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23.07.2015

The (e,2e) spectrometer vacuum chamber (figure 1) is manufactured from 304 grade stainless steel, the construction being carried out by Vacuum Generators using a design of Jones, Read and Cvejanovic, full details of which may be found in T. 3mm thick mu-metal magnetic shielding is placed both internally and externally to decrease extraneous external magnetic fields to less than 5mG at the interaction region. All inputs and outputs to the spectrometer pass through the vacuum chamber via feedthroughs on the top flange.
The top flange of the vacuum system is a 25mm stainless steel flange with 11 conflat CF70 flanges arranged around a central 200mm flange designed for locating a hydrogen source. Two flanges are used for the high voltage channeltron and photomultiplier tube inputs and pulse outputs. Three rotary motion feedthroughs allow the analysers and electron gun angles to be changed externally via stepper motors for both analysers and for the electron gun. The ionisation gauge is placed at right angles to the main flange to prevent light from the thoriated iridium filament entering the vacuum system, which would increase noise on the photomultiplier tube. The ionisation gauge feedthrough is sooted, and a loose cover is placed over the entrance in the chamber flange to prevent stray light from the ion gauge entering the vacuum system. The target gas enters the system via a CF70 flange which has two 6mm stainless steel tubes welded into the flange. The other gas feed is connected to a hypodermic needle set at 90A° to the incident beam for measurements in other geometries. The gas jet which is not currently used in the interaction region can be used to non-locally fill the chamber with gas for background counting measurements.
The final CF70 flange is used when the photomultiplier tube is cooled, usually during baking of the system following exposure to atmosphere.
The tube is cooled by passing vapour from a liquid nitrogen source through expansion coils wrapped around the photomultiplier tube housing. The electron gun is a two stage non-selected gun designed by Woolf (Ph.D thesis, University of Manchester) (see figure 3).
The gun consists of a filament, grid and anode source which is focussed using a triple aperture lens through two 1mm defining apertures in the centre of the gun.
The apertures define the electron beam pencil and beam angles, and are focussed onto the interaction region using a second triple aperture lens located between the apertures and interaction region.
The electron gun is shielded using advance (constantin) sheet which is grounded to the body of the gun mounting.
The gun is mounted onto an x-y translation table to allow placement of the electron beam as accurately as possible to the centre of rotation of the analysers and electron gun rotation axis.
The gas jet is mounted from the electron gun using a narrow support of 310 stainless steel, and the Faraday cup can be attached to this support. The original unselected electron gun built by Woolf was completely rewired and a custom built PTFE 25 way inline wire-wrap plug and socket was placed between the 52 way vacuum electrical feedthrough and the electron gun.
The wiring from the 52 way feedthrough to the inline plug is shielded colour coded 30 awg PTFE coated advance wire, and the inline plug and socket connectors are non-magnetic gold plated wire wrap pins. The electron analysers are constructed from molybdenum and are mounted from two rotating gear plates controlled externally via the rotation feedthroughs on the top flange (see figure 2). The input electrostatic lenses for each analyser are three element cylindrical lenses as shown in figure 4.
The interaction region is focussed onto the entrance aperture of the hemispherical energy analysers with a beam angle of around zero degrees, the image of the analyser entrance aperture being larger than the size of the interaction region. Field gradients around the input and exit apertures are corrected using standard Jost correctors. The energy selected electrons passing through the exit apertures are finally collected by Mullard X919BL channel electron multipliers which amplify the single electron to produce a current pulse at their output. A principle source of noise on the signal pulses arises from the turbo-molecular pump motor. The noise from the turbo pump is reduced to ~ 5mV using these techniques, and as the average pulse height from the saturated multiplier is around 20-40 mV, this allows adequate discrimination following amplification.
The pre-amplifiers located external to the vacuum system are commercial 100X preamplifiers with 400pS rise-times, manufactured by Phillips Scientific. The NIM signals produced by the discriminators drive two ORTEC 437 Time to Amplitude Converter's via appropriate delay cables and an ORTEC pulse delay unit.
The main TAC output feeds an ORTEC Multichannel Analyser card located in the PC controlling the experiment, whereas the second monitor TAC drives an external MCA, allowing convenient monitoring of the coincidence signal as the experiment progresses. The high voltage supplies to the electron multipliers are two Brandenberg 5kV supplies controlled by the main PC via serial DAC's. Principally the filter is used to reduce pickup noise from entering via the HT cable onto the multiplier output. Secondly, the filter has a slow response time for high voltage spikes, and reduces the probability of damage to the pulse electronics should the EHT supply suddenly turn on or off.
Capacitor C2 decouples the 1kW load resistor to earth for high frequency pulses from the CEM's, and the voltage appearing across this load is connected via the capacitor C3 to the input of the 6954 preamplifier. Since the input impedance of the preamplifier is 50W and the CEM is effectively an ideal constant current supply, most of the current passes through to the preamplifier. Finally, the 10M resistor prevents the output to the preamp from rising above ground when the preamp is disconnected from the circuit and is therefore a safety device for the preamplifier when initially connected.
