This year, disaster recovery (DR) has been a top priority for 45 percent of UK IT departments.
UK businesses face both man-made and natural disasters such as software and power failures, electrical fires, and flash flooding or high winds. Each business has different requirements depending on the company’s industry and size, but following these guidelines can help the business prepare its IT infrastructure for a disaster. One of the most important components of being ready for a disaster is classifying important systems and processes and mapping out any interdependencies.
If the servers powering the customer portal are dependent on other systems or a specific power supply, the business must take measures to ensure redundancy of the core servers and power supplies. Whether it’s legacy systems that can’t keep up with growing volumes of data, a lack of redundancy or storage media corruption, too many businesses realise during a disaster that they aren’t able to recover their data, or worse, their IT environment. In fact, data loss is up by more than 400 percent since 2012, according to the EMC Global Data Protection Index. For example, Lyco, a specialist lighting e-commerce company based in Milton Keynes, had backed up to disk on-site. The benefit of this approach is that the organization was able to manage backups on-site while efficiently sending them off-site to ensure data redundancy. The appeal of DRaaS solutions is that they provide the ability to recover key IT systems and data quickly (within a 2-4 hour recovery time objective in some cases), which is crucial to meeting customers’ expectations for high availability. Companies need to have an alternate work environment available at the time of an emergency, whether it’s employees’ homes or rented office space.
As a managed service provider, we have found that companies are increasingly using DRaaS solutions, which allow employees to access the environment through a VPN or online.
Communication is key in any disaster recovery scenario, so businesses need to consider how they will continue to receive calls.
If a business has a cloud-based or voice over IP (VoIP) telephony solution in place, communication options can be remotely managed. When redirecting calls to cell phones during a disaster, businesses should bear in mind that during a large-scale crisis, overloaded circuits can make it difficult to obtain a signal for placing calls, and emergency services might invoke the government’s Mobile Telecommunication Privileged Access Scheme (MTPAS) procedure. Documenting the disaster recovery plan is an important step, because during a high-pressure situation it’s all too easy to neglect key parts of the plan. For a plan to reach its maximum effectiveness, however, it should be tested regularly (annually at minimum) to work out any kinks before a crisis arises. It may help to break down disaster recovery testing into manageable parts until an organization is able to complete a full test. After successfully completing a test run, the business can schedule a follow-up test, involving end users as necessary. With the right plan in place, a business can cope with a range of disasters -- whether a small, localized one like server failure or a region-wide flood -- without sacrificing uptime and customers. Note: This is a guest post by Janet Flewelling, director of human resource operations with Insperity, a business that has been providing HR and business solutions for 25 years. Businesses that properly plan for disasters are more likely to continue to operate and flourish than those that simply leave things to chance, according to the Insurance Information Institute.
What should be done if the company building or office space is damaged or destroyed by storm-force winds or water? Would necessary resources, databases, contact information and other important items be available to adapt to a change in location or operations? The answers to these questions and other similar concerns can be addressed in a disaster preparedness manual that is individually tailored to a specific business. Decide which employees are absolutely critical to the emergency response effort and which employees could better serve the company by working from home. A solid strategy must be put into place to ensure employees, families, service providers, contractors and the general public are all kept abreast of the situation. Review existing insurance policies on all business properties and facilities, including motor vehicles, to ensure adequate and appropriate coverage. After a disaster, the business that becomes operational first is in the position of being ready to serve existing customers and take on new ones while the competition continues to struggle. In a disaster situation, it is not uncommon for employees to search for pertinent information about company closures, their paychecks or even job status. If a comprehensive disaster plan is created and in place before disaster strikes, business owners are in a strong position to confidently handle and successfully manage the recovery process with minimal disruptions to their business. Trying to decide whether or not to build traditionally with wood or opt for a more modern, steel building approach? When selecting the fasteners for your metal roofing system, you'll have two options: concealed or exposed. One of the first lines of defense for metal buildings are the protective coatings used to seal the metal panels and components, providing a durable barrier against water, debris and environmental pollutants.
The right metal building supplier will make all the difference as you design and construct your building.
Disasters, unpredictable by nature, can strike anywhere at anytime with little or no warning. Disaster Recovery Planning is the factor that makes the critical difference between the organizations that can successfully manage crises with minimal cost and effort and maximum speed, and those that are left picking up the pieces for untold lengths of time and at whatever cost providers decide to charge; organizations forced to make decision out of desperation.
Detailed disaster recovery plans can prevent many of the heartaches and headaches experienced by an organization in times of disaster.
There are several options available for organizations to use once they decide to begin creating their disaster recovery plan. One of the most common practices used by responsible organizations is a disaster recovery plan template.
