United States Maritime Service Training Manual, Preliminary Training, 1943, was created during the peak of US emergency growth in the merchant marine. Please report any typos, or particularly annoying layout issues with the Mail Feedback Form for correction.
In color, the ribbon is light blue on top and dark blue on the bottom with a red band running through the center. The design and equipment of lifeboats for merchant vessels has been given careful study by the leading maritime nations. Wartime conditions require additional equipment, especially adapted to aid shipwrecked men to survive.
Before it is passed by the government inspectors, the lifeboat you will find on your ship must meet rigid requirements.
Every man on board must be thoroughly familiar with the use and purpose of all safety equipment.
The most common of all recommendations made by merchant seamen who have been victims of enemy attack has been the necessity of repeated lifeboat drills, and, these days, drills of the emergency type are frequently held.
During a drill, full cooperation between all hands is necessary if the drill is to be a real preparation for some possible future emergency. Before and during drills, attend to every small detail that will add to the efficiency of the drill.
Remember that the experience you gain from the lifeboat drill will loom large in your lifesaving equipment.
On the station bill, usually posted in the mess-room, you will find full particulars of the signals -which will be used to call all members of the crew to their emergency duty stations. In a time of trouble you may have to take care of not only your own duties, but also the duties of an injured or missing shipmate. Consider the lifeboat drill to be just what the words mean: practice for getting you into the boat that will save your life. When the boat falls are unhooked, a piece of rope yarn should be tied around each fall near the block.
With the boats swung outboard, the hooks on the weather-side boats should be moused at the first evidence of heavy weather. The rolling of the ship or heavy seas striking the lifeboat may cause the ring securing the pelican hook to work loose.
Old-type freight ships have not been provided with adequate fair-leads for hoisting lifeboats with the winches. In taking the boat fall to the winch, it may be necessary to use inside turns on the niggerhead to provide an adequate lead.
In two-blocking a boat fall or hoisting a boat by manpower to clear the chocks or to put the swung-out boat in its proper position against the boom, the man taking up the slack usually loses a little when making fast.
Most lifeboats during rowing drills look like many-legged centipedes, due to the fact that a rhythmic stroke is not maintained.
At the alarm of "Man overboard !" the emergency squad should swing out a boat on the designated or lee side, and follow as rapidly as possible the regular abandon-ship procedure.
A life buoy with an electric water light should be thrown immediately toward the man overboard.
Today, when merchant vessels sail under wartime conditions, every possible consideration has been given to the lifeboat and its equipment. On tank vessels a special type of pump with a direct sea suction is required, of a type which can be pressed into service by turning a simple valve.
Canvas Hood and Side Spray Curtain-A canvas hood and side spray curtain provides shelter to the occupants of the boat.
Compass-1 liquid compass which, when in use, should be kept as high as possible and on the center line away from the keel and hull of the boat.
Distress Lights-12 self-igniting distress lights which are to be carried in a watertight metal case. Flares can be lashed to a boat hook or an oar in order to hold them higher in the air and away from the boat's pump. Ditty Bag-1 canvas bag containing sail maker's palm, needles, sail twine, marline and marlinespike. Drinking Cups-A total of 3 drinking cups, 2 of which shall be of the well-bucket type, to which a chain or lanyard shall be attached.
Additional Liquids-When space in the lifeboat permits, additional liquids are recommended in the form of canned tomato juice, or canned unsweetened citrus fruit juices.
Fishing Kit-Each lifeboat shall carry a fishing kit to be opened only for actual emergency use. Grab Rails-Grab rails shall be attached to each lifeboat and shall extend two-thirds of the length of the boat.
Lantern-1 lantern containing oil and ready for immediate use, and 2 additional lamp wicks and waterproof container. Life Line-A life line properly secured the entire length of each side festooned in lights with a seine float in each light. The manila line which is provided by these regulations as part of the emergency equipment of such lifeboats could be used as a heaving line by making it fast to the preserver in such a way that it may be tossed to a man in the water.
A steering oar should be painted with a distinctive coloring to prevent confusion when the oars are stowed. Painters-1 painter of Manila rope secured in the forward part of the boat with a strop and toggle so that it may be rigged as a sea painter and may be readily released from the boat. Rig of Painter Under Wartime Conditions-Under peacetime conditions the boat's crew and the ship's officers can maneuver the ship, watch the sea, and await the most favorable opportunity for placing the boat on the water. Propeller (Hand-Operated)-All lifeboats having a capacity of sixty or more shall be fitted with a hand-operated propeller.
