is to ensure the proper evacuation of the building and to make sure that evacuation will be accomplished in a safe manner. So that if the established configuration of the lighting has four (4) lamps, one (1) lamp will remain alight, if three (3) lamps, one (1) will remain on, if two (2) lamps, one (1) will take over.The emergency section 32 of the present invention provides power for fluorescent lamps, which can be of the 18W to 70W type. The emergency illumination of the present invention may be further described with reference to FIG. 4 shows the switching power and battery charger 30 as having its inputs connected to the hot and ground terminals of the EMI filter 12 of FIG. It is of particular importance that the hot connection of the switching power and battery charger 30 be maintained so as to not interrupt the function of the emergency lighting supply.An essential element of the switching power and battery charger 30 is the fly-back controller U3A, which in an integrated circuit and operatively cooperates with other components shown in FIG. 5 to be described, to produce a stabilized dc voltage having a value of about +13.5 volts derived from an ac source having a voltage variation of between 108 to 350 volts ac, which is essentially the same ac source of voltage feeding the EMI filter 12.
The fly-back controller U3A includes a high voltage (700V) power MOSFET switch with an internal power ballast controller. The fly-back controller U3A consists of an oscillator, an enabler circuit, an under-voltage circuit, an over-temperature protection arrangement, a current limit circuit, and the 700 volt power MOSFET.
The enable function of pin 2 determines whether or not to proceed with a next switch cycle. In operation, once a cycle is started the fly-back controller U3A always completes the cycle (even when enable pin 2 changes state halfway through the cycle). The enabler signal of pin 2 is generated on the secondary of the transformer T2 (by way of pin 2 of the fly-back controller U3A) by comparing the power supply output voltage present on signal paths 34 and 36 with an internal reference voltage. The enabler signal is high when the power supply output voltage is less than the reference voltage.
The collector of the optocoupler transistor is connected to the enabler pin (2) and the emitter of the optocoupler Transistor is connected to the source pin (5). The optocoupler has an LED which is connected in series with a zener diode (D12) across the DC output voltage present on signal paths 34 and 36 when the DC output voltage exceeds a target or predetermined regulation voltage level (optocoupler LED diode voltage drop plus zener voltage). For such conditions the optocoupler LED will start to conduct, pulling the enabler pin (1) low.Pin 3 (BP) of the fly-back controller U3A serves as a BYPASS PIN, which is connected to a bypass capacitor C20. Pin 4 (S) of the fly-back controller serves as a SOURCE PIN for the internal power MOSFET.The switching power and battery charger 30 operates from a full-wave rectifier V2 that receives the ac source (108-305 Vac). Capacitor C18 filters the rectified dc output from V2 and provides a delaying function to compensate for delays in the standby power provided by the switching power and battery charger 30 involved in the loss of the primary power.
A diode D10, a capacitor C19 and a resistor R17 comprise a clamping circuit that limits the turn-off voltage spikes presented to the fly-back controller U3A (drain pin) to a safe value.