The primary goal of any disaster recovery plan is to help the organization maintain its business continuity, minimize damage, and prevent loss. Not many years ago when a business wanted to find the ways to prepare itself against disaster and ensure business continuity should catastrophe strike, the bulk of the organization's time, money, and effort would be spent on ways that disasters could (hopefully) be avoided altogether. While a small percentage of corporate entities were still dedicated to disaster recovery as one way of maintaining business continuity, the bulk of the focus was placed on disaster avoidance. One of the most common areas of vulnerability for organizations when a disaster strikes is the loss of their WAN connectivity. The loss of WAN connectivity can have serious consequences for an organization's daily business activities. There are several methods available for organizations who want to ensure a high availability of WAN connectivity as part of their disaster recovery plan.
According to Open Security Architecture (OSA), Security Architecture may be defined as, "the design artifacts that describe how the security controls (security countermeasures) are positioned, and how they relate to the overall IT Architecture. To the right is an image of how ISSS defines a Security Architecture's relationships and dependencies within the general framework of an IT architecture. Security is something that is not visible to a business' operations but holds an important purpose of protecting valuable information systems and information assets to a business.
Architecture may be defined as, "a set of design artifacts, that are relevant for describing an object such that it can be produced to requirements (quality) as well as maintained over the period of its useful life (change).
Commonly referred to as NIST, the National Institute of Standards and Technology is a federal agency that is a part of the Department of Commerce. The National Institute of Standards and Technology has a long, rich, and well-rooted history.
NIST has a wide range of purposes, including providing technology, measurements, and standards for products and services such as “the smart electric power grid and electronic health records to atomic clocks, advanced nanomaterials, and computer chips.”6 NIST is located in both Gaithersburg, MD and Boulder, CO. Embedded to the left is a video where you can learn more about exactly what NIST is all about. The Federal Information Security Management Act, often referred to as FISMA, has an implementation project that aims to protect the Nation's critical information infrastructure. All in all, these suggestions, along with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 and the Information Technology Management Reform Act of 1996, aim to create a cost-effective risk-based policy for security.
The goal of this strategy is to keep responsible officials aware of their current security programs. NIST provides many frameworks to follow in order to ensure safety for an information system. Select baseline security controls; apply tailoring guidance and supplement controls as needed based on risk assessment. Implement security controls within enterprise architecture using sound systems engineering practices; apply security configuration settings. Determine risk to organizational operations and assets, individuals, other organizations, and the Nation; if acceptable, authorize operation.
Continuously track changes to the information system that may affect security controls and reassess control effectiveness. NIST carries out its mission through many programs and is a vital resource for developing security architectures. Can be used as support by helping administrations ensure that the system or resources have not been harmed by hackers, insiders or technical problems. Users of the systems know that they are being audited, which creates individual accountability. Audit trails help in clarifying moments when a system may crash by being able to review the activity prior to the situation. Along with Audit Trails, NIST has a collection of documents that relate to audit and accountability of security system controls and to ensure compliance with policies and procedures. Needless to say, it is great that our Nation is finally addressing the need to have a stable and protected cyber infrastructure. The International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium, often referred to as (ISC)2, is the leading organization in information security education and training. Access Control Systems are defined by the CBK as a “collection of mechanisms that permit managers of a system to exercise a directing or restraining influence over the behavior, use and content of a system”.
There are two major methods of controlling who has access to a system, through Discretionary Access Control (DAC) and Mandatory Access Control (MAC). Relevance: Access Control is important to cybersecurity because it allows the protection of databases and systems by controlling who has access. The Telecommunications and Network Security Domain “encompasses the structures, transmission methods, transport formats and security measures to provide integrity, availability, and confidentiality for transmissions over public and private communication networks and media”.
This includes the physical aspects of telecommunication such as hubs, routers and switches as well as the OSI Model, which dictates how networks communicate, an example is shown to the right. Relevance: Management can increase security by using proper telecommunications to build a solid network and then securing it so that it is protected from unwanted, outside communications. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has compiled a list of industry wide standards for information security.
Information security governance and risk management “entails the identification of an organization’s information assets and the development, documentation, and implementation of policies, standards, procedures, and guidelines that ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability.” Information Security Governance is the way in which Information Security is directed and controlled.
Risk is a huge part of any business, and in order to be successful a company must be able to properly mitigate their risk.
Relevance: Cybersecurity is achieved by following the acronym CIA, which stands for confidentiality, integrity, and availability. This addresses the principles, means, and methods of disguising information to ensure its integrity, confidentiality, and authenticity.
The systems development life cycle outlines the steps necessary to initiate the process of creating new or updating and evolving current systems.
In addition to the system development life cycle, there are also many different development methods. Relevance: Through Software Development Security, cybersecurity exists because of the security controls that prevent security risks to a software application. Cryptography entails the identification of an organization’s information assets and the development, documentation, and implementation of policies, standards, procedures, and guidelines that ensure confidentiality, integrity, and availability. When it comes to encryption there are two main types of ciphers, substitution and transposition. Relevance: Information is kept protected from hackers by encryption and validation which allows only authorized users to access the pertinent information. Security architecture and design relates to everything an organization does in terms of information security.
