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A National Geographic photographer tells stories with plots that unfold on the biggest stage of all: our planet. Craig Packer, director of the Lion Research Center and the Distinguished McKnight University Professor at the University of Minnesota, has headed the Serengeti Lion Project since 1978. An alpha male is obvious even before he insists on taking the first bite of zebra or wildebeest. Although females show a slight preference for nursing their own, cubs can also suckle from other mothers in the pride. These two cubs from the Barafu pride are being raised in the same crèche, even though they are of different ages and mothers.
Despite occasional snarls, such as this warning from C-Boy, males are typically caring and protective fathers. After spending the day resting on a kopje, or rocky outcrop, Vumbi pride lions head out for the hunt as night falls. Momentarily distracted from the kill, C-Boy roars in response to jackals calling in the distance. Lions, with their keen eyesight, hunt most successfully in the darkest, moonless hours of night because the cats have better night vision than their prey. Young Maasai warriors wear lion mane headdresses from a lion that was illegally speared three years earlier. Maasai warriors participate in a coming-of-age ceremony in a remote village in northern Tanzania. An innovative program in Kenya recruits Lion Guardians among the Maasai, some former lion killers, to monitor lion movements and prevent conflicts with herders and cattle. Lion Guardians use radio telemetry to locate the big cats outside of Amboseli National Park in Kenya. Although the Maasai have a history of killing lions to protect their livestock, Lion Guardians are the vanguard in helping to reduce human-lion conflict. For the Maasai who live along the border of Amboseli National Park in Kenya, lion killing has long been a rite of passage.
Infrared light illuminates Hildur and a lioness from the Vumbi pride as they rest after mating. The Vumbi cubs are always up for a game, as photographer Michael Nichols discovered when they chased each other early one morning. Like all cats, lion cubs spend a lot of their time playing with anything that catches their attention, even a mother’s tail. Female lions raise their cubs, like these Vumbi youngsters, together as a crèche, or nursery group. Photographer Michael Nichols first met the Vumbi pride at the height of the dry season, when food was scarce. Hildur, a resident male with the Vumbi pride, claims his share of a buffalo carcass that the females in the pride brought down. Eight Vumbi cubs, all about a year old, rest in tall grass after a successful hunt the night before.
Photographer Michael Nichols used a small remote-controlled helicopter to get a bird’s-eye view of the Vumbi pride resting on Barafu Kopjes.
Despite having observed lions for decades, Craig Packer has never seen them kill a giraffe. Nowhere else in Africa supports such a concentrated abundance of hoofed meat on such open landscape.
Serengeti National Park encompasses 5,700 square miles of grassy plains and woodlands near the northern border of Tanzania. Of encountering the Killers for the first time after hearing about them for so long, photographer Michael Nichols says, “I was petrified. Females of the Kibumbu pride lead the cubs to a waterhole, while looking out for the Killers.
This coalition of two sets of brothers earned its name after lethal attacks on radio-collared females.
Photographer Michael Nichols and videographer Nathan Williamson worked with National Geographic photo engineers and an outside firm to design a robot that could capture intimate images of lions. Daniel Rosengren, a member of the Serengeti Lion Project, finds the Barafu pride far outside their territory. Stan Mwampeta, a recent graduate of the University of Dar es Salaam, tracks lions as a field assistant for the Serengeti Lion Project.
A captive-bred lioness at a farm in South Africa will be raised to maturity, bred, and then released to be hunted within a confined area.
These cubs are among the thousands of lions raised in captivity to sustain the game-hunting industry in South Africa. Steve Sibrel, an American bow hunter, hunts lions with professional guides at a game farm in South Africa. Legally hunted lions in South Africa yield skeletons that are exported for traditional medicines, mostly to Asia. Trophy hunters can legally kill captive-bred lions in South Africa, where there are more captive-bred lions than wild ones. When the migration moved through their territory, the Vumbi pride settled near a waterhole to take advantage of easy access to prey and water.
Yusufu Shabani Difika lost his arms in a lion attack in Tanzania’s Selous Game Reserve. One of the most important tings you can do for the health and safety of your family is create and maintain an emergency and disaster preparedness kit. Before you start putting your kits together, you’ll want to consider what you’ll store all of its important contents inside.
It’s a good idea to watch for sales, bulk discounts, and online specials for these items since you can collect them over time and replace them as needed.


As you shop for items to add to your kit, try to choose the brands and products that your family already uses. Try to create one kit in a waterproof 5-gallon bucket and one in an easy to carry backpack so that you’ll be prepared whether you need to stay or go! Staying prepared allows your family to rest assured that no matter what challenges life may bring, you have everything you need to stay safe, protected, and in control.