The amount of food rationed daily is governed by the officer-in-charge, taking into consideration the actual number of persons in the boat and the probable length of voyage. Sea Anchor-A sea anchor of a circular pattern, the tip of which shall be arranged for securing a conical-shaped storm oil container.
When using riding lines care should be taken that chafing will not take place where lining passes over the gunwale. It has been found that orange-colored objects are more visible on the water than any other color. Signal Mirrors-2 stainless steel mirrors coated with grease and wrapped in a watertight container. Signal Pistol-Each lifeboat is required to carry a signal pistol consisting of pistol with lanyard attached and 12 parachute signal cartridges. Should friendly air or surface craft appear during the daytime, it may be desirable to fire a parachute flare from the signal pistol, as the smoke emitted, or the light may be sufficient to attract attention. Storm Oil-1 container holding one gallon of oil and so designed that it can be attached to the sea anchor.
Two or three pounds of rags should be placed in the locker or other suitable place for use in connection with plugs. Note: When the angle between the sun and the observed object is small, the spot of light will appear on the face of the observer, thus allowing both hands to be used in tilting the mirror. The portable radio should be stowed in a safe and accessible location designated by the Master. The efficiency of the transmitter depends on the proper erection of the antenna with the portable topmast provided. When fully packed the abandon ship kit is sufficiently buoyant to support a man in the water. All vessels of three thousand gross tons or over shall carry at least two abandon-ship kits.
10 Navy-type watertight packages containing two and one-half grams crystalline sulfanilamide.
All vessels of one thousand gross tons or over shall have fitted over projections and openings in way of the lifeboats, between the boat deck and the light load line, strong vertical skids constructed of wood or other suitable material. Lifeboats on all vessels, which are fitted with mechanical means for lowering, shall be equipped with approved vertical fenders or skates on the inboard side extending from the gunwale well under the turn of the bilge. Such fenders are to be sufficient in number to prevent damage to the boats while being lowered. On all vessels of over one thousand gross tons there shall be provided for each set of davits a lifesaving net or nets at least ten feet wide, to reach from the rail to the light load line. The ladders provided by these regulations are required to be rigged from the deck in order to insure that means will be provided for the men who are lowering to leave the vessel. At lifeboat drills nets and ladders should be released, and the crew should practice climbing on them. It is desirable to weight the bottom of the net, but in this connection care should be taken that the weight fitted will not be likely to damage the boat. The best method of rigging lifesaving nets is to rig them from the boat deck in such manner that they can be rolled up when not in use. Cargo vessels and tank ships shall be provided with suitable ladders to enable persons to descend to lifeboats and rafts, one ladder to be provided for each set of boat davits.
Cargo or tank vessels of over one thousand gross tons shall be provided with one lifesaving suit for each person on board. Wear the kapok jacket, approved for use with your type of suit, at all times when outside inland waters. It is very difficult to make any sort of coverall suit absolutely watertight around the neck. Many wise seamen wear their suits at all times with the upper section tucked in and lashed about the waist.
When you are not using the suit, store it away from oil and grease, steam pipes, and heated locations such as the fidley and steering engine room. The chief purpose of a lifesaving suit is to keep you dry if you have to go overboard into the water. On all vessels of over one thousand gross tons each person on board shall be provided with a police whistle and a sailor's jackknife. A sharp jackknife has proved to be a most useful article for all crew members during wartime. A police whistle of substantial plastic material is the best and most practicable sound-producing device for you to carry.
A life-preserver light is provided for each person which, when turned on, shows a red light. Every member of the crew should appear for drills wearing his life-preserver light attached properly to the life jacket. To provide replacements for damaged or lost lights, it is recommended that spares to the amount of about ten percent be carried on board. Extra batteries should, of course, be on hand, particularly if a vessel is engaged in long voyages. It is important for you to know that all calcium-type self-igniting water lights must be removed from all ocean and coastwise vessels and replaced with approved electric water lights. Calcium-type water lights have proved to be a hazard during wartime, inasmuch as they cause serious fires by igniting oil sprayed on the ship or floating on the water.
