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Refunds by law: In Australia, consumers have a legal right to obtain a refund from a business for goods purchased if the goods are faulty, not fit for purpose or don't match description. Electromagnetic shielding works from a combination of (1) radiated emission reflection loss at the metal shield and (2) metal absorption loss. Consequently, one or more internal shielded rooms could be added where the more sensitive items would be located, and the entire building shielding can be correspondingly reduced.
However, if the same skin shielding were applied to the inside of the outer walls, this would not work as the electrical wiring in the outside walls is still not protected.. The applied shielded building skin is therefore placed on the outside with sheet metal building walls bonded where joined.
One mil of aluminum foil provides 96 dB of shielding.  So there exists sufficient shielding. Basically, an adhesive spray is made on the mounting material back and the foil is placed thereon.
One possible option to the above foil is to use copper or aluminum paint, applied by brush, roller or spray. Regarding electrical gaskets used to seal the adjoining metal sides, Figure 10 shows options available from companies like Tech-Etch for the engineering community.
Figure 11 shows the shielded building including building skin, shielded  windows, shielded HVAC and elevator shacks and other external elements. Also, as shown at the lower left, Figure 11, telecom leads, control and signal leads, and AC power leads must enter the building. The sketch of Figure 11 illustrates the situation repeated thousands of times throughout a state or a country of a developed nation.
Remember, the only shield current that should flow is from the terminated, direct radiated EMI onto the building shield, per se. If the building were built on sand or some non-moisture holding soil, or a drought existed in the area, then the grounding system will not work as well (or poorly). As it develops, the entire discussion may be academic from an EMP point-of-view since few non-government buildings are EMP protected (shielded) in the first place today.
Windows cannot employ electro-chrom glass as this blocks light with little shielding, nor can one have a few microns (very thin film) of vapor-deposited metal on the window as a shield since one could not then see through the window. Therefore, a metal screen mesh (Figure 12) is considered for covering the windows which passes almost all the light (optically) but blocks the EMP radiated transmissions by 80 dB below 12 MHz (depends on the mesh screen spacings).
For shielding solar panels, do not use higher OPI as the light transmissivity begins to suffer and this will adversely affect the solar panel efficiency of converting sunlight into electricity.
The interconnecting wiring between and among all solar panels, inverter (if micro-inverters are not used) and the down conductors to the service entrance panels must also be shielded to 80 dB.
As explained above, the cable shields are bonded to the building shield usually at a metal grounding plate welded to the building shield at cable entrance (see above discussion on building grounding). An EMP unprotected solar rooftop typically consists of panel mounting racks, solar panels, interconnecting cables, one inverter (or a micro-inverter at each panel), down conductor cables to a power-select transfer switch (connects utility power or solar panels), and backup batteries.
Solar panels usually contain 1st generation silicon solar cells (the work horse for generation of space electricity for 40 years) which have the highest light conversion efficiency. The average of 5 kW applies for about five hours per day and falls off as the sun moves toward the horizons. Of course, a solar installation would be instantly burned out in an EMP incident, so the entire installation must be EMP protected. After mounting the framework racks on the building roof, the shielded solar panels are then affixed thereto. Shield the panels completely inside of the solar glass window face and bond them to the frame which provides complete metallic coverage of the other five sides. The micro-inverter is a small DC-AC  converter which takes a typical 12 VDC output from a solar panel and converts it to 120 VAC or other user load value.
Their primary disadvantages are that they have a higher equipment initial cost per peak watt than the equivalent power in a central inverter, and micro-inverters are normally located near the solar panel, where they may be harder to maintain. When the total rooftop solar load exceeds about 10 kW, micro-inverters are usually not used and the inverter takes over. Figure 15 shows two of several HV EMP surge suppressors available for addressing the wide variety of needs and applications. A smart meter (Figure 16) is usually an electrical meter that records consumption of electric energy in intervals of an hour or less and communicates that information at least daily back to the utility for monitoring and billing purposes. Since the smart meter is mounted on the outside of a building, it will have to be shielded to 80 dB to match the EMP threat. Contractually, it is necessary in performance tests to demonstrate EMP-protection compliance with the 80-dB shielding requirements over the designated frequency spectrum. While the building EMP and solar EMP compliance tests can be done simultaneously, in the early stages it may be best to do each separately. How does one know if the installed EMP pro-tection will work (cause no electronic failures) if or when an EMP burst happens?
Instead of a simulated EMP burst, seven or more test frequencies are used in accordance with the  Bode Plot shown in Figure 17. Figure 17 also depicts the frequency-domain (X-axis is frequency) manifestation of the time-domain pulse just mentioned. While testing details are beyond the scope of this article, in concept testing is quite simple. The test configuration is first calibrated as a reference with both transmitter and receiver configurations on the outside (step 1). The tests are repeated for the other remaining three (or more) sides of the building, recording the shielding effectiveness of each side for all seven frequencies.
As observed, testing for grounding effectiveness will show up in the above open air shielding effectiveness tests.