In addition to these models, there are other guidelines and evaluation criteria to analyze the current or planned infrastructure in an organization. Something to consider as the design is being developed is whether or not to create an open or closed system.
Relevance: The security architectures discussed are used in cybersecurity by focusing on certain attributes of security that ensure information is protected at every level. In terms of security architecture, access control refers to varying exertions of control about one individual’s right of entry into a control room, network, or device. A major part of operational security, is understanding where you are vulnerable and how to compensate for it.
A simple way to help avoid the issues above would be to install redundancy into the operational design so that if something were to go wrong it would still be able to function properly while repairs were being made. Relevance: Operations security helps to maintain secure hardware and media devices throughout an organization.
Disaster recovery has become an important part of the business practices of any organization because of the devastating effect that data loss would have on business. It is important to note that a BCP is useful if it remains up to date with the systems and operations it’s meant to aid, and a way to do this is to identify weaknesses in a company’s system and make sure that there is a standard protocol if such a problem were to occur; that being said, there are three aspects of the business that need to be addressed in an organization’s BCP. Due to the risks today involved with not backing up data, one of the best ways to avoid an IT disaster is to not let one happen in the first place. The field of IT and Security Architecture is full of a multitude of legal policies that stem from a variety of international, federal, and industry wide regulations. These acts work to protect sensitive and private information that can be subject to numerous crimes. All businesses should have some form of an incident response team whether it’s internal, external or a combination of the two.
Just as anything else, ethics is a major part of information security especially due to the severity of the consequences if there were to be a breach in security. Relevance: Industry spanning standards and legal regulations assist in maintaining fair practices. Of the many security measures that go into play within a company, one of the most overlooked is the maintenance of data integrity within a company’s departments. In addition to the physical security of hardware and access controls, there is also the more literal sense of physical security through the surrounding environment. Intellectual property laws seek to protect the rights of creators to their works by giving them property rights to their creations. Signed into law by President Clinton on October 28th, 1998, the formal legislation is divided into five different titles.
Title I – WIPO Copyright and Performances and Phonograms Treaties Implementation Act of 1998: Implements the treaty. Title II – Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act: Allows for limitations in liability of online copyright infringement. Title III – Computer Maintenance Competition Assurance Act: Allows the creator and owner of a computer program the eligibility to make reproductions when necessary.
Title V – Vessel Hull Design Protection Act: Creates a system that works to protect original designs. This bill aims to eliminate access to different sites that host or contribute to the movement and facilitation of pirated material. The Anti-Counterfeiting Trade Agreement (ACTA) is a plurilateral agreement for the purpose of establishing international standards for intellectual property rights enforcement.
Open source is a development method for software that harnesses the power of distributed peer review and transparency of process. The license shall not restrict any party from selling or giving away the software as a component of an aggregate software distribution containing programs from several different sources. The program must include source code, and must allow distribution in source code as well as compiled form.
The license must allow modifications and derived works, and must allow them to be distributed under the same terms as the license of the original software.
The license must not restrict anyone from making use of the program in a specific field of endeavor. The rights attached to the program must apply to all to whom the program is redistributed without the need for execution of an additional license by those parties. The rights attached to the program must not depend on the program's being part of a particular software distribution. The license must not place restrictions on other software that is distributed along with the licensed software.
No provision of the license may be predicated on any individual technology or style of interface.


NIST defines the term Industrial Control System (ICS) as a “general term that encompasses several types of control systems, including supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems, distributed control systems (DCS),and other control system configurations often found in the industrial sectors and critical infrastructures”44. The software architecture of SCADA System is multi-tasking and is based upon a real-time database (RTDB) located in one or more servers. SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) systems emerged at the same time that Industrial Control Systems were being implemented into factories and power generating facilities47. One or more field data interface devices, usually Remote Terminal Units (RTUs), or PLCs, which interface to field sensing devices and local control switchboxes and valve actuators. A communications system used to transfer data between field data interface devices and control units and the computers in the SCADA central host.
It may not display this or other websites correctly.You should upgrade or use an alternative browser. With the increase in legal and regulatory compliance coupled with virtualization and cloud-based strategies for disaster recovery, more IT departments (five percent more than 2014, to be exact) are recognizing the importance of DR.
In a separate study by Timico, only five percent of respondents said they were totally confident that their DR plan was adequate.
Today, customers expect always-on service, so how can an IT department do its part to avoid downtime when disaster strikes? A financial organization, for example, probably needs to restore customers’ online access to their accounts before it restores access to internal files. Input from other departments is critical to successfully recovering from downtime, because what IT may consider critical is not a top priority for other key departments.