The original design placed the atomic beam nozzle and Faraday cup on the same support structure fixed to the body of the electron gun, with the atomic beam direction being in the detection plane when the perpendicular plane geometry is chosen (see figure 2). A second configuration is adopted for exclusively perpendicular plane coincidence experiments, the atomic beam nozzle being oriented at an angle of 45A° to the detection plane so that the gas effusing from the nozzle does not fill the analysers when they oppose the nozzle (see figure 6). In this configuration the support strut for the atomic beam nozzle is terminated lower than the detection plane, as is the nozzle itself. For non-perpendicular plane measurements the Faraday cup is once mounted from the support strut and the gas effuses perpendicular to the electron beam direction. One difficulty when aligning an (e,2e) coincidence experiment lies in the focussing the incident electron beam and analysers onto the interaction region. The throughput of electron current as detected by the Faraday cup is insensitive to both position and focusing of the electron beam, since the cup opening is usually made quite large (in this case 6 - 10mm) and the bias voltage applied to the cup to prevent electrons returning to the interaction region allows all electron trajectories within this opening to be detected. Conventionally, following maximisation of the Faraday cup current, the beam is steered and focussed onto the gas jet as detected by counts in the analysers. This has the disadvantage that the overlap volume is maximised for both atomic and electron beam density, which tends to place the interaction volume as close as possible to the output of the atomic beam nozzle, which is almost certainly not in the centre of the detection plane. To eliminate the need for time consuming iterative techniques and the associated errors due to detection geometry, a separate method for tuning the electron gun is adopted that does not depend upon the analysers.
The interaction between the target and the electron beam not only produces ionisation, but the valence states of the target also are excited with various probabilities depending upon the incident energy of the electron beam.
These photons are detected by the photomultiplier tube, by placing a 450nm A± 50nm optical filter in front of the photocathode. The interaction region is therefore defined where an aperture in front of the photocathode is focused by the lens. The plano-convex focussing glass lens is covered by a grounded fine tungsten mesh to eliminate surface charging.
The photomultiplier tube may be cooled by circulating nitrogen gas boiled off LN2 through copper coils encircling the photomultiplier tube housing. The photomultiplier tube used in the experiment is a 9789QB EMI photomultiplier tube with a bi-alkali photocathode peaking in the blue region of the optical spectrum.
As with the electron multiplier circuitry, it is important to optimise the load of the photomultiplier tube so that reflections along the feeder line to the counting electronics are minimised. The 1nF 6kV capacitors across the dynodes close to the output stage are used as charge storage pumps that quickly refurbish the surface charge on the dynodes, allowing increased counting rates. The dynode resistors are 1% tolerance metal film resistors as these are more stable with temperature.
The EHT supply to the photomultiplier tube is a Brandenberg 2kV supply operating at 1500V for this tube.
The negative going output pulses from the tube measure typically 200-500mV in height, and therefore are able to directly drive an ORTEC 473A constant fraction discriminator located in one of the NIM crates.
All resistors and capacitors for the dynode chain are soldered to the photomultiplier tube base internal to the vacuum system, using standard 5-core solder. Typical pulse heights from the electron multipliers in saturation mode are 25-40mV, whereas the typical height of the photomultiplier tube pulses is of the order of 250mV. The electron multiplier pulses are obtained from the multiplier supply circuitry as explained above. The amplified pulses from the 6954 amplifiers pass along doubly shielded RG-58 cable to the input of the ORTEC 473A discriminators.
The two analyser discriminators are located in separate NIM crates to increase isolation and reduce common mode pickup. The slow rise-time positive outputs from the 473A discriminators pass to three ORTEC 441 rate-meters which allow counting and monitoring of the pulses. The fast NIM pulses from the analyser 473A CFD's pass through appropriate delay lines to two 437 TAC's. This second multichannel analyser allows the operator to monitor the total accumulated coincidence signal during operation.
The lens supplies that control the voltages impressed onto the lens elements and deflectors in the experiment were developed over a number of years, and therefore take different forms.
Three of these supplies feed the deflectors in the electron gun, the other two supply the input deflectors in the analysers. In a second 19" crate is located the gun lens high voltage supplies together with the high voltage supplies for the Faraday cup. In a third 19" crate is located the analyser voltage supplies together with a set of serial loading supplies that control the electron multiplier EHT supplies. A further supply controls the current boost circuitry located in the filament constant current supply unit (see below). The outputs of each computer controlled supply that drives an individual lens element or deflector are connected to a 70 relay switching board.
The Digital voltmeter is in turn accessed via an IEEE-488 interface which is addressed by an 8086 slave PC which converses with the central PC which controls the experiment.
The outputs from the relay board connect to the spectrometer via shielded multicore cables which take the gun voltages to the 52 way feedthrough and the analyser voltages to the two 19 way feedthroughs located on the vacuum flange. The gun supply multicore also carries the filament supply current to the 52 way feedthrough.
The Faraday cup current is measured by the Keithley Digital voltmeter when under computer control but this can also be measured by an external pico-ammeter. In addition to the analyser electrostatic lens and deflector voltage connections, the 19 way CF70 feedthroughs are used to control signals from internal sensing opto-isolators which control the stepper motor interlocks.
The stepper motors that drive the analysers and electron gun around the detection plane are five phase motors with integral 10X reduction gearboxes driving the rotary motion feedthroughs. The intelligent stepper motor drivers are addressed via a serial port located on the controlling PC bus. An additional interference problem was traced to the RS232 serial line from the controlling PC. The PC bus was found to be poorly earthed due to very little copper being used for the bus earth. This was cured by decoupling the 0V RS232 line from the main 0V line for the stepper motors, as is shown in figure 10. The analyser stepper motor supplies have a facility for halting the motors using limit switches which are optically coupled to the internal 68000 logic circuits driving the supplies.
The SD5443-3 phototransistor normally illuminated by the TEMT88PD photodiode during operation ensured a fail-safe mechanism should any of these components fail (this automatically prevent the motors from running). Should the analysers move into a position as defined by the four criteria (a) - (d) above, a shutter located on the analyser turntables moves between the appropriate photodiode and phototransistor, shutting off the light and thereby shutting down the stepper motor current.