The second part, Part 2, addresses the shielding of small buildings up to large houses, small and large commercial shopping malls and industrial manufacturing and big box replenishment structures.
Don White, registered professional engineer, retd., holds BSEE and MSEE degrees from the University of Maryland. At Don White Consultants, he published a bimonthly trade journal called EMC Technology magazine circulated over four continents. A recent study reveals radiation from solar events is unlikely to affect earth & the dose of radiation emitted during the events isn’t enough to harm people. Recent legislation introduced in Maine has demonstrated the aggressive stance the state has adopted on a topic Washington remains reluctant to address—defending against the possibility of a natural or man-made electromagnetic pulse capable of disabling the country’s electrical grid system.
Several other experts touched upon recent national interests, including North Korea’s growing weapons capability and ongoing cyber attacks allegedly originating from China, as evidence for increasing the focus on developing EMP protection. A second, “working session” was held in late-February, during which opposition to the bill from local and state utility companies was presented. Contact the seller- opens in a new window or tab and request a postage method to your location.
The first component develops from the ratio of the arriving wave impedance and that of the metal. The benefit of shielding the entire building to 80 dB (amount discussed earlier) means that nothing else inside needs to be shielded. For example, suppose aluminum foil or sprayed copper paint on the outside walls, ceiling and floor (bonded and secured) are used to produce 45 dB shielding. Shielded rooms of the quality offered by the EMC manufacturers are shielded to about 120 dB and represent a huge overkill in performance and price, and therefore, would not be used here. Each of the six sides of the building (roof, basement floor, and four sides) is bonded along its entire length.
What constitutes the basic material under the building skin or envelope, such as with vinyl siding? However, the foil overlap should approximate one inch (2.5 cm), as shown in Figure 9, and a masking tape used to secure the overlap junction. An electrical bonding agent or gasket (described below) is used to electrically connect the building facade with each window and door periphery. Many different electrical gaskets available for selection of the correct type for any particular application. The figure also shows other electrical gaskets use in bonding other types of mating  electrical parts. Radiated EMI (or EMP) is coupled to a cable shield where EMI surface, common-mode currents, Ic, are grounded at the shielded building entrance (assuming a best case in which the building is shielded). It should not contain additional currents that come from any cable entry ground  which can exceed the terminated EMI surface current on the building by large amounts. For those situations, all the interior electronics are fried in an EMP event – grounded or not. Grounding is an important part of the protection system, but shielding and filtering are of equal concern. Although a one micron (very thin film) of silver  deposited on glass offers an RF shielding effectiveness of 80 dB, it also blocks the optical transmission.
For each such door, a vestibule must be generated such that a set of two doors is used with interlocks so that not more than one door can be opened at any time. Batteries are used for nighttime power and overcast days when the solar panel power output is insufficient.
In the northern hemisphere, there is less in winter and higher latitudes and more in summer and lower latitudes. Even small amounts of shading debris or snow lines on any one solar panel, or a panel failure, does not disproportionately reduce the output of an entire array. These issues are usually surpassed by micro-inverters having higher durability and simplicity of initial installation.
This can be accomplished by using the same 20 OPI wire mesh screen engulfing the entire meter on the front and back as discussed earlier for windows and panels. So the smart grid is more susceptible if it is using on-line digital generation and computation of data.
This will facilitate diagnostics-and-fix as needed.  The building compliance test must be done first. Otherwise, testing would be impossible since all other devices in the area would be burned out. This is shown in the insert at the left within Figure 17 and represents the test specifications for EMP testing and compliance. A small van or pickup truck at the left in Figure 18 contains a scanning oscillator or sweeper which feeds a power amplifier which drives radiating test antennas pointing at the building to the right. Tests are made at the seven frequencies indicated in the drawing, and the RF attenuator settings recorded.
Then for each frequency, the corresponding four side shielding effectiveness are compared and the smallest dB value selected. For the outside, the more severe the climate and weather, the more rapid degradation and variance in performance is expected.  In addition to shock safety, building grounding will determine how well the building EMP shielding has held up. So a building’s earth and grounding should be tested by a licensed and certificated technician to add to the insurance protection in some periodic basis. Part 1 addressed a plan to EMP protect communities, villages, towns and small cities in sufficient quantities and sizes to maintain some defined semblance of our civilization lifestyle following an EMP burst. Details including shielding, bonding, grounding, surge suppression and filtering were covered. He is past CEO of three Electro-magnetic Compatibility companies in  metro Washington, D.C. He was the technical editor and wrote many of the tutorial articles.  Don is past president of IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Society. He began his career as an audio and video test engineer for Ampex Corp., the manufacturer of audio and video tape recorders.
He is a former member of IEEE Broadcast Society, and is now part-time electronics consultant and a part-time non-fiction science writer. Andrea Boland, LD-131 was taken up by the Joint Standing Committee on Energy, Utilities and Technology in mid-February and, if passed into law, would require anyone applying for a certificate of public convenience and necessity (CPCN) for the construction of transmission lines to include design plans for limiting electromagnetic field levels and protecting the transmission and distribution system against damage from either an electromagnetic pulse or geomagnetic storm.