Typically the business continuity plan is driven by the results of business impact and risk analyses, which have identified the business’s core objectives and departmental priorities.
It’s important that a business’s current backup and recovery solution ensure the strategy is adequate for the business’s needs and can protect critical data and systems. But as the organization’s business grew, management realized the risk of housing backups on-site was too great. During a disaster, employees are able to access the environment over the Internet or another connectivity option. If renting office space, the facility should be pre-contracted to help ensure it will be available during a disaster. Staff members need a way to access their work environment, including documents, business applications and communications platforms such as email and instant messaging. If using landlines, the business should consult its telecom carrier or managed service provider to review options for rerouting numbers in the event of a disaster.
Businesses are able to deploy pre-recorded greetings and redirect phones to staff cell phones or an alternate office location. In these situations, redirecting calls to a landline can provide a more reliable connection.
In addition, if any critical personnel who were involved in the planning process leave the business, subsequent employees can properly implement the plan.
Those responsible might balk at the cost of testing the plan because of resources consumed (e.g.
Some businesses will perform an IT test of specific systems or processes before conducting a full-scale test involving end users. If the computer system or information contained in its files is destroyed, it can be extremely difficult to reconstruct important financial information, client databases or employee records. Make sure employees are aware of their status and responsibilities during an emergency situation. This person should be aware of all of the pertinent details related to the business and serve as the single contact for any outside inquiries.
Keep those policies in a safe, offsite location and have instructions for their use and access, including contact information, policy numbers, coverage periods and policy restrictions in the disaster preparedness manual.
One of the best ways to ensure a swift recovery is to negotiate strategic partnerships with key trade-industry professionals including carpenters, plumbers, electricians and the like – before a natural disaster strikes.
Being prepared to respond to questions from employees, customers and the news media is critical during a natural disaster. Insperity (NYSE: NSP), a trusted advisor to America’s best businesses for more than 25 years, provides an array of human resources and business solutions designed to help improve business performance. That statement is true, but there are some caveats that should be added to increase its accuracy. Once a little rust settles in, the corrosion that ensues can be extremely costly to repair and, in worst case scenarios, it can become a serious safety hazard to the building's occupants and neighbors.
As one would expect, the former is hidden from view while the latter is visible in plain sight. Most building codes require some amount of insulation - quantity and R-Value being dictated by the climate where you live. Green Building Council and is now an internationally recognized system for ensuring and measuring the sustainability of new building designs.
While metal buildings are virtually impervious to other traditional building threats, like pests, fire and strong winds, they can succumb to moisture damage without proper planning and design.
Wouldn't it be nice to recoup those expenses and have your RV closer to home, ready for use whenever you are? Recovering from one can be stressful, expensive and time consuming, particularly for those who have not taken the time to think ahead and prepare for such possibilities. By having practiced plans, not only for equipment and network recovery, but also plans that precisely outline what steps each person involved in recovery efforts should undertake, an organization can improve their recovery time and minimize the time that their normal business functions are disrupted.
The first and often most accessible source a business can drawn on would be to have any experienced managers within the organization draw on the knowledge and experience they have to help craft a plan that will fit the recovery needs specific to their unique organization. While templates might not cover every need specific to every organization, they are a great place from which to start one's preparation. Often the outcome of an organization's search for ways to protect their most critical business applications (in order to shore up their business continuity if disaster hit), was that they found they could potentially avoid harm through the use of redundant data lines.
Over the last several years however, that paradigm has shifted and a new kind of disaster preparation has replaced that type of thinking. The urgent need to regain business continuity after the disaster, and the inability of many businesses to be able to gain access to their normal critical business functions were a wakeup call for corporations everywhere to reevaluate the plans they had previously put in place to mitigate such events. Earthquakes, floods, and acts of war can certainly disrupt the use of an organization's data lines.
This new technique involves the use of intelligent devices that can handle multiple data lines of different speeds from multiple providers simultaneously. A growing area of concern for many businesses, Security Architecture, including frameworks and controls, must be implemented in order to ensure proper security and safety for a business. The design artifact describe the structure of components, their inter-relationships, and the principles and guidelines governing their design and evolution over time” (OSA). NIST has been “laying the technical foundation” of the United States since it was chartered by the U.S. This helps the general public and other agencies to understand their purpose, objectives, and strategy.
You'll learn about many of the projects and technologies that NIST uses to help improve our nation. One of these frameworks is the Risk Management Framework, which is concerned with the management of organizational risk. This can help prevent these same problems from occurring again and help in the recovery process.
To become a certified professional, a CISSP must pass a test on the Common Body of Knowledge, or CBK, which creates a framework for information security terms and principles.
Discretionary Access Control gets its name because who has access to a system is entirely at the owner or system creator’s discretion.
This domain deals with telecommunications and the way that communication is conducted over the internet.
This list is known as the 27000 Series, and is applicable to any organization big or small.