Only motion in the opposite direction is allowed by controlling logic, allowing the analyser to move away from the point of imminent collision but no closer. The six pairs of optocouplers that prevent the analysers moving into the Faraday cup, electron gun and gas jet support are located on the mounting struts supporting the main body of the spectrometer. Two optocouplers are located on the side of analyser 2, and two shutters are located on the sides of analyser 1 to prevent the analysers colliding with each other.
Finally a ninth optocoupler is located over the electron gun counterweight which monitors when the gun is at an angle less than 65A°, where the sweep angle around the detection plane is reduced.
The current boost circuit operates from a serial driven supply card as detailed previously. The main filament drive is through six power diodes that feed the current from the constant current supply to the filament. The Darlington transistor T1 feeds additional current to the filament via three parallel 10 turn 100W trim resistors through a 1N4007 diode.
As the constant current supply acts as an infinite resistance source, the boost circuit supplies additional current only when the voltage at the anode of the feed 1N4007 exceeds the output voltage of the constant current supply. Finally, the filament bias voltage (and hence energy of the electrons) is set to the midpoint of the filament by two 100W balancing resistors located across the terminals.
In addition to the ADC buffer card, three independent isolated regulated supplies drive REF01 voltage reference sources for measurement of the positions of 10 turn potentiometers located on the analyser and electron gun rotary drive shafts.
The angular position of the electron gun and analysers is calibrated when the system is opened using visible laser diodes that define these angles to an accuracy of A±0.2A°.
Figure 13 shows an overall block diagram detailing the computer control and high speed pulse interfacing to the spectrometer. We know that Jacques RanciA?re speaks about the relation between politics and aesthetics in terms of a€?the distribution of the sensible.a€? Tonight I want to speak about the distribution of the insensible. But I also want to register an implicit critical dimension of this argument, a critique of RanciA?re and of his presently immense influence, which I view as unwarranted. By way of a first approach to what I mean by a€?the distribution of the insensible,a€? leta€™s recall some basic passages from Volume One of Capital on the transformation of materials. Labor is, first of all, a process between man and nature, a process by which man, through his own actions, mediates, regulates and controls the metabolism between himself and nature. What distinguishes capitalism as a mode of production, however, is the peculiar manner in which the transformation of materials through the labor process is shadowed by the process of valorization.
We can thus view the process of production either from the perspective of the labor process or the valorization process. So, this brief summary of Marxist fundamentals is our first approach to the distribution of the insensible.
In Intellectual and Manual Labor, Alfred Sohn-Rethel argues that the social abstraction of the value form and the exchange relation gives rise to our abstract forms of thought. The exchange abstraction excludes everything that makes up history, human and even natural history.
In Sohn-Rethela€™s account, the exchange relation gives rise to a social genesis of the transcendental (the forms of intuition and the categories of the understanding). In the act of exchange, the natural and material physicality of the product is negated by the abstract value of the commodity, and this negation constitutes the a€?positive realitya€? of the social physicality of the exchange process. The history of modernity, which is to say the history of capitalism, is also the history of modern technology. And thena€”in the discourse network of 2000, spawned by the cybernetic systems, information theories, and encryption technologies of World War II, digital technology draws media differentiation back together through the synthetic resources of digital code, a universal medium traversing audio, video, and textual recording.
However (fourth approach)a€”we should recognize that just as Kittlera€™s media theory offers a necessary supplement to Sohn-Rethela€™s account of the social genesis of conceptual abstraction, it is also necessary to submit Kittlera€™s own work to a Marxist inversion. What Marx calls a€?formal subsumptiona€? is the initial subsumption of labor under the value form, through wage labor and exploitation (the extraction of surplus value from surplus labor time). This contradiction bears upon the history of technology, because it is by revolutionizing the means of production that capital attempts to overcome this contradiction. The same process also generates a different problem: as automation increases, less labor power is required. Automation, which is at once the most advanced sector of modern industry and the epitome of its practice, confronts the world of the commodity with a contradiction that it must somehow resolve: the same technical infrastructure that is capable of abolishing labor must at the same time preserve labor as a commoditya€”and indeed, as the sole generator of commodities. We could rephrase this by saying that Fordism both requires and paves the way for post-Fordism.


At the same time, however, we know that a commodity like an Apple computer is, in fact, produced by processes quite clearly identifiable as a€?labor.a€? Despite the fact that every effort is made to keep this fact out of sight and out of mind, we know it because we read about it on Apple computers. Composed of aluminum, nickel, steel, glass, vinyl, and fluorescent, the production of Vanitas involves a virtuosic performance of mimetic exactitude. In a dark room, the viewer looks at the object, sees into it, and sees nothing of herself (like a vampire in front of a mirror, Baier says) while the object reflects its own interior infinitely in all directions. The first thing we might note about this piece is its complex engagement with relational aesthetics. Second, we can say that if Vanitas is a captivating work of art, much of what makes it so is money. Baiera€™s piece instantiates the problem of the relation between materials and money, captured in the art object. Behind Vanitas, a glass reproduction of Baiera€™s eyeball at the center of a projected disc of light, gazing without seeing across the room at a mirrored box which does not reflect its image.
