Think you know how many identified species exist within each of the major categories of life?
National Geographic presents 7 Billion: How your world will change, a compilation of the acclaimed year-long editorial series about population, plus award-winning videos, fresh insights, and stunning new photos. One day in Delft in the fall of 1677, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, a cloth merchant who is said to have been the long-haired model for two paintings by Johannes Vermeer—“The Astronomer” and “The Geographer”—abruptly stopped what he was doing with his wife and rushed to his worktable.
As religious forecasts of the world’s end receded, Le Bras argues, population growth itself provided an ersatz mechanism of apocalypse. The bad news is that 2030 is two decades away and that the largest generation of adolescents in history will then be entering their childbearing years. Just like most people, I was pretty amazed at the fact that the world has now reached seven million people. From another source I found, comparisons were made with the number 7 billion, just to demonstrate how significant this number is and how insignificant us individuals, as one in 7 billion, actually are. Few things to try to include in EVERY post: share personal experiences, raise questions, challenge if you do not agree with the source. The beach at Coney Island in Brooklyn, New York is an example of a beach that is not protected from human impacts. Students learn what population means, discuss crowding and why some areas are more crowded than others, and compare and contrast living in crowded and uncrowded places. Nat Geo Explorer-in-Residence Spencer Wells maps the history of human migration by analyzing the DNA of hundreds of thousands of people around the world.
High-tech transportation, climate control, and access to water have eliminated much of the burden of life in the desert. Students survey population data and make observations about changes in urban population over time. Students learn about the Human Footprint data set, analyze a map showing where and to what extent humans have influenced Earth, and participate in a class discussion. Students explore issues related to fisheries sustainability and simulate fish monitoring methods commonly used by scientists and resource managers.
Students analyze various energy sources, comparing the costs and benefits of natural gas, coal, biomass, nuclear, wind, hydropower, and solar power for generating electricity. The map is rendered entirely in silver and gold colors, achieving a splendid decorative effect. Like many other maps of al-Qazwini, this too shows the seven climatic zones and indeed the emphasis of the map is on the climatic observations and related detailed descriptions. Al-Qazwini world map from his Monuments of Places, copy dated 1580, a€?Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, USA, Ref.
The above indicate the extent of Islamic cartographersa€™ knowledge regarding the solar day cycles at extreme latitudes, though there is the possibility that these legends may have been added to the 13th century original map by latter-date copiers. Most of the map is occupied by Africa and the unknown southern lands, while Europe and Asia occupy most of the lower half at the map. The sea to the left of the map (east) is the Pacific Ocean and the one in the top middle is the Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea. Most of the manuscripts of al-Qazwinia€™s a€?Ajaa€™ib al-makhluqat have a completely different map of the world. Hamd Allah Mustawfia€™s world map, described by Hyunhee Park, also uses a grid, although it does not display longitude and latitude. Hamd Allah Mustawfi sets himself apart from his predecessors by dividing foreign countries into two categories: Those that have close relation with the Il-khanate and those that were situated far from the Islamic world and were not built by Mongol governors.
That said, Hamd Allah Mustawfia€™s plausible longitudinal and latitudinal figures distinguish his geography from previous generations of Islamic geographers. His description of Khitaya€™s capital Khan Baligh, built by Khubilai Khan, certainly utilizes updated information, most likely from Rashid al-Dina€™s work. Hamd Allah Mustawfia€™s image of Machin as a great and extensive kingdom and its Mongol name Nankiyas match the account of Rashid al-Din. These sources show that Muslims living in the Il-khanate in Iran made quite significant advancements in the development of geography and cartography of the world during the Mongol period. Al-Qazwinia€™s sketch of the distribution of land and sea from his Marvels of Things Created and Miraculous Aspects of Things - Re-oriented with North at the top with place-names. The earliest example of scholars who wrote geographic accounts under Mongol patronage, the famous Iranian geographer and cosmographer Zakariyaa€™ b. A map sketch of the world found in al-Qazwinia€™s famous 'Ajdib al-makhlriqat wa-ghardib al-mawji-idat [Marvels of Things Created and Miraculous Aspects of Things Existing] also reveals the continued influence of the earlier Arabic geographic tradition in the lands of the Islamic world under Mongol rule.