It is a set of rules that address the security of the internet and create guidelines that help businesses persevere, especially in the face of major disruption to normal business operations or excessive risk. Another security framework available to companies is the Control Objectives for Information and related Technology or CobiT framework.
Before it can mitigate risk, it needs to understand what about their business is actually at risk. By following these principles, management can achieve a level of security that can protect information assets, manage risk and be applied to all the other domains. These are the controls that are found within systems and applications and also the steps included in developing them. There are three types of controls that can be implemented depending on the incident at hand: Preventive controls (before event), detective controls (during event), and corrective controls (after event).
The developer of the security knows the appropriate control method to keep a software protected from any attacks. Information is encrypted and validated to keep its security, allowing only authorized people to access that information. The difference being a substitution replaces the original values while a transposition cipher simply rearranges the original values18. From hardware, to software, to physical security, a strong design and infrastructure can only help a business operate.
These were first developed by the US Department of Defense in what is known as the Orange Book21. An open system is one that is able to interact with another system, while a closed system can only interact with similar systems23. According to the National Institute of Standards and Technology, one of the most complicated aspects of managing a large network is securing admission to it. A simple vulnerability test can help an organization realize where their weakest links are and how to go about strengthening them. It’s also common to see some of these issues arise during times of changes being made to systems.
There are different types of disasters that could come affect organizations, these including natural disasters, such as floods and earthquakes. Hot sites refer to a second location that is ready for use in the case of an emergency where the original business location is not longer operating. This also includes a documented process as to which devices and data will be brought back first and how to bring them back in a safe and controlled manner30. Therefore, the recovery team can respond by restoring the business processes that will still let the business function fairly normal31. In order to protect ones sensitive information, a possible preventive measure today is through cloud computing. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO), has issued a wide variety of multi-industry spanning policies. Simply put, no system is 100% safe from any attack, and without an incident response a business may not be able to react quickly enough or even at all. To help understand the ethical behaviors of an information security professional, the Computer Ethics Institute has written a set of “Ten Commandments of Computer Ethics”34. While it is true that not all members of a company have access to crucial information, it must be considered that those who do can deal a major blow to the information security within an organization. This includes the building and walls, any surrounding fencing and even the locks on the doors to secure rooms. Copyright legislation is a piece of a larger entity of the law known as intellectual property, defined as creations of the human mind.
Provisions include the requesting of court orders to bar advertising networks and payment facilities from conducting business with infringing websites, and search engines from linking to the sites, and court orders requiring Internet service providers to block access to the sites. The agreement aims to establish an international legal framework for targeting counterfeit goods, generic medicines and copyright infringement on the Internet, and would create a new governing body outside existing forums, such as the World Trade Organization, the World Intellectual Property Organization, or the United Nations. The promise of open source is better quality, higher reliability, more flexibility, lower cost, and an end to predatory vendor lock-in.
Where some form of a product is not distributed with source code, there must be a well-publicized means of obtaining the source code for no more than a reasonable reproduction cost preferably, downloading via the Internet without charge.
The license must explicitly permit distribution of software built from modified source code. For example, it may not restrict the program from being used in a business, or from being used for genetic research. If the program is extracted from that distribution and used or distributed within the terms of the program's license, all parties to whom the program is redistributed should have the same rights as those that are granted in conjunction with the original software distribution. For example, the license must not insist that all other programs distributed on the same medium must be open-source software.
ICS are used in industries such as electrical, water treatment, oil and natural gas, chemical, transportation, pharmaceutical, pulp and paper, food and beverage, and manufacturing. SCADA is a type of Industrial Control System which runs as a software package that is interfaced to hardware and operates on the supervisory level. While all of this evolution towards more open-based standards has made it easier for the industry to integrate various diverse systems together, it has also increased the risks of less technical personnel gaining access and control of these industrial networks.”50 Although SCADA Systems run on their own industrial networks and are separated from corporate networks, they are still vulnerable to attack. These offerings will expedite the reroute of telephone numbers, rather than calling at time of disaster to have the calls rerouted, which could take hours, if not a day or two. This solution ensures employees can take inbound calls as well as make outbound calls in the event of a disaster. The documentation can also be useful if a managed service provider plays a role in implementing any part of the plan. If an organization is using a DRaaS solution, IT personnel should take advantage of the ability to spin up a sandbox environment so they can test recovery capabilities without affecting production systems. Having a secure, offsite facility that stores and protects this information will help make the recovery process more manageable. If a remote site has been identified for the essential employees to conduct business after a disaster, inform the employees of the location, travel arrangements, and lodging plans. For example, who will communicate human resources related information to employees and how will that communication be accomplished? The company spokesperson must be an integral part of any team that surveys damage and determines next steps. Contact information, location and area of expertise should be included in the disaster preparedness manual for each trade-industry partner. InsperityTM Business Performance Advisors offer the most comprehensive Workforce OptimizationTM solution in the marketplace that delivers administrative relief, better benefits, reduced liabilities and a systematic way to improve productivity.