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Community decisions relating to problems of air, water, and land pollution or locational issues, such as where to place industries, schools, and residential areas, also require the skillful use of geographic information. It is essential that students develop skills that will enable them to observe patterns, associations, and spatial order. Other tools and geospatial technologies, including satellite-produced images, graphs, sketches, diagrams, and photographs are also integral parts of geographic analysis.
The geographic skills required of a geographically informed person consists of five sets of skills adapted from the Guidelines for Geographic Education: Elementary and Secondary Schools, prepared by the Joint Committee on Geographic Education by the Association of American Geographers and the National Council for Geographic Education.
For each of the five skills sets, there is a discussion of the principles underlying the set of skills and then a presentation of what the student is expected to know, understand, and be able to do at grades 4, 8, and 12.
The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. Some media assets (videos, photos, audio recordings and PDFs) can be downloaded and used outside the National Geographic website according to the Terms of Service. Click here to return to the main page of the national geography standards, skills, and perspectives from Geography For Life: National Geography Standards, Second Edition. This index includes National Geographic articles, as well as map supplements, Adventure magazine, Traveler magazine and Kids magazine. This color-coded index lists 100 years of "National Geographic articles, as well as maps, books, and TV specials. Contact the seller- opens in a new window or tab and request a shipping method to your location. You have read and agree to the Global Shipping Program terms and conditions - opens in a new window or tab. Import charges previously quoted are subject to change if you increase you maximum bid amount. A remote-control toy car and a rugged robot tank gave them an unobtrusive way to make images up close and at low angles.
It’s only a slight exaggeration to say that Nichols learned to think like a lion, to game their moves, and to photograph them with an intimacy that comes from an undisguised feeling of kinship. Where once they presided over vast ecosystems, now their roars are silenced, their prides dispersed, their fierce grandeur dimming into memory.
He came to the magazine with the legacy of a childhood spent in the woods of his native Alabama, reading Tarzan and John Carter of Mars adventures. He graduated magna cum laude from Macalester College in 2000, and received a Fulbright Fellowship the following year to document efforts to curb deforestation in the Bolivian Amazon.
Quammen is the author of four books of fiction and eight nonfiction titles, including most recently Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic. The black-maned alpha called C-Boy confronts that peril on a daily (and nightly) basis as he defends his interests with various prides. Vumbi females, stressed and fiercely protective of their young, get cross with C-Boy after he snarled at one of the cubs.
During the first few weeks, when the infants are too young for the competitive tumble among older cubs in the pride and vulnerable to predators, she keeps them hidden away.
According to photographer Brent Stirton, many of these men recognized the individual lions pictured.
They work with herders to track down lost livestock and discourage other Maasai from hunting lions.
But since 2007, a program called Lion Guardians has transformed Maasai into lion protectors by paying them to track lions with GPS and radio telemetry.
The practice, known as synchronized estrus, allows the pride to raise their young together and means small cubs don’t have to compete with bigger and hungrier ones. In an undisturbed ecosystem, a quarter of cubs die from infanticide, according to ecologist Craig Packer. Such male-on-female violence, while uncommon, may serve a purpose by removing competition for food and territory.
Nichols and Williamson operated the tank together, with Nichols working the still camera and Williamson steering and shooting video. Sammy, the pride’s resident male (in the foreground), was no match for the invading Killers. Many people, including hunters, question whether the ranches satisfy the ethic of fair chase. There are 500 to 600 lions at the farm at any given time; the majority will eventually be sold for hunting. In a recent year 174 lion-breeding ranches operated in the country, with a combined stock of more than 3,500 lions. A still camera mounted on a remote-controlled robot allowed photographer Michael Nichols to take this close shot of the Vumbi pride as its members began to rouse themselves for a hunt. As the moon rises, the lionesses awake from their afternoon naps and set out on the evening hunt. These kits can be purchased online or in local stores – but you can also put them together on your own and save money in the process! Most people use waterproof 5-gallon buckets which can be sealed and stored in closets or basements spaces.
You’ll want to keep track of which medications you have stored in your emergency disaster kit and make sure to exchange them well before they expire. Sometimes something as simple as a familiar taste or smell can help soothe nerves and calm stress. Whether the issues involve the evaluation of foreign affairs and international economic policy or local zoning and land use, geographic skills enable people to collect and analyze information, come to an informed conclusion, and make reasoned decisions on a course of action. Many of the skills that students are expected to learn involve using tools and geospatial technologies that are part of the process of geographic inquiry. The rate of growth of an urban area, for example, can be observed by comparing old and new satellite images. These skills have applications to all levels of geographic inquiry and constitute the bases on which students can build competencies in applying geographic skills to geographic inquiry. For each of the three successive grade levels discussed, teachers and other curriculum developers must recognize that students’ mastery of geographic skills should be sequenced effectively so that students retain and build on their understanding. If a media asset is downloadable, a download button appears in the lower right hand corner () of the media viewer.