This sketch map by al-Qazwini was obviously influenced by that of al-Biruni from the 11th century (#214.3).
What new sources did al-Qazwini use to write his geographic studies including the sketch map?
The accumulation of knowledge among Muslim scholars culminated in a work that was written at the apogee of Mongol dominion over Eurasia and deeply influenced Muslim thinking about the world.
The seven parallel climatic zone lines dominate the map, with the gulfs represented by wedge-like shapes, cutting into the climatic zones.
The countries shown on the map are predominantly Islamic ones, but some non-Islamic countries such as Rum [Byzantium], Bulgaria, Saqaliba [the Slavs] and Rus [Russia] are also featured. Al-Qazwini zonal world map from his Athar-al Bilad wa Akhbar al Ibad, 1329, a€?British Library, London, MS. Al-Qazwini world map from his Monuments of Places, copy dated 1580, Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore, USA, Ref.
Al-Qazwini zonal world map from his Athar-al Bilad wa Akhbar al Ibad, 1329, British Library, London, MS. Though his tiny peephole gave him privileged access to a never-before-seen microscopic universe, he spent an enormous amount of time looking at spermatozoa, as they’re now called.
Not only are people living longer, but so many women across the world are now in their childbearing years—1.8 billion—that the global population will keep growing for another few decades at least, even though each woman is having fewer children than she would have had a generation ago.
In the 1970s, Ehrlich predicted, “hundreds of millions of people are going to starve to death,” and it was too late to do anything about it. The first is the “demographic dividend”—a blissful few decades when the boomers swell the labor force and the number of young and old dependents is relatively small, and there is thus a lot of money for other things.
Even if each of those women has only two children, population will coast upward under its own momentum for another quarter century. Forbes magazine stated that there are only 140 people in the world worth 7 billion dollars. Just keep in mind if you are trying to receive an A in this blog period: more than 1 post a week and more than 3 comments a week!
The Underground Railroad was the network used by enslaved black Americans to obtain their freedom in the 30 years before the Civil War (1860-1865).
Then they interview their parents or grandparents to find out when their family first came to the U.S.
MapMaker Kits offer K-12 students the opportunity to work with key mapping concepts at a variety of scales and to see the world in new ways. Students use real-world data to evaluate the relative costs and benefits of using different fuel sources to generate electricity. The present map is highly ornate, detailed and covered with silver and gold leaf, gold for the mountains and silver for the seas. The peninsula surrounded by six islands is China, and to its right is the Indian Sea [Gulf of Bengal]. It is dated on internal evidence to the early 17th century, although as a writer al-Qazwini (died 1283) is considerably earlier than al-Harrani (fl. This is the third type of world map and represents al-Birunia€™s sketch map of the distribution of land and sea (#214.3).
The map resembles the earlier sketch of land and sea that al-Qazwini drew in the 13th century, including its separation of Africa into two peninsulas. His description of its capital Khansay as the largest city in the world with a large lake in the middle and a great population echoes the account by Marco Polo, who stated that a€?it is without doubt the finest and most splendid city in the world.a€? He continues describing Khansaya€™s warm climate and abundant sugarcane and rice crop production, the citya€™s great population that extends upwards of 10,000, and its political situation in which a few Muslims hold power over the many non-Muslim Chinese. Muhammad al-Qazwini, exemplifies this innovative trend in geography and cartography in the Islamic world. The scholar dedicated Marvels of Things Created to the governor of Baghdad, Juwayni, who authored History of the World-Conqueror, a chronicle of Chinggis Khan.
The Compendium of Chronicles, written first in Persian and immediately translated into Arabic, was compiled in 1308 by Rashid al-Din (1247a€” 1318), the son of a Jewish apothecary family who converted to Islam during his early adolescence.