Cool metal roofs, on the other hand, are specifically designed for warm and hot weather climates, where the lion's share of undesirable heat transfer is the result of UV absorption through the roof. When these three items are in place, you can rest assured your metal building will be the low-maintenance and long-lived structure it was intended to be. Instead the process can be streamlined, but this facilitation of recovery will only happen where preparations have been made. Thus it is vitally important that disaster recovery plans be carefully laid out and regularly updated. For organizations that do not have this type of expertise in house, there are a number of outside options that can be called on, such as trained consultants and specially designed software.
Have the appropriate people actually practice what they would do to help recover business function should a disaster occur. If connectivity is lost these activities can be severely slowed or halted altogether until data lines can be recovered.
These devices, called Router Clustering Devices, intelligently detect if a line, component or service is failing and then proceed to switch the flow of data to other available and working lines. Congress on March 3, 1901.3 NIST became the “first physical science research laboratory of the federal government,” despite its creation at the very beginning of the technology age. Therefore, users will be less likely to go against security policy if they know their actions are being recorded in the audit log or trail. In order to develop this framework, NIST is involving key stakeholders by issuing a Request for Information to the public to encourage public involvement in developing the Cybersecurity framework. The Common Body of Knowledge consists of ten domains, at the center of each domain are the core information security and assurance principles, confidentiality, integrity, and, availability. The Access Control System is separate from the Physical Security domain in that Access Control Systems are an electronic part of the system that authenticates who is allowed to use the system as a whole and, more specifically, what parts they have access to. These policies and rules should be driven into the core competencies of the organization, and in order to do so it needs to start with upper-level management.
This framework “defines goals for the controls that should be used to properly manage IT and to ensure that IT maps to business needs”14.
Only after a proper and thorough risk analysis can management then determine what security policy and procedures are best suited to protect them. Within the security sector, software development is profoundly related to the architecture of software and keeping the software secure.


Another popular development method is prototyping, which involves creating a sample of the final product then having the customers review it and make adjustments. Controls can also be distinguished by their nature, there are four different types of natures of a control: physical, procedural, technical, and legal or regulatory. The roots of encryption can be traced back to Egypt when hieroglyphics replaced words, but now encryption has evolved into something so much more complex15.
Algorithms are another form of encryption, but tend to be more complex due to their mathematical nature. Luckily there are a few models to help get companies started, and these models are listed below20. Just as technology is always advancing, it’s necessary to keep the evaluation criteria updated. An open system is more likeable amongst consumers due to its flexibility, but it also poses as a greater risk because its vulnerability also increases. The principal model of access control throughout the industry is Role Based Access Control (RBAC), which, in short, is a method of confining access to a network to solely approved users.
To combat this, companies should have a clearly outlined process as to how to go about making changes.
Unfortunately, there are a variety of man-made disasters such as terrorist attacks and computer viruses that pose a major threat to information.
Cold site is not ready for immediate use and therefore might take a few days to get started. It is suggested that through the use of the cloud that companies transport their data to other offices and store it on offsite systems. It has specific rules for security architecture contained in the “Code of Practice for Information Security Management”; these policies have been condensed into the ISO 27000 series. Computer-aided crimes are those that require the assistance of a computer or other form of technology, while computer-targeted crimes are those where the computer is the victim32. A trained and qualified incident response is also important because it’s a company’s line of defense if the event were to carryover into court. There has been a growing trend of hackers and insiders manipulating data within a workplace. Security does not always have to be so heavyset on the use of technology; sometimes all you need is a couple of patrolling guards and a lock on the door, or possibly a safe.
The agreement was signed on 1 October 2011 by Australia, Canada, Japan, Morocco, New Zealand, Singapore, South Korea and the United States. The license may require derived works to carry a different name or version number from the original software. SCADA technologies appeared as far as the 1960's with simple input and output devices used to remotely monitor operations in industrial applications. The system can be penetrated at many different points and can be most easily compromised at the host or control room level. Additional offerings include MidMarket SolutionsTM, Performance Management, Expense Management, Time and Attendance, Organizational Planning, Recruiting Services, Employment Screening, Retirement Services, Insurance Services and Technology Services.
Organizations need to put systems in place to regularly train their network engineers and mangers. They provide guidance and can even reveal aspects of disaster recovery that might otherwise be forgotten. Attempting to avoid disaster was a good place to start, but now organizations realized that they must prepare for unavoidable circumstances as well.
Much simpler threats such as the accidental cutting of data lines or equipment failure can have the same devastating net result on connectivity.