Beside Vanitas, a fond de scA?nea€”a reflector used in the background of photo shootsa€”which Baier placed in a template with a circular hole and left in a window for nine months. Around the corner, a piece called Projet A‰toile (Noir), consisting of a graphite painting titled Monochrome (Black) and a sculptural replica of a meteorite recovered from Death Valley. These are photographic pieces and sculptural objects which Baier would have worked on at the computer in the center of Vanitas. At the crux of materials and moneya€”through the complex history that crux containsa€”the subject of Baiera€™s installation is the relation between memory, recording, mimesis. Baiera€™s problem is not only the remembrance of things past, but, more specifically, the reminiscence of that which has never been sensed, the distribution of the insensible, recalled. By way of a first approach to what I mean by a€?the distribution of the insensible,a€?A  leta€™s recall some basic passages from Volume One of Capital on the transformation of materials. The reason why you don't know a thing about "laser helmets", why LLLT *still* gets routinely dismissed in forums, and why everyone -including you- hasn't been doing this for years. Do-It-Yourself Introduction (Revisited!), Checklist, and how to determine how many diodes you need!NEW!!! ImmortalHair.org- Natural solutions for hair loss, and it has a great forum on all natural topics!
I’ve re-opened the membership, and there was a surprising amount of new registrations -and lets all hope they are LEGIT! Might as well use this time to say that I actually have a corporation set up now (First Coast Innovation, Inc.
Guys, this has come up recently so I thought I would go into a greater explanation of the coverage areas of the helmets. This two part video will cut through the nonsense, explain the benefits that you will get, and instruct you how to easily make your own clay treatment in a matter of minutes.
You can a€?spot treata€? or you can cover your full head, and you shouldna€™t leave it on for more than twenty minutes or a half hour. You should pay at the most $10 a pound, and one pound should last a couple of months if you a€?spot treata€? and use it only several times a week. Typical usage for LLLT users would be before your shower on a€?laser daysa€?, and other users should probably only use this two or three days a week -every other day at the most. UPDATE:You will probably find that 20-30 minutes is ample time for this treatment, and any more than that could cause your scalp to get overly dry. Even though you are mixing oil and water, DO NOT use polysorbate 80 -I’ve found that this makes the clay a€?curda€?, and it ruins the consistency! Laser Therapy -also known as LLLT- now joins Rogaine (2% Minoxidil) as the only FDA approved treatments for female pattern baldness, and obviously adds credence to LLLT as a treatment for other forms of baldness as well. Adrogenic alopecia is caused by a variety of genetic and environmental factors in both men and women, particularly with an androgen called dihydrotestosterone.
Approximately 10 percent of pre-menopausal women show evidence of androgenetic alopecia, but age increases the incidence. This marks the second overall approval for hair loss for LLLT by the FDA, with the other one being for MPB with Hairmax Laser Comb (Lexington International). Below are the highlights of the 510(k) summary -which is the document required by the FDA to show that a device is substantially equivalent to a predicate device. For the MEP-90 efficacy determination, each subject received a total of 36 each, 20-minute treatments with the MEP-90, over a period of 18 weeks.
Each helmet has more holes than you would ever fill (somewhere close to 600, and 300 holes would give most people “full coverage"), as well as 500 bristles for support. An unexpected Christmas present from my laser helmet to me!  …Noticeable reduction of gray hair!
Since I have your attention, I thought I’d bring up a couple of off-topic, non-laser items that I’m absolutely THRILLED about!
One of these is internally connected to a gas jet which can be set at 45A° to the incident electron beam and is used in the perpendicular plane experiments.
These stainless steel feeder tubes are connected to the nozzle using grounded shielded PTFE hose. One follows the anode, another corrects the beam direction between the apertures and a third steers the beam onto the interaction region.
This shield is coated with aerodag colloidal graphite to reduce patch fields on the surface of the metal, and is made as small as possible to allow the analysers to approach the gun as close as is feasible when non-perpendicular plane geometries are selected (see figure 2). The XY translation table is mounted from the rotating yoke, to which is attached the photomultiplier tube. This allows the gun to be dismounted from the system without the need for rewiring of the feedthrough when the need arises (filament changes, cleaning etc). The wiring between the gun and inline socket is also shielded colour coded PTFE coated advance wire facilitating spot welding to the electrostatic lens elements of the gun.
The analysers are mounted onto x-z translation tables that allow them to view the interaction region accurately over the full range of angles accessible. These lenses have a capability for energy zooming of around 10 : 1, and have a maximum entrance acceptance angle of A±3A° as defined by the entrance apertures. This ensures that the overlap volume accepted by each analyser encompasses the interaction volume for all detection angles as the analysers move in the detection plane. These devices use an activated lead glass internal surface which has a high coefficient of secondary electron emission when a high voltage (around 3000V) is applied across the multiplier. This noise may be picked up by the channel electron multiplier and the high voltage feed to the multiplier, and is generated internally in the vacuum system. The CFD's are operated in NaI mode as this has a 2ms dead time following the initial pulse, thus reducing the possibility of false triggering due to any mismatching impedance reflections along the delay cable. These EHT supplies are connected via VERO 200 high voltage couplings to high voltage cable connecting to the pickoff circuitry located on the high voltage feedthroughs.
This allowed the analysers to roam the detection plane over a complete 360A° angular range. The configuration of the target source hypodermic when perpendicular plane measurements are conducted. The common procedure is to initially maximise the current from the gun onto the Faraday cup, then onto analyser counts as the electron beam is moved through the gas jet. Maximising the Faraday cup current is therefore only a crude preliminary alignment of the incident electron gun beam. This therefore assumes that the analysers are initially focused onto the interaction region, and a slow iterative technique must be adopted where the analysers and electron gun are tuned so as to maximise the signal from both analysers. In this case a true differential cross section is not obtained, since the scattered and ejected electron trajectories lie in a different plane than defined in the initial experimental alignment. An EMI 9789QB reduced photocathode photomultiplier tube is installed in the vacuum system together with optical focussing and defining elements (figure 2). A group of these excited states decay back to lower valence states with the emission of visible photons at wavelengths around 450nm for both helium and argon targets.