The voltage at the secondary winding of transformer T1 is rectified and filtered by D11 and C21 to provide a 14.5V dc output. The output voltage is determined by the sum of the optocoupler OC1 LED forward drop voltage and zener diode D12 voltage drop.
The resistor R18, maintains a bias current through the zener diode 12 so as to improve its voltage response.The fly-back controller U3A is intended to operate in a current limit mode. When enabled, the oscillator within the fly-back controller U3A turns the internal power MOSFET on at the beginning of each cycle. The internal MOSFET is turned off when the current ramps up to a predetermined current limit The maximum on-time of the MOSFET is limited to a DC maximum voltage associated with the oscillator. Since the current limit and frequency response of a given fly-back controller U3A are constant, the power delivered is proportional to the primary inductance of the transformer T1 and this power is relatively independent of the input voltage (108-305 ac). This primary inductance of the transformer T1 is calculated for the maximum power required and is supplied to the oscillator within the fly-back controller U3A, As long as the fly-back controller U3A is chosen to be rated for the power level at the lowest input voltage, the primary inductance will ramp up the current to the current limit before the voltage DC maximum limit of the associated oscillator is reached.
The emergency section 32 of the electronic ballast circuit 10, may be further described with reference to FIG.
The high frequency inverter is used to turn on the fluorescent lamp LP1 being of a typical low-power (8W) type. The enablement of the usage of the battery is determined by the commutation provided by the switch control K1. The energizing of the switch control K1 causes the normally open contact SC1 to connect node 110, carrying a dc voltage of approximately 14.5, to node 120. 1 as being routed to inverter ballast circuit 28A The normally closed contact SC1 related to the switch control K1 connects to the node 110 to node 140. 1 has a second set of contacts, in particular normally closed contact SC2, which connects junction 200 to the lamp LP1, as well as to the fluorescent lamp 52 of FIG. The half-bridge driver U4A is operatively connected to MOSFETS Q10 and Q11 arranged in a half-bridge configuration 46 controlled, in part, by a capacitor C25 that is interconnected to the primary of the transformer 12 by way of capacitor C26.
The capacitance of the capacitor C26 and the inductance of transformer T2 comprise a resonant circuit The half-bridge driver U4A is interconnected to the circuit of FIG. 5 by way of its pins 1-8.Pin 1(Vcc) of the half-bridge driver U4A serves as the supply source for logic and a gate driver all within the half-bridge driver U4A. Pin 5 (LO) of the half-bridge driver U4A serves as a low side to gate the output which drives MOSFET Q11. This pin 5 is connected to the gate of the MOSFET Q11 by resistor R23.Pin 6 (VS) of the half-bridge driver serves a high voltage floating supply return.
This pin 6 is connected to the junction between the drain of the MOSFET Q11 and the source of the MOSFET Q10, as well as to capacitor C25. Pin 8 (VB) of the half-bridge driver U4A serves as a high side to gate the MOSFET Q11 with a floating supply. This oscillation drives the two MOSFETS Q10 and Q11 arranged in a half-bridge configuration 40. The application of the voltage of 13.5 applied to the drain of Q10 (positive) and to the source of Q11 (negative) causes they half-bridge driver U4A to convert an alternating voltage to a square type form having the high frequency 33 kHz. The high frequency is established by the resonant circuit formed by the capacitor C25 and the primary inductance of transformer T2. The high frequency voltage present at the capacitor C25 is transferred to the secondary of transformer T2 by an appropriate selection of the ratio of the windings between the primary and secondary of transformer T2. This voltage appearing across the secondary winding of transformer T2 is raised to a value sufficient to render the fluorescent lamp LP1 into its operating state again without first sequencing the fluorescent through its preheat mode.The emergency section 32 of FIG. 3 allows the fluorescent lamp LP1 be placed into its running mode and eliminates any annoying negative effects created by flickering typically experienced in low power fluorescent lamps, such as LP1, especially occurring during the preheat mode which is not applicable to the practice of the present invention. Conversely, the operation of the present invention causes the fluorescent lamp LP1, to provide a constant homogenous brightness.The battery, shown in FIG. It is possible to increase the autonomy of the battery by selecting a battery having a maximum of six (6) amp hours and allowing for a charge to last for about four (4) hours.In the overall operation of the present invention, when the primary power source is available, the switching power and battery charger 30 of FIG.
This input causes the indicator (ON) of the status of the battery charger to be display by LED D17 and the resistor R19. Conversely, the presence of the energized coil of switch control K1 causes the normally closed contact to open up, thereby removing the 14.5 volts to the half-bridge driver U4A.
Further, the energizing of the switch control K1 causes the normally closed contact SC2 to open up, thereby removing the power from node 200 to the lamp LP1 and also to the lamp 52 of FIG.
This absence causes the LED D17 to extinguish Further, the absence of the 14.5 volts from the switch power and battery charger 30 removes the excitation to the coil of relay K1, thereby allowing its normally closed contact SC1 and SC2 to be functional. 5, causes the voltage from the battery to be delivered to node 140, which, in turn, is passed to the half-bridge driver U4A causing it to operate and supplying a oscillating current present on node 200 to the fluorescent lamp LP1 rendering it into its operating condition. 5 from its dormant condition, that is, the primary power being present, to its active condition, that is, when the primary power is lost, is dependent upon commutation time, which is optically 20 milliseconds for the relay K1. During the operation that provides for the emergency lighting, to avoid the battery from completely discharging so as to provide for a prolonged blackout, the emergency section of FIG.
More particularly, pin 1 of the half-bridge driver U4A is internally connected and constantly monitors the d.c.
The functionality or operational condition of the half-bridge driver U4A is restored when the voltage present on pin 1 again rises to a value of approximately 11 volts and then the battery begins its charge.



How to make emp for slot machine emoji
Download film big hero 6 indonesia subtitle

Rubric: Emergency Preparedness Survival



Comments

  1. melek
    Take pleasure in unlimited One particular-Day selection of technical and specialist writing backgrounds, all devoted your.
  2. AskaSurgun
    Source of iodine that does not go negative for a very which.