Thus, having a functioning WAN system is critical for productive business operation and should be an integral part of any disaster recovery plan. The US had very few standards that were necessary for trade and the industrial age “was being driven by the steam engine, the railroad, and the expanding reach of electricity.” Other nations had developed standards laboratories and there was an outcry by American scientists for the United States to do the same. The auditing techniques are used to make sure frameworks, such as Risk Management Framework from above, are being implemented fairly and correctly. Since almost everyone in our Nation is an end user of our infrastructure through the Internet, it is very smart of NIST to involve those who interact with the Internet on a daily basis. These systems are concerned with four major principles, identification, authentication, authorization, and accountability. This is referred to as the top down approach, meaning these ideas and beliefs start at the top of the organizational hierarchy and trickle their way down to the rest of the company. After installing proper security policies and procedures, it is important to properly train employees and strategically allocate responsibilities. Developing secure software requires key components that make the software secure: Systems development life cycle, application environment and the effectiveness of the application security. The creators would then take those new adjustments and create a new prototype for the customer to test.
This relates back to the risk management that is analyzed before, during, and after any business task to understand if the risk is necessary. In addition to vulnerability testing, a business continuity plan is important to develop and maintain. This ultimately comes back to access controls, but not only for those trying to make the changes. Businesses also need to prepare themselves for human error, which accounts for 96% of errors in the workplace.
Where a hot site might seem more advantageous it is significantly more expensive to upkeep compared to a cold site, something management needs to consider before selecting the “best” option29. With proper investigative procedures, an incident response team can provide the necessary evidence to the proper authorities.
These data changes can have a significant effect on the upper tiers of management that make decisions based upon the data, and possible customers of whom the data could be concerning. For those more persistent intruders though, a business might need a more advanced security system that includes a detection system for unauthorized access to parts of the building.
Specific rights that authors may practice include the right to prevent a copy of their work being distorted. SCADA systems are typically used for geographically dispersed assets and can be found in many infrastructure and industrial processes such as power generation (nuclear and conventional), steel production, plants, refineries, factories, water-treatment and nuclear fusion sites.
With the advancement of technology, SCADA systems have developed into advanced software, high performance microprocessors and wireless technology. Because of the SCADA system logs data out of numerous databases, they system must have a direct connection to those databases.
Insperity business performance solutions support more than 100,000 businesses with over 2 million employees. Each of these can at the very least cause short-term disruptions in normal business operation.
Special attention should also be paid to training any new employees who will have a critical role in the disaster recovery process.
Some organizations find it helpful to do this on a monthly basis so that the plan stays current and reflects the needs an organization has today, and not just the data, software, etc., it had six months ago. Whether the cause is a construction mishap from the new building next door, or the effects of a far more serious event like a flood, fire, or terrorist attack, if an organization loses their connectivity their business continuity is often lost as well, and they are functionally in a state of disaster.
They reduce the potential mess of disaster recovery and in turn increase business continuity when disasters do happen without the complexity and awkwardness of the old system. To help “meet the needs of electrical instruments makers and manufacturers,” lead scientists and industrialists endorsed the concept of having a standards laboratory. Our efforts stimulate innovation, foster industrial competitiveness, and improve the quality of life.” Both the mission and the vision statements of NIST provide for a clear understanding of what they are involved in, however NIST also states their core competencies as being measurement science, rigorous traceability, and the development and use of standards. The combination of all of these programs and partnerships help NIST to achieve their mission and continuously improve the products and services that are offered in our nation. If you would like to be involved in the process, the first workshop for developing the framework will take place on April 3rd at NIST's campus in Gaithersburg, MD. Identification and authentication require users to supply information to prove that they have access. The second type of system, Mandatory Access Control, cannot grant access to any user, rather the access has to be earned.
In addition, the network security aspect then adds to the telecommunication layer by including the ways in which Internet communication is kept secure, through confidentiality, integrity, and availability. When management is creating these security policies they often reference the Organizational Security Model, shown to the left. Companies are most vulnerable from internal risk so it is integral that all employees understand the security policies and procedures.
Plaintext is simply readable data, while ciphertext is unreadable data, and decryption is the means of translating ciphertext to plaintext16.
Symmetric algorithms require both the sender and receiver have identical keys that allow them to encrypt and decrypt messages, whereas asymmetric algorithms use two unique yet related keys for its messages19.
The Rainbow Series was simply a continuation of the Orange Book, just using different colors hence rainbow, and the Common Criteria become the international guideline for information security22. First it is necessary to assign hierarchical roles to users prior to system access, secondly making sure that users are authorized within the company to access the data that may pertain to theirs or other departments, and thirdly access can only be granted if it pertains to the project at hand.
This would include items such as a system reboot, emergency restart, and a system cold start, along with understanding the meaning of mean time between failure and mean time of repair. Controlling who has the authority to allow changes is also important to control and monitor. The best way to combat disasters is to have a strong Business Continuity Plan (BCP) that way a company can remain fairly operational while it recovers. Henceforth from the issuance of this set of codes it was necessary to abide by its standards or risk being shunned for ineffective practices. One of the best forms of this, in terms of internal investigation and monitoring, are activity logs which can prove who was signed in during the time of the event33. One of the easiest ways to combat data deception is to require employees to change passwords regularly and to discourage the sharing of passwords among employees.
