The next time you're tempted to call some oaf a Neanderthal, you might want to take a look in the mirror. According to a new DNA study, most humans have a little Neanderthal in thema€”at least 1 to 4 percent of a person's genetic makeup. What's more, the Neanderthal-modern human mating apparently took place in the Middle East, shortly after modern humans had left Africa, not in Europea€”as has long been suspected. That's no surprise to anthropologist Erik Trinkhaus, whose skeleton-based claims of Neanderthal-modern human interbreedinga€”previously contradicted with DNA evidencea€”appear to have been vindicated by the new gene study, to be published tomorrow in the journal Science. Trinkhaus adds that most living humans probably have much more Neanderthal DNA than the new study suggests. In addition, all modern ethnic groups, other than Africans, carry traces of Neanderthal DNA in their genomes, the study saysa€”which at first puzzled the scientists.
For another thing, Neanderthals never lived in China or Papua New Guinea, in the Pacific region of Melanesia, according to the archaeological record.
Neanderthals, the study team says, probably mixed with early Homo sapiens just after they'd left Africa but before Homo sapiens split into different ethnic groups and scattered around the globe.
The first opportunity for interbreeding probably occurred about 60,000 years ago in Middle Eastern regions adjacent to Africa, where archaeological evidence shows the two species overlapped for a time, the team says. And it wouldn't have taken much mating to make an impact, according to study co-author Reich. The new study isn't alone in finding genetic hints of Homo sapiens-Homo neanderthalensis interbreeding.
Like the new Science paper, Long's study speculates that interbreeding occurred just after our species had left Africa, but Long's study didn't include analysis of the Neanderthal genome. The three-year-old tortoiseshell has her own Facebook page and a YouTube video that's been viewed over a million times, and appeared on the Today Show last week.


Venus appears to have only a white patch on her chest, which to Lyons is not enough to explain the blue eye.
Genetic testing on 11 mummies revealed the remains of Tut’s parents, who were brother and sister. Select a button below to see how these distinct genetic markers are passed from Yuya (orange), Tuyu (blue), and Amenhotep (violet). King Tut, depicted here by a gold funerary mask, was a frail pharaoh, according to a new DNA study. Using DNA samples taken from the mummies King Tut and nine of his relatives, the scientists were able to create a five-generation family tree for the boy pharaoh.Tests revealed the mummy above, known as the Younger Lady, to be King Tut's mothera€”and his aunt. Zahi Hawass, who led the new study, is shown in 2007, during the transfer of King Tut's mummy from its sarcophagus to a climate-controlled glass chamber.
We pored through the massive set of images of Earth from space to show you some of our favorites. A map of Europe and part of the Middle East depicts the approximate range of the Neanderthals as provided by Richard Klein. Listen to your favorite National Geographic news daily, anytime, anywhere from your mobile phone. Though no fossil evidence has been found for Neanderthals and modern humans coexisting in Africa, Neanderthals, like modern humans, are thought to have arisen on the continent. The results could stem from a Neanderthal-modern human one-night stand or from thousands of interspecies assignations, he said.
He presented his team's findings at a meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico, last month. A feline chimera is a cat whose cells contain two types of DNA, caused when two embryos fuse together.


Golden boy King Tut was beset by malaria and health issues that forced him to use a cane, a new study says.
Tutankhamun was beset by malaria and a bone disordera€”and possibly compromised by his newly discovered incestuous origins, researchers say. Her identity remains a mystery, but whoever she was, she sired the boy king with her brother, Pharaoh Akhenaten.Regarding the revelation that King Tut's mother and father were brother and sister, Pusch said, "Inbreeding is not an advantage for biological or genetic fitness.
Hawass and his team concluded that the feminized features found in the statues of Akenhaten created during his reign were done for religious and political reasons.In ancient Egypt, Akhenaten was a god, said project leader Zahi Hawass, the Secretary General of Egypt's Supreme Council of Antiquities (SCA) and a National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence. But archaeologists are increasingly confronted with demands to let past generations rest in peace. The distinctively mottled orange and black coat is a sign that the cat has an extra X chromosome. Normally the health and immune system are reduced and malformations increase," he said.Some Egyptologists have speculated that King Tut's mother was Akhenaten's chief wife, Queen Nefertitia€”made famous by an iconic bust (Nefertiti-bust picture).
Scientists collected DNA, then looked at eight sets of genetic markers (colored boxes in diagram below) to create a genetic fingerprint for each mummy. He was not riding the chariots," said study team member Carsten Pusch, a geneticist at Germany's University of TA?bingen.



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