Tuning of the electron gun to PMT counts therefore guarantees that the electron gun is steered and focussed to the point at the centre of the detection plane independent of the analysers or gas beam density. This is mainly used when the vacuum system is baked at temperatures above 55A°C, since the photocathode is rapidly damaged by temperatures exceeding this. The tube is a venetian blind dynode construction, and has a reduced photocathode to decrease the noise on the output of the tube to less than 20Hz. The photomultiplier tube base was thoroughly cleaned in an ultrasound following location of these components, to displace any flux residue from the solder joints.
It is therefore necessary to amplify the channeltron pulses prior to transmission to the discriminators, whereas the photomultiplier tube pulses are sufficiently large to not require further amplification.
These pulses are amplified by Phillips Scientific 6954 100X amplifiers located external to the EHT feedthroughs connected by 10cm lengths of RG-58 cable. These crates are further decoupled from the AC mains supply using filter circuitry on each supply line.
Internal to these rate-meters buffer 7400 TTL chips have been added to send to 32 bit counters located in the main PC via RG-58 cable. These supplies are fully floating, their mid-point voltage being equal to the lens element voltage in which the deflectors are housed.
All these supplies are fully computer controlled isolated units with low output impedance to reduce noise and eliminate current loops. This relay switching unit allows either the voltage or the current on each lens element to be measured by a Keithley Digital voltmeter. This drive is further reduced internally by 10X reduction gears, resulting in a reduction ratio of 100:1.
This led to the ground line of the RS232 serial line moving around with respect to the 0V stepper motor reference as drive current to the motors returned along the ground line. The optocoupler logic circuit circuit that controls the stepper motors and avoids collisions between the analysers, the electron gun, the Faraday cup and the hypodermic support. Added to this filament supply is a computer controlled current boost circuit that can be used to increase the filament current during electron gun tuning.
The additional current then returns to the 12V DC regulated supply via a second 1N4007 diode.
This therefore depends upon both the current driving the filament, as well as the resistance of the filament when hot (typically 4W - 6W). This supply feeds current to the filament without changing the characteristics of the main constant current supply used while operating the spectrometer. These high stability reference sources ensure that the analyser and electron gun positions are accurately measured with time.
A datalogger internal to the controlling PC establishes a cubic spline relationship between the measured angles and the corresponding ADC conversion from the potentiometers. This PC also controls the selection of the relay motherboard for measurement of the required lens element either in voltage or current mode when a request is sent from the controlling computer via an RS232 serial line. And I want to argue that it is the specificity of this problem which allows us to think the relation between the history of capital and the history of mimesis. I could summarize this critique as follows: if RanciA?re were more inclined to focus his attention upon the distribution of the insensible, perhaps he might think more perspicuously not only about the relation between politics and aesthetics, but also the relation between political economy and aesthetics. Marx analyzes the process of production from two perspectives: the labor process and the valorization process.
Moreover, we transform materials into tools, instruments of labor, with which we transform materials. The transformation of materials produces objects with use value, but it also produces commodities with exchange value. But insofar as it is specifically capitalist, what the process of production produces is value, and a particular kind of value: surplus value and its reintegration into the production process as capital. The entire empirical reality of facts, events and description by which one moment and locality of time and space is distinguished from another is wiped out. And this social genesis is at once material and abstract, since the exchange value of a commodity is borne by its use value, and since exchange (like the labor process) is a physical act which also requires abstraction from all physicality. Hence the exchange process presents a physicality of its own, so to speak, endowed with the status of reality which is on a par with the material physicality of the commodities which it excludes. This is what Sohn-Rethel, following Marx, calls a€?the real abstractiona€? of the value form as a social process of exchange. In a materialist inversion of the Kantian transcendental, media technologies constitute the a priori conditions of possibility for the sensible, such that the distribution of the sensible already operates within these conditions. From the industrial revolution to the production and networking of digital information technologies, the history of modern technology emerges from and responds to the demands and internal contradictions of capitalist accumulation.
This early period of subsumption is merely a€?formala€? because the production process itself (the labor process which is subsumed) remains primarily pre-capitalist. New technologies of production, and new techniques of production (assembly lines, for example) make it possible to increase productivity, and thus increase the amount of surplus value that can be extracted in a certain period of time. If automation, or for that matter any mechanisms, even less radical ones, that can increase productivity, are to be prevented from reducing socially necessary labor-time to an unacceptably low level, new forms of employment have to be created.
Essentially, Society of the Spectacle is a book about the consequences of real subsumption, about the contradictions that it bears within its history and about the new regime of accumulation necessary to defer and compensate for the crises those contradictions contain.
A corporation like Foxxcon, the largest manufacturer of electronic components in the world, is something like a distillation of the entire history of the contradiction between capital and labor, the great movements of the industrial revolution, Taylorism, Fordism, the off-shoring of manufacturing labor, and the simultaneity of deindustrialization and post-Fordist cognitive capitalism with the persistence of the most traditional forms of miserable factory work.
The main piece is the sculptural object we have been looking at, titled Vanitas, a reproduction of the artista€™s office.
Every component of the artista€™s desk and of his tools is precisely rendered as either a three dimension drawing or a three dimensional scan. It mimics one of the primary gestures of that movement or style, bringing the artista€™s studio and living space into the museum. Obviously it is expensive to reproduce onea€™s office in nickel-plated aluminum and to display it so dramatically.