Other rights that are not particularly entirely author’s rights include licensing rights that publishers may exercise of an author’s work.
SCADA systems monitor and control facility processes such as air conditioning and ventilation. This connection can be traced back to the SCADA system and eventually through an end device on a corporate network. Traditional delivery methods may include implementing a call tree, email blast or advisory distributed to local media.
With 2010 revenues in excess of $1.7 billion, Insperity operates in 56 offices throughout the United States.
But recovering from the impact of many of the aforementioned disasters can take much longer, especially if organizations have not made preparations in advance. This in turn allows them to maintain the faith and confidence of their customers and investors. It is apparent that NIST has very clearly identified its goals and is consistently making efforts to innovative.
Examples of this can be entering a password to view an online account or submitting a pin number at an ATM to gain access to your bank account. This means that there are given set of rules or criteria that has to be met before a user is granted access. This domain applies to all forms of networking and media, both public and private and is one of the larger and more technical domains in the CBK.
There are four properties of encryption that need to be understood when using encryption: Key length, redundancy checks, hash functions, and digital signatures.
In addition to access control, management should also divide responsibilities amongst employees so that no one has a significant amount of control over their network. There has been notable security architecture industry appointed standards, most notably the Standards of Good Practice for Information Security, which covers a variety of bases including networks, consumer technology standards, methods to avert cyber attacks, and new applications of cloud computing. One of the worst nightmares of any company would be a disgruntled IT or human resources employee taking advantage of their access and stealing customer credit information or manipulation employee records.
Important to take away from copyright is that it only protects the form of expression that ideas take, not the standalone ideas.
The following list provides the various kinds of attacks that can damage a penetrated system. As mentioned, some utility services, including electricity and conventional phone lines, may be interrupted for hours or even days.
This technique, though far from streamlined, was better than no back-up system at all and did help maintain at least some business continuity. There is also use of biometrics, which utilizes the unique characteristics of individuals as a form of access control.
This is true in military or government situations for data that is “top secret or classified”. The telecommunications and network security domain also applies to wireless networks and devices.
Responsibility should also be set up in a way that allows employees to monitor and check each other so that each individual is following the separation of duties. As the field of computer technology has grown, there have been numerous acts of Congress passed in order to regulate the field in the way of securing computer systems. To combat the dangers of data manipulation is expensive because sophisticated data checks and cross checking mechanisms after the database has been built is pricey. The system gathers and analyzes data flowing from facility processes and alerts a central base if a problem occurs, as well as the location and severity of the error. Backup communication methods under these circumstances could include cell phones or social media channels. The user must gain security clearance or reach a level of authority that permits them to have access to the system. The effectiveness of application security is ensuring that the developer knows how to establish secure, stable, and efficient software, using the given and appropriate controls, that will stay free from any attack methods.
The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1984, made it punishable by federal law to knowingly access the computer of another and exploit that access in a fraudulent manner; it also criminalizes the attempt to do so and conspiring as well.
When detection algorithms are applied, small file changes cannot be immediately detected because such programs are meant to detect file size differences. The hardware found in a SCADA system is broken up into two distinct layers – the “client layer” and the “data server layer” which is in charge of the process data control activities. A good tip to inform employees is that there are times when text messaging works, even when cell phone coverage is unavailable.
Authorization is the system acknowledging who the user is, and granting them permission to perform the tasks they are allowed to do. These Access Control methods cover three generic spectrums of controls, administrative, physical, and technical. Keeping software secure is a difficult process and to add on to the difficulty, it is also a costly and time consuming. Hash functions use a large amount of data to make a small fingerprint based on the same data. Other acts related to information security are HIPAA, GLBA, Federal Privacy Act, Computer Security Act, and the Economic Espionage Act. Interestingly, one of the best controls is education within departments on the identification of deception in the workplace, as humans have shown to be good detectors of deception when issued warnings of deceptive possibilities. Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) are connected to the data servers either directly or via networks that are proprietary or non-proprietary.
The system also logs all activities performed as a form of monitoring, which is the accountability factor. Many security problems are discovered during the testing or even worse, by the public after it has been officially introduced. Despite this, human vigilance is likely to wane over time, which would keep the problem from ever fully being resolved. Physical controls are concerned with the actual surrounding environment, and technical controls speak to the hardware and software of the security system.
Encryptions are not always 100% secure because the techniques used in the process can be destroyed using certain methods of attack. Encryption involves several components for it to be successful and it is often implemented incorrectly. The systems that are used for encrypting and decrypting data are referred to as cryptosystems17.




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