1553 manuscript of al-Qazwini showing the New World (right side) similar to the 1507 representation by WaldseemA?ller (Book IV, #310). It is oriented with South at the top and is very basic, omitting even the oceans and landmasses. These wedges are named (from the left) the Ahdar Gulf, the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of the Berbers. He’d had five children already by his first wife (though four had died in infancy), and fatherhood was not on his mind.
Oddly enough, it was the milt he squeezed from a cod one day that inspired him to estimate, almost casually, just how many people might live on Earth.
By 2050 the total number could reach 10.5 billion, or it could stop at eight billion—the difference is about one child per woman.


In 1798 Thomas Malthus, an English priest and economist, enunciated his general law of population: that it necessarily grows faster than the food supply, until war, disease, and famine arrive to reduce the number of people. It’s a hallmark of human progress: In a country that has completed the transition, people have wrested from nature at least some control over death and birth.
Is a train wreck in the offing, or will people then be able to live humanely and in a way that doesn’t destroy their environment?
The BBC News website had its only calculator where you can find out where approximately you fit in the world. Each kit enables the user to download, print, and assemble maps of the world, individual continents, and the United States in a variety of sizes. Outside the northernmost zone, below the seven habitable zones the inscription reads: There is not enough sun and due to the cold there are no animals here. Interestingly, the treatise also follows the traditional system of grouping the world into seven different climes, locating the broad wide kingdom of Chin stretching over the second, third, and fourth climes. It is of the First and Second Climes, and its capital is the city of Khansay [Hangzhou], which some call Siyahan. Born into a family that settled in Qazvin in Persia, al-Qazwini served politically in several localities throughout the Il-khanate, including Persia, Baghdad, Mesopotamia, and Syria.
While it concentrates mainly on supra-terrestrial matters like angels, the second part of al-Qazwinia€™s book describes the division of the earth into seven climates and charts the worlda€™s known seas and rivers.
Al-Qazwinia€™s map portrays China as a major subcontinent at the eastern edge of the northern hemisphere; that is, as an important and large region as big as India and the Arabian world. He rose to prominence in the court of the seventh Il-khanate ruler Ghazan Khan, and eventually served as prime minister where he became well known for his many economic reforms. The map is typical Islamic, with the inhabited world divided into seven climatic zones, from south to north. UN demographers consider the middle road their best estimate: They now project that the population may reach nine billion before 2050—in 2045. As it turned out, the last plagues great enough to put a dent in global population had already happened when Malthus wrote. In spite or perhaps because of such language, the book was a best seller, as Malthus’s had been. The global population explosion is an inevitable side effect, a huge one that some people are not sure our civilization can survive. What had been considered the enduring demographic order is revealed to be a party that has to end.
Such large numbers are a difficult concept to grasp, but those statistics certainly put some things in perspective. If we all decide that being eco friendly and more humane to nature, we can maybe get to that 10 billion point without running out of resources or we can go the route where every man fends for himself where we will be competing constantly to be able to find the necessities we need.
More than 700,000 people live in Hermosillo, which is the center of manufacturing in the state of Sonora. The former work deals with the subjects of planets, stars, angels, the elements, minerals, plants, and animals. To the south of the seven inhabited zones the inscriptions read: There is no information about this region and due to the extreme heat there are no animals in this region. At the same time, Hamd Allah Mustawfi portrays the Eurasian and African landmasses more realistically, and not simply as a diagram with fixed geographic shapes. For example, in his description about Chin [North China formerly under Jurchen rule], he accurately says that the Mongols designated this land as Manzi at that time. This is a mighty city, and it was called originally Changda; and Qubilay Khan built another city outside the same. They say that in all the habitable world there is no greater city than this, or at any rate that in the regions of the east there is no larger town. After his retirement, he wrote his two monumental works, one geographical and the other cosmographical.
His description of China contains no new information and simply describes the country as a large territory with many people and resources.
It continues to depict Africa as a continent in shape but cleaves Africa into two halves divided by the Nile River.