The content of his piece is nothing other than that relation, a reflection upon that relation. Baiera€™s piece should be considered as part of an installation, not merely a sculptural object, insofar as it does, in fact, come into relation with its surroundings, surroundings composed of digitally produced images and objects. In front of Vanitas, a meticulously composed compound photograph of the stone wall beside the earliest cave paintings, titled Canvas.
Not a reflection of the sun but an indexical image of its absorption, marked by the circular discoloration of the black tissue. Having held this meteorite in the palm of my hand, three years ago, I can testify to the strangeness of encountering its inexistence, distributed between these two art of objects. Instantiated as digital code, they were a€?ina€? that computer, stored in its memory banks, transformed on its screen.
At and through the limits of modernity, of capital, of mimesis, of thought, of sensation, and within their outside, his work draws us into that distribution.
Just remember that after about 425 or so diodes, the power supplies can become a little “labored” and squeal on you!
98% of the subjects indicated a medically significant stabilization of their rate of hair loss.
The spectrometer is shown configured in the perpendicular plane, the electron gun being placed in the vertical position with respect to the analysers which span the horizontal detection plane.
The electron source is a heated tungsten hairpin filament heated by passing around 2A of DC current through the filament. The saturated gain of these devices yields around 1E8 electrons in the output current pulse for a single electron which enters the input cone.
This allows the analyser to roam over a complete 360 degrees of the detection plane when in this geometry (apart from the position where the analysers would clash wth each other).
The analysers are then adjusted for maximum signal count and the procedure is iterated until a maximum is found. The dark noise count is also reduced when cooled, however since the reduced cathode PMT only produces dark counts of less than 20Hz at room temperature, this is not necessary during routine operations. The 1.82M resistor was chosen to optimise the single photon counting efficiency of the tube.
It is not found that these solder connections significantly affect the ultimate vacuum pressure in the system.


Isolated DC supplies to these amplifiers is obtained from a standard +15V supply, the circuit diagram being given in figure 8. The power supply to these TTL buffers is derived from the rate-meter supplies via 7805 5V regulators located internally.
This supply boosts the current without changing the main supply, thus ensuring supply stability before and after the electron gun is tuned.
Crucially, I want to show how the relation between those two histories is mediated by another: the history of technology. That is: focusing on the specific problem of the distribution of the insensible turns out to be the key to thinking about the relation between aesthetics and politics in a materialist way, in a manner properly responsive to the exigencies of Marxist historical materialism.
He sets in motion the natural forces which belong to his own body, his arms, legs, head and hands, in order to appropriate the materials of nature in a form adapted to his own needs. For example, according to Sohn-Rethel, the purely formal character of the Kantian forms of intuitiona€”space and timea€”can be understood as genetically related to the abstract formalism of the value form and the exchange relation.
Time and space assume thereby that character of absolute historical timelessness and universality which must mark the exchange abstraction as a whole and each of its features.
Thus the negation of the natural and material physicality constitutes the positive reality of the abstract social physicality of the exchange processes from which the network of society is woven. This real abstraction constitutes a kind of a€?second nature,a€? and Sohn-Rethel argues that this second nature is a€?the arsenal from which intellectual labor through the eras of commodity exchange draws its conceptual resources.a€? We can situate this analysis more broadly at the level of the whole process of valorization, or the accumulation of capital through circulation.
We need to supplement Sohn-Rethela€™s materialist critique of epistemology with a history of media technologies like that carried out by Friedrich Kittler.
Thus, without further increasing the length of the working day, one can increase surplus value (this called a€?relative surplus valuea€?). But Marx makes clear that the part of capital invested in constant capital does not undergo any alteration in the process of production, it does not increase (this is why it is called constant). This means that less money is being paid out on the labor market for the consumption of commodities. A happy solution presents itself in the growth of the tertiary or service sector in response to the immense strain on the supply lines of the army responsible for distributing and hyping the commodities of the moment. And behind the passage I just read, we can also read a commentary on the history of technology. The conditions of possible experience are themselves conditioned by the moving contradiction between capital and labor. Indeed, bearing the conditions of its production in mind, one might view a device like an Apple computer as a distillation of the entire history of modernitya€”of the manner in which modernity acts upon external nature and changes it, and in this way simultaneously changes its own nature, from the printing press to the steam engine to the silicon chip. Each of these objects is then reproduced, at exact scale, by either machining in aluminum (in the case of objects that were drawn) or stereolithography (in the case of objects that were scanned). But in doing so it forecloses the primary content of that gesture, radically separating this space from that of the viewer, encasing it within a mise-en-abyme in which only images interact with one another. A tour de force of concept, design, and execution, the piece is also nothing if not resourceful. As he did with the objects reproduced in Vanitas, Baier made a three dimensional scan of the meteorite and then reproduced ita€”at a much larger scalea€”through stereolithography. In women, the hair becomes thinner all over the head -often referred to as “diffuse thinning"- and the hairline does not recede.
I did notice this all-off-a-sudden, and I noticed it after I trimmed my hair (therefore cutting off the gray tips). The electron gun is a two stage non-energy selected gun that produces an incident electron beam current of up to 4 microamps at an incident energy from around 30eV to 300eV. The 470k resistors bias the dynodes to achieve saturation of the current pulse at the output of the tube, hence biasing the tube for single photon counting applications. This was found to be necessary to eliminate problems associated with current loops from the 20A peak motor current feeding the common point of the logic circuitry.
The relation between the history of capital and the history of mimesis is mediated by the history of technics.
Through this movement he acts upon external nature and changes it, and in this way his simultaneously changes his own nature.