All cargo vessels and tank ships of three thousand gross tons or over and all passenger vessels shall be provided with interior marking in the accommodation, machinery, and working spaces of the vessels in the form of approved luminous cloth or tape that shall clearly show in darkness the location of exit doors, ports, ladders, companionways, and the location of emergency lights, control valves, and similar vital locations or accessories.


Markings of vessels should be periodically tested by blacking out area in order that all on board may familiarize themselves with what luminous material looks like in the dark, as well as directions indicated and exit marks shown.
On vessels of one thousand tons or over there shall be provided self-contained, battery-operated emergency lights of an approved type, at least twelve in number, located throughout the vessel in readily accessible locations and plainly marked. When a ship is torpedoed or strikes a mine, it often happens that the lights go out immediately.
For use during blackouts, caps for flashlights may be made from metal or cardboard in order to provide a small round light beam about one quarter inch in diameter. On vessels of one thousand gross tons or over, at least two wire or chain ladders (one on each side) leading directly to the highest part of the engine-room casing are provided and arranged in a way most likely to allow the escape of engine-room personnel in the event of damage to the fixed ladders and gratings. In many cases fixed ladders and gratings are torn loose by a torpedo or mine to such an extent that their use as a means of escape from the engine or fireroom is impossible. Where ladders lead to the engine-room skylight and come up under the screen provided for anti-sabotage purposes, a portion of the screen in the form of a hatchway or other section should be made removable from below. Ladders fitted in ventilators in the fireroom may necessitate similar attention to the screen in or near the cowl in order to make it removable by any person coming up from below.
All vessels are to be provided with a remote-control arrangement for promptly stopping the engines. The importance of taking the way off the ship before lifeboats are placed in the water cannot be too strongly emphasized. The strict enforcement of this regulation, except when under direct instructions from a naval escorting vessel, is most necessary.
Vessels of one thousand gross tons or over must have all exterior ship's identification and distinguishing marks removed. Survivors have again and again recommended that cigarettes be set aside to take into boats. Aspirin and quinine should be added to the contents of the abandon-ship kit, and also chewing gum, which allays thirst. A water-resisting money belt, either purchased or made in your spare time aboard ship, would provide a safe place for your papers and other valuables. Lifeboat davits are of three main types, with variations of each: gravity, radial or round bar, and quadrantal.
With the gravity-type davits, the lifeboat is carried on two cradles, mounted on rollers, which move over two parallel tracks at right angles to the vessel's side.
With the radial or round-bar type davits, the lifeboat is carried on chocks, under davits which may be turned around so that the top describes an arc. In operation, the davit, which is pivoted near the foot so that it will turn in an arc at right angles to the vessel's boat is suspended over the side. It consists of two releasing hooks on bridles, one at each end of the boat, connected by a chain running from one end of the boat to the other. In operation, a strain is put on the chain by pulling the operating grip as soon as the boat is water-borne, upsetting both hooks and freeing them from both falls simultaneously.
The similarity of the practices endorsed for vessels of all nations is evidence of the general uniformity of lifesaving requirements. For instance, means of attracting the attention of rescue vessels and aircraft are needed and have been provided. To continue to meet these requirements it must be stripped, cleaned, thoroughly over-hauled, and painted at least once a year. This means that the crew of such a lifeboat must reach that shore with all hands in good physical and mental condition. Your understanding of the upkeep and maintenance of a lifeboat, the use of equipment, launching and handling in a seaway, the discipline required, the simple elements of navigation, for on these elements may depend the saving of lives, possibly your own.
The problem of getting lifeboats and rafts away from a ship which is sinking rapidly can be solved successfully only if each man has been thoroughly instructed and trained for the job of getting the boats and rafts into the water.
Each man must have confidence in himself and in the seamanship of the master and the ship's officers.
Since, in addition to your boat station and duties, you will also have fire and battle stations and a number of signals to remember, copy down what you are to do. Keep your eyes open during the drill so that, if the occasion arises, you will be able to perform any of the duties connected with swinging out and lowering the boat. This will prevent the swinging block from turning over, causing twists which are difficult to take out. Heavy seas have unhooked many boats, which have either been lost or found hanging precariously by the frapping line.
Ask the coxswain or officer in command either to replace the man or have him attend to his work.