Andrea Boland could require all ongoing and future transmission line installations in Maine to include electromagnetic pulse and geomagnetic storm safeguards. Michael Maloof noted that legislators in other states, including Tennessee and Georgia, are considering similar action and suggested that the federal government may take notice if enough states express concern. If you reside in an EU member state besides UK, import VAT on this purchase is not recoverable.
Part 2 of the article presents methods and techniques for EMP protection of buildings, solar rooftops and other structures. The second comes into play when the skin depth of the metal exceeds about 50% of the metal thickness.
So existing climate controls, cell phones, iPhones, iPads, laptop computers, peripherals, and all the rest of electrical and electronic devices can continue to be used. This reduces the needs of the remaining shielded rooms, cabinets or enclosures to 35 dB as shown in Figure 8.
Do not spray the foil adhesive in the 2.5 cm region as metal must be bonded to metal without any other material in between to ensure a high conductivity and good shielding. One major benefit of the paint approach is the relatively easy application by spraying and the avoidance of foil overlaps, and electrical gaskets except at windows, doors, etc.
Of course, to a new building just being planned or being built, this is not an issue as the bottom floor shield is extended beyond outer frame footprint to be bonded to outside shielding. No grounding is required.  However, there are other concerns such as if the shield becomes charged up to any voltage above ground level due to whatever stray radiations (or accidental connection of a hot AC lead to building skin), it constitutes a shock hazard to entering and exiting people. Since the cable shield and the building shield may be at a different voltage, the entering cable shield must be bonded to the building shield (usually a metal plate. It is typically assumed that the EMI currents will flow down the ground rod(s) (see Ig) and dissipate harmlessly into the absorbing earth.  Some EMI currents (Is), however, still flow on the building shield (that skin current is capacitive coupled back to ground to close the loop). The degree to which it is exceeded is a direct measure of the reduction loss in building shielding effectiveness. This OPI is mentioned since mesh shielding is usually reported in OPI by manufacturers, and is available up to 100 OPI.
This will avoid a fortuitous situation in which both doors are temporarily open at the moment an EMP incident occurs, which would otherwise compromise the entire integrity of the building shielding effectiveness. However, to ensure the benefits of flexibility, knitted-wire mesh shielding can be used on all cabling instead.  All shielding must have an overcoat of weather sealant or outer jacket if not placed inside a conduit. Generators are not normally used since unless protected they would burnout in an EMP burst, and they require fuel which may not be available after an EMP incident. A small micro-converter can be built into the shielded solar panel near its output connector (this is to be done at the time of solar panel assembly back at the factory) or mounted separately next to the panel.
Each micro-inverter obtains optimum power by performing maximum power point tracking for its connected panel. If they were located outside the EMP shielded building they would have to have cabinet shielding of 80 dB plus cable surge suppressors and shielded cabling. Such an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) differs from traditional automatic meter reading (AMR) in that it enables two-way communications with the meter.
Then, maintaining the same distance between transmitter and receiver, both are moved as shown in step 2 with the receiver configuration moved mostly to the middle of the building and attenuator settings again recorded to get the same levels as in step 1. Also, if the building is large (several floors or acres in size), the transmitter may be located in a helicopter or blimp. As stated earlier, the soil loaminess  (somewhat dark, and good for growing grass or other vegetation) makes for good grounding as it holds moisture.
These actions generate new products and services, new markets and create millions of new jobs.
He later became the Transmitter Supervisor for a broadcasting company with transmitter locations on mountaintops, subject to severe lightning and significant EMI problems due to many types of closely packed transmitters. In addition, any transmission lines currently under construction at the time the legislature was to be passed into law would need to incorporate the same safeguards. As such, Part 2 covers details of shielding, bonding, grounding, and cable or device surge suppression and filtering. However, shielding a building to 80 dB in some cases become expensive (for example, more than 10% of the entire building cost). For commercial it may be aluminum composite panels, copper or stainless steel sheets, weather-board, etc. The object is to divert the EMI (induced electromagnetic interference shield currents) and grounded to earth, where they are harmlessly dissipated.
This shielding is to be done back at the factory where the panels are manufactured for quality control and long-life performance.
Unless the entire solar rooftop assembly is to be shielded separately, the shielded unit requires an HV surge suppressor at the cable connectors. The difference between the attenuator settings in step 1 and step 2 constitutes the building shielding in dB. These apply to structures from sheds and rooms to small and large homes, and to commercial and industrial buildings less than about five floors in height.
These and other materials are dependent on whether or not the building already exists or has not yet been designed or built.
That’s why the building skin must be grounded (earthed) to satisfy the National Electrical Code. It may need to be impregnated with bauxite (an aluminum base particulate) or proprietary grounding compounds to permit better earthing into a much lower impedance sink. Most specifics of this discussion are beyond the scope here and involve important architectural matters.
If about half is facing roughly south and 80% is useful to hold the solar panels, then up to 72 solar panels can be mounted.

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