It is independent because the exchange value of a commodity is entirely determined by the average socially necessary labor time required to produce it, not by the materials of which it is composed. We can view the process of production from two sides, but what it produces are commodities that are sold for money, which is reinvested in the production process and thereby becomes capital. He does not think the distribution of the insensible, the movement of valorization, and thus he misses entirely the dimension of political economy in his thinking of politics. The social process of valorization is the very medium in which we think, and to which thinking is applied through intellectual labor (such as management). And indeed, Kittlera€™s media-theoretical analysis of discourse networks should also be understood as a materialist critique of Kantian idealism. It communicates with itself, through its own data channels, and consciousness is the epiphenomenon of communication.
Thus, during the period of formal subsumption, the extraction of surplus value is primarily correlated to the length of the working day and the cost of labor power.
This is what automation and capitalist management techniquesa€”Taylorism and Fordisma€”are for.
So labor has to be reabsorbed into the labor market to support consumption and prevent overproduction. The development of industrial automation both necessitates and creates the conditions of possibility for the invention of new media apparatuses, especially digital information technologies and networks. The history of the sensible, the transformations undergone in the media-technological conditions of sensation and experience, is also the history of the insensiblea€”the history of the process of valorization as it develops in relation to contradictions in the labor process. This process includes every electric or electronic plug and cord connecting Baiera€™s computer, his monitors, his speakers, and his scanner. Although it draws the space within which the artist works and thinks into the space of the museum, the artist is pointedly absent. It patently shows off the artista€™s mastery of that form of technA“ so crucial to contemporary art practice: the capacity to get funding. At his desk, thinking, communicating, representing, the artist enters into the circuits of capital, the movement of valorizationa€”as do we all, one way or another. He then melted the meteorite down and used the graphite of which it was composed to paint the surface of Monochrome (Black).
Frankly, it’s hard to tell what hair is like at the base in your thick side area, but these two were pretty obvious. The analysers are identical, and consist of a 3-element electrostatic lens focussing the interaction region onto the entrance of a hemispherical electrostatic energy analyser. The Anode deflector pair corrects for any misalignment of the filament emission point with respect to the axis of the electron gun. And it is through this history, this mediation, that art takes up techniques which throw us back outside the history of capital, outside the history of mimesisa€”indeed, outside the history of the human, the history of thought, and the history of sensationa€”within and through the technical means to which the linked histories of capital, mimesis, and technics give rise.
Labor time is that abstract, universal equivalent which will find its answer in the universal abstraction of the money form, and value is not a material thing but a social relation.
Production produces both surplus value and capital, and capital produces expanded cycles of accumulation. One consequence of this failure is that he has no rigorous means of accounting for the relation of his history of art and artistic regimes to the history of capital, to structural changes of the contradiction between capital and labor. Insofar as intellectual labor is subsumed by capital, as is manual labor, the forms of thought themselves enter into a relation of dialectical genesis with the value form. For Kittler, it is not transcendental categories but media technologies which determine the conditions of any possible experience. The capitalist wants to extend the working day as much as possible, and to reduce wages as much as possible. What Marx calls a€?real subsumptiona€? is this revolutionizing of the production process such that it becomes properly capitalist. Thus, as relatively more capital is invested in constant capital and relatively less capital is invested in variable capital, relatively less capital is available for conversion into surplus value. The process of real subsumption thus also requires the growth of the tertiary service sector, which produces both a new labor market and new fields of commodity production and consumption. These not only enable the growth of the tertiary service sector and its forms of communicative labor and consumption, they also themselves produce new markets of goods and services.
Shortly after he coined the term a€?immaterial labor,a€? Maurizio Lazzarato renounced it, for the good reason that the term was impossible to reconcile with a materialist position. It includes the crumpled pieces of paper in his trash can and a book lying open beside his keyboard. The piece is something like an anti-humanist negation of relational aesthetics: perfectly finished, enclosed, complete, pristine, it subtracts the participation of the viewer precisely through the viewera€™s gaze, which is drawn into and lost within the reflexive auto-mimesis of the object.
The distribution of the insensible: the movement of capital, the structural transformation of the contradiction between capital and labor, the circuitous courses of the process of valorizationa€”all this is how a digital information system ends up inside a mirrored box in the company of fluorescent lighting and minimalist furnishings, installed on the distressed concrete floors of an art gallery. The matter of the object thus remains, and so does its form, but the object itself has disappeared into an uncanny splitting of their formerly integral relation. Canvas shows us the primordial matter of mimesis: the substrate of inaugural images carved in stone, with stone. The Chamber is lined internally with 3mm thick mu-metal, and a mu-metal cylinder encloses the chamber externally as shown.
The electrons selected in angle and energy are amplified using Mullard 919BL channel electron multipliers. The defining apertures limit the pencil and beam angles of the electron beam following focussing by lens 2 onto the interaction region. The load is set by the 50W resistor across the anode to the HT feed, the pulse being decoupled to ground via the 1nF capacitor.
As Marx tells us in Chapter 8 of Volume One, a€?the means of production on one hand, labor-power on the other, are merely the different forms of existence which the value of the original capital assumed when it lost its monetary form and was transformed into the various factors of the production process.a€? Both the means of production and labor power are different elements of capital in its own valorization process. In my opinion, this is a problem substantial enough to render his history of aesthetics more or less irrelevant. For Sohn-Rethel, the Kantian transcendental subject is the representative modern figure of this dialectic (though its status as such is occluded by the idealism of transcendental philosophy).
The rate of surplus value extraction depends upon these factors (this is called a€?absolute surplus valuea€?). It is not only that labor is subsumed under the value form, but that the very constitution of labor itself changes.