Some vessels are better in the trough, some with the sea on the bow, and some with a quartering sea. Before lowering, a barrel of oil should be used over the vessel's side so that the oil will keep spreading. Many items of so-called "E" (emergency) equipment have been added, the nature and use of which will be discussed under subsequent headings. Streams of water are to be sprayed or squirted over the boats and the occupants while operating the pump.
These blankets are for the use of sick and injured, and for the use of the members of the crew who have little or no protective clothing. These signals are designed to give a large volume Of orange or red colored smoke, which is very effective in attracting the attention of aircraft. When ignited, the light should be held in a position to the lee side in order to prevent burning particles from falling on persons in the lifeboat. The greater height at which it is held, the greater is the distance at which it will be visible. Juices are superior to food, when it is possible to carry them to augment the provisions and water required by the regulations.
In several instances men were lost who could have been saved had their shipmates remembered to use this equipment. These lockers should be securely attached to the inside of the boat to prevent the ship's content coming adrift in the event the boat is swamped or capsized. All sails are to be painted red or chrome yellow in color for the purpose of increasing their visibility on the water and from the air.
Motor lifeboats and lifeboats fitted with propellers operated by hand shall be equipped with 4 oars and for steering, 1 oar. The ship has no list nor is there the unavoidable confusion and noise attendant with the sinking and shifting of a vessel which has been torpedoed and is perhaps being shelled. This tendency to sheer can and should, of course, be regulated by the use of the rudder or steering oar. Emergency rations will serve that purpose better if taken several times a day in small quantities rather than serving at one meal in a larger quantity. Signal flags should be provided with ties in order that they may be properly attached to a boathook or staff. The inclusion of a signal flag has been found necessary in order to provide an object of high visibility that may be displayed-when friendly aircraft are sighted in order that the airmen may be able to see the lifeboat. In order to use the signal mirrors most effectively, all seamen should familiarize themselves thoroughly with sighting instructions and technique.
Hold the mirror in one hand about four inches from the face and sight the object to be signaled.
Hold the other hand about twelve inches behind the mirror in line with the sun and the hole through the mirror, so that a small spot of light appears on the hand.
Now tilt the mirror so that the spot of light on the back face of the mirror disappears through the hole in the mirror, at the same time keeping the observed object sighted through the hole in the mirror.
More than one man should be chosen to take care of getting the radio away and into the boat in an emergency.
If portable masts are not provided a boathook or oar should be lashed to the top of the mast to secure additional height.
Insulated wire is used for eliminating the possibility of any shock to the boat's crew, in case the antenna is accidentally touched while transmission is going on. This is to insure the unobstructed passage to the water of the lifeboats when lowered from the high side of the vessel that is heavily listed. Fenders or skates are to be designed so as to be light in weight and shall be so fitted as to be easily detached after the lifeboat is afloat.
The lifesaving net required for each set of davits should be rigged in such a position that it will roll down to where the returning boat will come alongside. It is only in this way that the best arrangement and location of all this equipment can be determined. The treads of ladders should be kept free from oil and grease, and roughened by the addition of ridges or other types of safety tread.
When not worn, keep it in the "made-ready position," that is, roll it down over the boots so you can step into it easily. The clothing worn inside the suit should be as warm as practicable when traveling in winter or in cold latitudes.
An effective method of keeping out water is to wrap a medium-sized bath towel or the like around the neck. Preventing your clothing and body from getting wet will keep the body temperature higher and consequently allow you a longer survival time if you cannot get onto a raft or into a lifeboat. In the colder latitudes and during the winter months make every effort to get into your suit and help your shipmates don theirs before getting into the boats.
The practicability of a knife to a seaman does not have to be explained to the men on deck.
Whistles have already proved their value in locating men in the water during periods of poor visibility night or day. The light should be worn high so that it will be out of the water when the wearer is afloat, in order that the maximum visibility may be obtained. Therefore, they should be removed as soon as possible, even though electric water lights may not be immediately available to replace them. In such cases, light is immediately necessary to enable the ship's personnel to take effective measures to carry on with the work of attempting to save the ship or abandon it. Lights of this type, distributed about the ship and plugged into the lighting circuits, provide a fairly positive means of emergency lighting without further dependence upon personnel to locate and operate lights. Alternatively the glass may be painted over, leaving a slip or small round clear area, or a strip of blue bunting may be tied over the glass.
On steam vessels a similar ladder is provided in the fire-room running through the ventilator.