The Baghdad governora€™s History provides important information about the political developments surrounding the Mongol conquest in Persia and elsewhere. Perhaps in gratitude, Ghazan Khan gave Rashid al-Din a special commission to write this monumental work. The former work deals with the subjects of planets, stars, angels, the elements, minerals, plants, and animals.A  As in the case of the encyclopedias of medieval Europe, the work is a compilation of the superficial knowledge of the day, without much attempt to interpret or integrate it with contemporary data.
The eventual tally will depend on the choices individual couples make when they engage in that most intimate of human acts, the one Leeuwenhoek interrupted so carelessly for the sake of science.
World population hasn’t fallen, historians think, since the Black Death of the 14th century.
The sharpening American debate over Social Security and last year’s strikes in France over increasing the retirement age are responses to a problem that exists throughout the developed world: how to support an aging population. This is reminiscent of Macrobiusa€™ (#201) central a€?Torrida€? or a€?Perustaa€? (parched) zone. The River Nile is shown with eight tributaries, which join together to flow into another lake and thence to the Mediterranean, which is the unevenly shaped sea connected at the right to the surrounding ocean and named Bahr-i-Misr [Sea of Egypt].
Clearly, Hamd Allah Mustawfi attempted to represent the world in a new way, rather than simply borrow earlier ideas. The claims in this passage a€” that the majority of the population worshiped idols, that all arts and crafts had reached perfection, and that numerous great cities flourished throughout the land a€” mostly constitute the recycling of earlier accounts of China and present the same stereotypes of China and the Chinese that appear in earlier Muslim accounts. Of other great towns and well-known districts are the following: Nanking [Nanjing], where a great river runs through the city, Tabaksik [?], Qala€™ah Shikat [?], and Almaska [?]. His geographical dictionary, entitled Athar al-bilad [Monuments of the Lands], drew heavily on Yaquta€™s Geographical Dictionary, written earlier in the century.
Yet the attached sketch showing the distribution of land and water in the world is noteworthy because of its unique portrayal of China and Africa. In fact, al-Biruni was the first geographer who argued that the Indian Ocean must be connected to the Atlantic through waters that ran south of the Mountains of the Moon, the legendary sources of the Nile. Al-Qazwini probably received some information or ideas about China from his patron, who had access to up-to-date information about eastern Asia.
This work initiated a new genre of writing in Muslim scholarship, one that covers the historical developments of the worlda€™s diverse societies in unified fashion and chronological order.
The first zone is near the equator and the region near the North Pole above the seventh zone is the Northern uninhabited zone. However, its influence was still far-reaching, and it was quoted, paraphrased and translated for centuries.A  The illustrations, likewise, were handed down in traditional form.
Using maps and a little spherical geometry, he calculated that the inhabited land area of the planet was 13,385 times as large as Holland. With the population still growing by about 80 million each year, it’s hard not to be alarmed.
In the two centuries after Malthus declared that population couldn’t continue to soar, that’s exactly what it did. The green revolution—a combination of high-yield seeds, irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers that enabled grain production to double—was already under way.
By the early 1970s, fertility rates around the world had begun dropping faster than anyone had anticipated. With so many people born before me and another billion people born after me, in what way have I contributed to anything? This makes me wonder if in the next hundred years, there will be a different dominant race or there will be more racial integrated relationships. The north polar area bears the inscription: In this region from Aries to Libra is one day from Libra to Aries is one night. The Black Sea branches from the middle of the Mediterranean and extends northwards to join the ocean at the north of the landmass. Hamd Allah Mustawfia€™s map also differs significantly from the sketch maps of al-Qazwini and the Treasury of Tabriz map in its depiction of China. On many other maps, this designation has been used for South Africa, however not on Mustawfi al-Qazwini.
Al-Qazwini innovatively rearranged Yaquta€™s rubrics from seven climates to the letters of the alphabet: Nonetheless, the work borrows heavily from Yaqui. It is likely that al-Qazwini, who was influenced by al-Biruni when drawing this sketch, applied al-Birunia€™s theory faithfully. Juwayni learned about the Mongols in the course of serving them, in addition to gaining knowledge about the Qara-Khitai in Central Asia and the Uighurs further east. Rashid al-Din originally sought to write a history of the Il-khanate in order to commemorate the origins, history and achievements of the Mongols. Many of al-Qazwinia€™s manuscript copies also contain a map of his native city of Qazwin, one of the ancient cities of Iran.