Capital needs to invest more in technology in order to increase productivity and sustain the valorization process. The new regime of accumulation that accompanies this structural transformation is what Guy Debord theorizes as the Spectacle. And more importantly, they are the technological ground for the massive growth of speculative markets we call a€?financialization,a€? which is predicated (in its contemporary form) upon the exchange of digital information. He should have referred instead to a€?insensible labor.a€? Information and cognition are not immaterial, but they are insensible.
Each of these reproduced objects is then plated in mirrored nickel before being rearranged, in in a reproduction of their configuration, within a parallelepiped encased on all six sides in one-way mirrored glass and illuminated by overhead fluorescent light. His studio is something like the Platonic form of so-called a€?immaterial labora€?a€”designer furniture and designer devices, neatly arrayed with the precision of an architectural firm blessed with a particularly fastidious custodial staff.
This movement, this transformation, this process is what we are looking at, though we cannot see it. This reduces the magnetic field at the interaction region to less than 5mG, an acceptable level for the electron energies used in this experiment. The interaction region defined by the interaction of the gas target beam and the electron beam is focussed onto the photocathode of an EMI 9789QB photomultiplier tube via a lens, 450nmA±50nm optical filter and defining aperture. Placement of the apertures ensures that the beam angle is close to zero degrees at the interaction region over a wide range of energies, whereas the aperture opening reduces the pencil angle to around A±2 degrees over this energy range. But we can also recognize, as Catherine Malabou argues in What Should We Do With Our Brain?, that there is a structural homology between post-Fordist management discourse emphasizing non-hierarchical networks, self-organization, flexibility, and innovation, and contemporary neurological theory, which views the brain as a decentralized network of neuronal assemblies and emphasizes neurological plasticity as the ground of cognitive flexibility and adaptation. In the discourse network of 1800, the book is the site of an encounter between reading and writing, wherein the romantic imagination produces a projection of the soul into what Novalis calls a€?a real, visible world,a€? written into and read off of printed signifiers, emerging from the text as synaesthetic phantasmagoria in which all the senses are drawn together by the hallucinatory experience of Literature. Importantly, then, real subsumption requires and depends upon technological innovation: the capitalist process of production both needs and produces new machines because these increase productivity within a given period of time and thus compensate for limits on the length of the working day.
But by doing so, it also decreases the amount of capital which can be converted into surplus value.
The tech boom and its implosion are the logical and necessary outcome of real subsumption, pushing beyond its limits into the society of the Spectacle. And the forms of affective labor which precisely are sensed are premised upon the indistinction of labor and leisure, the impossibility of distinguishing them under conditions of post-Fordist accumulation. Star (Black) confronts us with an extra-terrestrial outside, encountered, vanished, recordeda€”at once absent and yet uncannily present as residue and reproduction. The target gas effuses from a 0.6mm ID hypodermic needle constructed from platinum iridium alloy.
The 10MW safety resistor prevents the output charging up to a high voltage if the feed is disconnected. The deflectors between the apertures correct for space and surface charge beam variations inside the field free region, whereas the final deflectors allow the beam to be steered onto the interaction region defined by focussing a 1mm aperture in front of the photomultiplier tube onto the gas target beam. The concrete process of transforming materials through labor, aided by tools, is subsumed by the abstract process of valorization. In the discourse network of 1900, gramophone, film, and typewriter effect an analytic separation of this sensory synthesis, constituting distinct technologies of recording and transmission for sound, the moving image, and the written word. Thus, due to forces of competition and technological innovation driving increased productivity, the rate of surplus value extraction tends to decline.
It is labor itself that becomes insensible under these conditions, dispersed into networks linking neurons and screens and indistinguishable from the most intimate gestures of our affective lives. These are images of the deep time of human and cosmological history, outside the limits of modernity, of capital and its enabling technologies of representation. The electrons passing through the interaction region which are not scattered are collected in a Faraday cup opposite the electron gun. Such would be a historical materialist account of conceptual abstraction following from Sohn-Rethela€™s critical of idealist epistemology.
What Kittler calls a€?media differentiationa€? carves up the Romantic imagination, sutured to the book, and parcels out its capacities among discrete technologies addressed to a segmented perceiver: an ear, an eye, a minda€”a modernist collage of the formerly integral subject.
Thus, it is only possible to extend the working day so much, or to reduce wages to so little, because the reproduction of capital depends upon the reproduction of labor.
What the installation asks us to think, however, is the manner in which it is these technologies of representation which record this outside, which draw our attention to it and make it manifest. The gun, photomultiplier tube, gas hypodermic and Faraday cup all rotate on a common yoke with an axis through the centre of the horizontal detection plane, allowing all geometries from the perpendicular plane to the coplanar geometry to be accessed.
The precise transformations of materials it enablesa€”its retentional exactitudea€”precisely negate all transformation. Simply put, the way we thinka€”the form of thinkinga€”is dialectically intertwined with the structure and the historical movement of capitalist accumulation. Like Malicka€™s The Tree of Life, Baiera€™s meteorite indexes a cosmological time and an inhuman history which never was sensed, which was prior to sensationa€”though, like Malicka€™s film, Baier makes this history manifest through the most sophisticated technological means of representation.
The labor of the artist is the transformation of money, through materials, into its own image. Baiera€™s Canvas, a meticulous photographic recording of the bare stone wall beside the first recorded images, situates this indexical effort within the whole history of representationa€”again, carrying us outside the modern technics of mimetic exactitude which make the digital rendering of this stone wall possible in the first place. But this is also to transform them into an art object: neither tool nor raw material, neither instrument nor that to which it is applied. Rather, a worked form, presented, apparently useless and withdrawn from exchangea€”though of course it has its uses and cannot help but find its way back to market.



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Comments to «Power supply computer does not turn on»

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