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Two cameras were mounted on each device; Nichols controlled one and Williamson the other, a pairing that let the collaborators create a synchronized dance of photo and video. The National Geographic Society’s Big Cats Initiative is dedicated to halting the decline of lions and other big cats around the world. Packer and his research team at the Serengeti Lion Project have been studying African lions for more than 30 years in one of the longest continuous field studies of any species ever done. His first assignment for National Geographic came in 2003, when he traveled with Nick Nichols and J.
While there, he went to Tanzania to study baboons with Jane Goodall at the Gombe Stream Research Centre, then completed his Ph.D. He has been honored with an Academy Award in Literature from the American Academy of Arts and Letters and is a three-time recipient of the National Magazine Award. Coalitions, as these alliances are called, can consist of several lions and may become powerful enough to control more than one pride.
Males, roughly one and a half times the size of females, play a crucial role in taking on larger animals.
It appears to be working: There have been fewer lions killed, and the role of Lion Guardian has become a respected one. Playing cubs imitate adult behavior, including stalking and fighting, and learn how to socialize within the pride. When lions band together in prides, they can protect their young from invading males and hold sway over the best territories, where streams meet and prey is concentrated.
According to Karen McComb of the University of Sussex, older elephant matriarchs can distinguish between male and female lion roars. Because good territory is a precious resource, fighting and displacing competitors are part of the natural struggle. Do we really understand rabbit behavior from Bugs Bunny and duck behavior from Daffy and rodent behavior from Mickey?” Packer and his team at the Serengeti Lion Project spend endless hours tracking lions to gain insights into their behavior and their role in the ecosystem. These captive-bred animals are released into fenced areas on private ranches for hunting by wealthy tourists. You may also want to consider using a backpack since this can be easy to grab-and-go when needed, such as medications and immediate use items.
Prescription medications as well as important over the counter medications are both great items to have on hand.
Geographic skills also aid in the development and presentation of effective, persuasive arguments regarding matters of public policy. Geographic representations, such as maps and globes, as well as their digital versions, are essential tools of geography because they assist in visualizing spatial arrangements and patterns.
Large-scale land-use changes or changes in sea surface temperatures can be observed by comparing a series of satellite images. If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website in your project or classroom presentation, please visit our FAQ page. The majority of pages are undamaged with minimal creasing or tearing, minimal pencil underlining of text, no highlighting of text, no writing in margins. Lions was Nichols’s first professional collaboration with his wife of 30 years, naturalist Reba Peck. Last year, he received the 2012 Stephen Jay Gould Prize from the Society for the Study of Evolution.
The relationship between the males in a coalition is intense and may last a lion’s lifetime. A dark-maned lion’s testosterone levels are higher than the levels in other males, his cubs are more likely to survive, and he is more likely to recover from wounds.
But even when a single lion brings down a relatively small creature, like a warthog, the whole pride shares in the kill. Team members are (from left) Daniel Rosengren, Ali Swanson, Craig Packer, Ingela Jansson, and Stan Mwampeta. The Serengeti Lion Project represents one of the longest continuous field studies of a species. Although trophy hunting is controversial, proponents argue that the practice reduces the number of wild lions being hunted and that it can benefit communities by providing much needed revenue. Personally, we feel that having a kit in a bucket and a kit in a bag will make sure that your family is ready for anything that may happen.
All of these decisions involve the ability to acquire, arrange, and use geographic information. They are interconnected and complementary, and together they form a process of investigation that makes the complexity of place more intelligible and more understandable. The robot, says Williamson, was made to be sturdy enough to stand up to a lion giving it a swat. In 1990 he received a Guggenheim Fellowship, and in 2003 was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Male lions will try to kill the offspring of other males, since females won’t go into estrus while rearing cubs. These black-and-white videos and photographs were made with infrared light to minimize disruption to the lions. In the United States, many conservation organizations have petitioned to have the African lion listed under the Endangered Species Act. Daily decisions and community activities are linked to thinking systematically and spatially about environmental and societal issues. Geographic information systems make the process of organizing, analyzing, and presenting geographic information easier, thus accelerating geographic inquiry. He is the author of Into Africa and more than a hundred scientific articles, most of which are about lions. Remotely sensed data provide both archived and real-time images that can be studied independently or as a part of a GIS analysis. Digital globes and interactive online maps can display human and physical data sets to assist in systematic analysis of spatial phenomena.
But most of the images and videos here were made using old-fashioned, camera-in-hand technology. A global positioning system (GPS) aids in accurately identifying the location of collected data; GPS technologies are currently used in a wide range of digital mobile devices.
Nichols shot 242,000 images and Williamson recorded 200 hours of video, often while lying on the floor of a specially outfitted Land Rover.



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Rubric: Emergency Preparedness Survival



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