The location and arrangement of such ladders should be given careful thought in order that they may most effectively serve their purpose should the need arise.
Should it become apparent that escape is not feasible by the use of ladders, it should be borne in mind that the shaft alley offers the best alternative. These controls are to be located on the upper deck, preferably on the boat deck, and in such position that they may be readily operated in an emergency.
The failure to do so has cost many seamen's lives during World War I and the present conflict.
On ships which carry persons in addition to crew, such persons should, upon leaving port, be called together and most seriously cautioned concerning the use of lights on deck or in any other location which might be visible to enemy vessels.


The faintest glimmer of light is visible for a good distance by watch officers of enemy vessels. The only exception to this is a small personal abandon-ship kit carried by the individual seaman. Smoking tobacco has a somewhat harmful effect in that it makes the person using it more thirsty. In operation, after dogs are released, a brake lever is raised which permits the lifeboat and the entire assembly to roll down the tracks by gravity, automatically stopping with the lifeboat suspended over the side and at the embarkation deck.
In operation, the davits are both turned back until the bow of the boat clears the forward davit.
The davits themselves stand upright, with the tops curved in toward each other so that the ends come directly above the hoisting hooks of the lifeboat. Its purpose is to permit releasing both of the falls from the boat simultaneously as soon as the boat is water-borne, and thus to avert possible mishap. Releasing hooks are also connected to a rod running along the floor of the boat, and are operated by means of a lever, functioning through universal joints, which disengages a pin at each end, releasing the hooks. Such great deeds of heroism under these trying conditions are performed by our merchant seamen that our government has created the Merchant Marine Distinguished Service Medal as a visible award for such heroism. Every consideration was given by all vessels and boat establishments to the immediate rescue and welfare of shipwrecked passengers and crews. Again it is the pooled knowledge of the nations at war that underlies the requirements for this emergency equipment.
If every man on a merchant ship sets out to get this understanding and adds to it the cool and deliberate thinking of good sound seamanship, he will survive to sail again. The effectiveness of handling lifesaving equipment depends on the speed and ease with which such equipment can be utilized. Give consideration to the possibilities of each special situation, for it is here that vital seconds may one day be lost.
Try on your rubber suit, and then and there make up your mind that you will practice putting it on until you can do it on a blacked-out boat deck in a matter of seconds.
If you have made certain of your duties and checked your personal gear, you are ready for the drill. Each lifeboat drill will help to cut down this ignorance, and the better your drills the better are your chances. To prevent slacking off, keep a strain, slide one hand down to the cruciform bitt, and press the fall against the arm of the bitt with the heel of your hand, while you take the turn with the other hand. It often happens that when the order is given, "Give way port; hold water starboard," the men do just the opposite. A well-rowed boat shoots through the water, and a thrumming noise issues from the oars, yielding a sense of timing. It if is under gravity davits, place one hand on the lever, and, raising it slowly and keeping the boat well under control, permit the boat to move down the runway, controlling it by frapping lines. If the vessel is pitching, keep the boat from swaying by drawing the painter taut and by using a stern painter-the painter secured to the after part-in the same manner.
But the crew should not try to approach too close to him because the boat might strike, injure, or ultimately drown the man. This "E" equipment is the very best available, and, as in all lifeboat gear it must meet the highest government standards.
This arrangement will enable survivors to keep the boat wetted down if it is necessary to pass through burning oil. The side spray curtain extends from the after side of the canvas hood to the after part and extends a foot above the guide. Watertight flashlights are now being developed for marine use and will be available shortly.
All that is required is a group of men taking a constant strain on the girth lines, and at the same time taking advantage of the wind and the sea.
Each mast should be fitted out with one fore stay and 2 side or back stays, preferably of wire. It is desired, therefore, to point out that in order to prevent the sea painter from causing the boat to sheer and yaw after it is on the water and the survivors are coming down the lifesaving net, over life lines, or down the falls on the boat, certain precautions are necessary. These precautions should be carefully explained to all officers and men and they should be drilled in its use. Unless this method of aiming the mirror is used, the chances of the flash being seen by aircraft or ships are extremely remote.
The small spot of light on the hand is reflected on the back face of the mirror (side toward the observer). With the mirror in this position the light rays from the sun will be reflected to the observed object.