The learned men in London were still trying to verify Leeuwenhoek’s earlier claims that unseen “animalcules” lived by the millions in a single drop of lake water and even in French wine.
It was hard to imagine the whole planet being as densely peopled as Holland, which seemed crowded even then.


Right now on Earth, water tables are falling, soil is eroding, glaciers are melting, and fish stocks are vanishing. The process started in what we now call the developed countries, which were then still developing. I came to understand it emotionally one stinking hot night in Delhi a couple of years ago… The temperature was well over 100, and the air was a haze of dust and smoke.
The article I found through CNN's site talkes about how there are 484 births and approximately 288 deaths per hour in the United States. The inscription in the South Pole reads: From the beginning of Libra to the end of Pisces is one day and from Aries to the end of Virgo - one night. The rivers Dejle [Tigris) and Forat [Euphrates] are shown connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. Thompson showed this map to Professor Fazi Khoury of the Far Eastern Studies Department at the University of Washington in Seattle, and he said: a€?This is conclusive proof that the Muslims discovered America. Most importantly, however, al-Qazwinia€™s Geographical Dictionary provides clear evidence that Arabic geographic traditions continued to influence academic circles in the Islamic world under Mongol-rule profoundly.
The scholarly governor probably continued to amass more information about the wider world and this influenced other scholars in the Il-khanate like al-Qazwini. However, Ghazan died just before the booka€™s completion and his successor OljeitA? (reigned 1304-1316) took over sponsorship of the project and broadened its scope to embrace a history of the entire world. It must however be mentioned that the maps in different manuscripts of the same work do differ from each other significantly.
Thus, Leeuwenhoek concluded triumphantly, there couldn’t be more than 13.385 billion people on Earth—a small number indeed compared with the 150 billion sperm cells of a single codfish! The spread of New World crops like corn and the potato, along with the discovery of chemical fertilizers, helped banish starvation in Europe. Ehrlich was right, though, that population would surge as medical science spared many lives. As that same transition takes place in the rest of the world, what has astonished demographers is how much faster it is happening there. Transliterations of al-Qazwinia€™s version can also be found in Konrad Millera€™s Mappae arabicae, Band 5,129-30 (Bild 6 and 7) (note 7). This cheerful little calculation, writes population biologist Joel Cohen in his book How Many People Can the Earth Support?, may have been the first attempt to give a quantitative answer to a question that has become far more pressing now than it was in the 17th century. Decades from now, there will likely be two billion more mouths to feed, mostly in poor countries.
Growing cities remained cesspools of disease at first, but from the mid-19th century on, sewers began to channel human waste away from drinking water, which was then filtered and chlorinated; that dramatically reduced the spread of cholera and typhus. After World War II the developing countries got a sudden transfusion of preventive care, with the help of institutions like the World Health Organization and UNICEF. The rivers Arax and Kura we also depicted joining and flowing into the Caspian, the former being connected to the River Tigris and toe latter to the Black Sea.
Despite the fuzzy representation of China on this map, his written survey of foreign countries provides a fuller and more complex description of Chinaa€™s geographic features. One imagines sunlight falling through leaded windows on a face lost in contemplation, as in the Vermeers. There will be billions more people wanting and deserving to boost themselves out of poverty.
Moreover in 1798, the same year that Malthus published his dyspeptic tract, his compatriot Edward Jenner described a vaccine for smallpox—the first and most important in a series of vaccines and antibiotics that, along with better nutrition and sanitation, would double life expectancy in the industrializing countries, from 35 years to 77 today. Penicillin, the smallpox vaccine, DDT (which, though later controversial, saved millions from dying of malaria)—all arrived at once.
In Iran, with the support of the Islamic regime, fertility has fallen more than 70 percent since the early ’80s.
