I recently attended Faraday Conference 170 held at McGill University, Montreal, Canada from 21st – 23rd May 2014. William Jones (University of Cambridge) opened the conference with an introductory lecture and the discussions began with talks from Leonard MacGillvray (University of Iowa), Graeme Day (University of Southampton) and Tamara Hamilton (Barry University) on the subjects of mechanochemistry of organic molecules, soft materials and pharmaceuticals. The second day featured discussions on the mechanochemistry of inorganic compounds and coordination-based materials, with Audrey Moores (McGill University) discussing her research on the solvent-free synthesis of biomass-stabilzed gold nanoparticles. The conference dinner included the poster prize giving and the Loving Cup ceremony – a Faraday tradition! The final day of the conference covered discussions on sonication and macromolecular mechanochemistry and the conference closed with concluding remarks given by Kenneth Suslick (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign). Weak hydrogen and dihydrogen bonds instead of strong N–HO bonds of a tricyclic [1,2,4,5]-tetrazine derivative.
Human kidney stones contain over 200 components, most significantly, anhydrous uric acid (UA, below) and its dihydrate (UAD).  When UAD is present, UA is also, however the reverse isn’t always true.
The program was chaired by Tomislav Friscic (McGill University) and covered all aspects of mechanochemistry with the aim of bringing together experts in milling mechanochemistry and sonochemistry, organic synthesis, metal-organic and inorganic materials chemistry, physical chemistry, pharmaceutical scientists and green chemistry.
The afternoon session focussed on the mechanistic understanding, use in catalysis and scale-up of mechanochemistry and included a discussion led by Achim Stolle (Friedrich-Schiller University) on the scale-up of organic reactions in ball mills.
Gurpaul Kochhar was presented the RSC Skinner prize for his poster on ‘Predicting reaction barriers under mechanochemical conditions’ Congratulations Gurpaul!
The next Faraday Conference is FD171: Emerging Photon Technologies for Chemical Dynamics and will be held on the 9th-11th July in Sheffield. This  suggests the conversion of UAD to UA may be a significant step in the formation of kidney stones.  A deeper understanding of how the stones form could inform strategies to prevent their formation and to disperse them once formed. In aqueous solution at acidic pH values, the conversion of UAD occured via a slow dissolution, followed by recrystallization, to form UA over 42 hours. Other research work includes the spectroscopic study of the structure of glasses and organometallic electron-transfer reactions and the preparation of new inorganic phosphors. At neutral pH, the final product formed was uric acid monohydrate (UAM), which was obtained either directly or via a UA intermediate. In urine solution, UA formation was much faster (complete in 30 hours) and crystals were much smaller.

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