Do not use this radio in a lifeboat until sufficient time has elapsed to allow a submarine to proceed a reasonable distance from the scene of action. These will keep the mesh spread and hold it away from the hull a sufficient distance to allow easy climbing. Each type of approved suit has individual characteristics and you should become acquainted with these in order that the suit may serve more effectively.
If you want to decrease the water pressure on the body, kick the legs up so as to float horizontally.
If you lack time to do this, take the suit into your boat or onto the raft, and put it on when you are able. Persons of other ratings who do not habitually or by choice carry a knife will, it is hoped, by the provision of the above regulation, realize its value.
The knife and police whistle should be carried on your person when outside of inland waters.
The fact that the lights are quickly in operation, at such a time, actually provides a light for the personnel to reach their locations, remove them, and utilize them as is necessary. They are purposely left slack to allow enough give so that the concussion will not snap them. Fidley doors should be given particular attention as reflected light from the furnaces when the doors are open is often visible above the upper grating.
Portable name boards may be utilized when entering and departing from port as may be required. The forward davit is then turned out so that the bow swings out, and the same procedure follows with the after davit, so that the boat is suspended over the side. The crank is fitted on the side away from the boat falls, allowing free operation without interference with the fall.
Winners of this medal can be recognized by the wearing of the Lapel Button shown above the medal. Some seamen wear as many as seven stars, indicating their survival of as many ships lost in enemy action.
Most especially, these additional items have been added largely as the result of the experiences of hundreds of survivors. One bow and one stroke oarsman get into the boat and see that the plug is in or that the automatic bailer is free.
If the vessel is rolling, the boat should be kept from excessive swinging by taking a bight around each fall with a frapping line until ready to lower. Immediately sheer the boat off from the side of the vessel by using the steering oar and hauling in on the sea painter. Insofar as possible, every seaman should be fully clothed at all times, especially during drills. Unless some means are provided to direct the pull exerted on the sea painter by the vessel's ahead motion to a point far enough forward in the lifeboat to decrease the tendency to sheer, serious accidents will occur. Unless this is done, a repetition of serious accidents to boats (after they are apparently safe over the side), with a consequent loss of life, may be expected. In displaying the flag to be observed by airmen, the best method is for two men to hold each end of the flag and stretch it out taut and then move the short axis from a vertical to a horizontal position in order to give a flash of color which may attract the observer's eye. Spaces in the way of open decks below stowage positions of lifeboats into which boats might swing are to be fitted with strong horizontal bars. The engine crew should have it near, for instance, in the engine passage or on the boat deck in the "made-ready position." If you do not wear the suit while sleeping, keep it close at hand.
If you have to stay in the water for a long period, lift your arms high up to aid blood circulation. Should the suit become flooded by leakage or a puncture, the kapok life preserver worn with it will keep you afloat. A kit of repair material similar to that used for repairing automobile inner tubes should be carried on vessels provided with lifesaving suits. Keep your knife sharp so it will serve its purpose without delay should you have to cut lashings or free lines. According to British and Norwegian experience, the use of life-preserver lights has probably saved more men's lives than any other individual piece of specialized lifesaving equipment.
But if the power is cut off, the suction under the quarter is reduced and the ship gradually slowed. Exhaust Venturi-type ventilators on houses also allow light to be reflected through, and should be screened. Fair-leads have been eliminated, the fall leading directly from the block to the cruciform bitt.
The practical value of these wartime additions has been judged by the men who depend on them for their lives.
These orders must be understood and carried out just as promptly as if disaster conditions were actually at hand. Check to see that the life lines are free, and that the painter has been led well forward of everything, with the slack taken up. This is particularly true when the vessel is listed and the sea is moderately rough or choppy.
These bars should be secured between deck stanchions outboard in order that the boat may descend smoothly on the fenders or skates to the water.
A lanyard attached to the shackle should be fastened to your person so that even if the knife is dropped, due to cold hands or darkness, it will not be lost. To retain better control of the boat many masters and mates have fitted a strop of manila near the stem which can be passed over the sea painter and the free end passed under a thwart. If available, sprinkle the suit with a good grade of talcum powder, which will preserve the rubber.
Between the time the boat hits the water and the instant that all are on board and it is decided to cast off, the strap being pulled taut will more properly tow the boat parallel with the vessel's side. Finally, pick a spot in your quarters to place this gear so that when you do take it off it will be right at hand.



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