Between the Tigris and Arax rivers the inscription Arminiya [Armenia] can faintly be made out. Hamd Allah Mustawfi consulted earlier Arabic geographers like Ibn Khurdadhbih in researching his treatise; however, he also adds unprecedented information about countries based on Persian sources. Historians now estimate that in Leeuwenhoek’s day there were only half a billion or so humans on Earth. If they follow the path blazed by wealthy countries—clearing forests, burning coal and oil, freely scattering fertilizers and pesticides—they too will be stepping hard on the planet’s natural resources.
It would take a cranky person to see that trend as gloomy: “The development of medical science was the straw that broke the camel’s back,” wrote Stanford population biologist Paul Ehrlich in 1968.
By the early 18th century, noblewomen at the French court were knowing carnal pleasures without bearing more than two children. In Catholic and democratic Brazil, women have reduced their fertility rate by half over the same quarter century. For example, he divides China politically into Chin, Khitay, and Machin a€” the same divisions that Rashid al-Din used in his Compendium of Chronicles.
Millions of people in developing countries who would have died in childhood survived to have children themselves.
They often relied on the same method Leeuwenhoek used for his studies: withdrawal, or coitus interruptus. The small rectangular lake at the left (east) of the fold is the Sea of Aral, with the rivers Jeihun [Oxus, or Amu-Darya] and Seihun [Jaxartes or Sir-Darya) rising from Central Asia and flowing into it. A century and a half later, when another scientist reported the discovery of human egg cells, the world’s population had doubled to more than a billion. Village parish records show the trend had spread to the peasantry by the late 18th century; by the end of the 19th, fertility in France had fallen to three children per woman—without the help of modern contraceptives.
In 18th-century Europe or early 20th-century Asia, when the average woman had six children, she was doing what it took to replace herself and her mate, because most of those children never reached adulthood.
The key innovation was conceptual, not contraceptive, says Gilles Pison of the National Institute for Demographic Studies in Paris. From the beginning, says French demographer Herve Le Bras, demography has been steeped in talk of the apocalypse.
When child mortality declines, couples eventually have fewer children—but that transition usually takes a generation at the very least. People, people, people, people.?—Paul EhrlichIn 1966, when Ehrlich took that taxi ride, there were around half a billion Indians. Before the 20th century, no human had lived through a doubling of the human population, but there are people alive today who have seen it triple.
Some of the field’s founding papers were written just a few years after Leeuwenhoek’s discovery by Sir William Petty, a founder of the Royal Society.
People couldn’t fathom that it might be up to them.” Other countries in the West eventually followed France’s lead.
But then, 17 of the countries in the region still have life expectancies of 50 or less; they have just begun the demographic transition.
Sometime in late 2011, according to the UN Population Division, there will be seven billion of us. He estimated that world population would double six times by the Last Judgment, which was expected in about 2,000 years. In the time it takes for the birthrate to settle into that new balance with the death rate, population explodes.
By the onset of World War II, fertility had fallen close to the replacement level in parts of Europe and the U.S. Delhi’s population has increased even faster, to around 22 million, as people have flooded in from small towns and villages and crowded into sprawling shantytowns. At that point it would exceed 20 billion people—more, Petty thought, than the planet could feed.
Then, after the surprising blip known as the baby boom, came the bust, again catching demographers off guard. Early last June in the stinking hot city, the summer monsoon had not yet arrived to wash the dust from the innumerable construction sites, which only added to the dust that blows in from the deserts of Rajasthan. They assumed some instinct would lead women to keep having enough children to ensure the survival of the species. On the new divided highways that funnel people into the unplanned city, oxcarts were heading the wrong way in the fast lane. Instead, in country after developed country, the fertility rate fell below replacement level. Families of four cruised on motorbikes, the women’s scarves flapping like vivid pennants, toddlers dangling from their arms. Families of a dozen or more sardined themselves into buzzing, bumblebee-colored auto rickshaws designed for two passengers. Delhi today is boomingly different from the city Ehrlich visited, and it is also very much the same.



Magnetic earth pole shift update
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Rubric: Emergency Preparedness Survival



Comments

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