Power supply efficiency definition,numerology name master number destiny,power packer 12v hydraulikpumpe - PDF 2016


Green IT is a big topic, that’s why more and more computer power supplies get a 80 PLUS label for showing off their superior efficiency. I started to dig deeper and finally found a paper about International Efficiency Marketing  Protocol, which finally revealed what efficiency a power supply has to have at what level including level V. So when you look at those values, you can see that III and IV are pretty much the same, only level V shows real improvement.
I have a DELL inpirion notebook, and i brought another power suplly directly from a dell call center. And analyzing the background the only thing I found different is this efficiency level (one is IV and other is V – the original). Habe mich auch gerade gefragt, was die Effizienzklasse V auf meinem Laptop soll, danke fur die Aufklarung!
Ich habe grad das Netzteil meines Notebooks durchgelesen, weil es mal wieder soooooo hei? ist. This design example report introduces high efficiency 18 W power supply employing TOPSwitch®-JX TOP264VG.
The TOPSwitch-JX, by design, maintains virtually constant efficiency across a very wide load range without using special operating modes to meet specific load thresholds.
The low MOSFET capacitance of TOPSwitch-JX allows a higher switching frequency without the efficiency penalty which occurs with standard discrete MOSFET. This power supply offers thermal overload protection with auto-recovery using large hysteresis. This document provides complete design details including specifications, the schematic, bill of materials, PCB layout and transformer design and construction information. This power supply employs a TOP264VG integrated off-line switcher IC, (U1), in a flyback topology for low no-load, high efficiency and compact power supply operating from universal inputs and providing a 12 V, 18 W output. Fuse F1 provides catastrophic fault protection to the circuit, and isolates it from the AC source. The EcoSmart® feature of U1 automatically provides constant efficiency over the entire load range. The TOP264VG regulates the output by adjusting the duty cycle based on the current into its CONTROL © pin. The clamp network formed by C4, R2, R3, R4, and D5 limits the drain voltage (preventing spikes at MOSFET turn off) and dissipates transformer leakage inductance energy.
To further improve the no load input power at high input voltage resistor R23 was added to provide a current of 25uA into the V pin from the C pin. Your use of this website constitutes acknowledgement and acceptance of our Terms & Conditions. SHiMmer is a standalone embedded system designed for active ultrasonic structural health monitoring (SHM), it comprises three boards: a digital board based on a ADI BlackFin DSP for data analysis and wireless networking running a custom Linux-based OS, an analog board that manages 16 independent channels and generates high-voltage active SHM pulse for the lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) sensors, and a power manager board that collects energy from a solar energy harvester, stores the energy into a Supercapacitor, generates the required power supply rails and manages a Li-Ion battery acting as back-up energy reservoir. The microcontroller is connected to a passive radio trigger circuit, which can wake up the microcontroller if the UAV sends the signal. But while CPUs, GPUs and other components command more attention, it's hard to ignore the fact that the PSU is arguably your PC's most important bit of hardware. The simple-looking box is tasked with serving up a reliable supply of power to all of your PC's components, and without it, your PC simply wouldn't work. Sounds simple enough, but the importance of the PSU is such that its reliability and efficiency should not be overlooked.
The ATX (Advanced Technology eXtended) standard, introduced by Intel in 1995, has governed the way in which power supplies have evolved in recent years.
The most recent revision, ATX 2.3, dates back to 2007 and requires all power supplies to offer at least 70 per cent efficiency, with an optional recommendation of at least 80 per cent. You've already heard the word efficiency mentioned in this guide - but exactly why is it so important?
The higher the power supply efficiency, the better, but it's important to note that efficiency can vary at different workloads. As a result of the reduced efficiency at low loads, it's important to match the power supply rating to the needs of your computer.
Generally speaking, optimum efficiency can be found by ensuring that the rated capacity of a power supply is approximately 50 per cent more than the typical consumption of the computer. All power supplies are given a maximum power output rating, but exactly how much power you need will be dependant on your PC's components. It's important to note, however, that the power-output rating is not officially certified and is often a manufacturer-proclaimed number that can come in two very different forms: peak and continuous. If you already know a thing or two about power supplies, you'll be aware that manufacturers and users have in recent years been touting the benefits of either having a single 12V rail, or multiple 12V rails. Multiple rails are a good idea, then, but unfortunately for Intel's specification, a few poorly-constructed power supplies gave multiple rails a bad reputation that continues to linger. Fortunately, that inappropriate layout is becoming a rarity, and most PSUs on the market now feature one 12V rail solely for PCIe connectors, and another for the PC's other components. Power supplies come equipped with a variety of integrated connectors, but there's no standard selection and you'll need to ensure that your chosen PSU has all of the connections required for your PC. As far as connectivity is concerned, the easiest way to ensure you have all bases covered is to opt for a power supply with more connectors than you're ever likely to need.

One possible workaround is to opt for a modular power supply that allows users to attach only the cables they intend to use.
Unlike non-modular PSUs that have a grouping of cables connected to the unit at all times, a modular power supply (such as the Corsair AX650, pictured above) features an array of ports to which cables can be easily attached. Modular PSUs are undoubtedly neater, but be warned, they're normally more expensive than their non-modular counterparts.
ATX PSUs typically measure 150mm x 86mm x 140mm in size, but the depth can vary depending on brand and if you're working with a small-form-factor chassis, you'll be happy to hear that mini-ATX and micro-ATX power supplies are also available. Opting for a well-respected brand will stand you in good stead, and remember, always take the time to check reviews at reputable online publications.
But if you every decide to run a Intel Atom based PC, use a PicoPSU, just power your notebook or charge your phone, you won’t really find out how efficient the power supply is. At the same time, when you think that you are using a PicoPSU with 96% efficiency, you would actually only get 87%*96%=83% total efficiency, which isn’t so great at all.
It’s so reasonable to have an average minimum consumption labeled on passive power supplies – all power supplies should have this! Ich verstehe nicht so viel von Netzteilen, aber etwas von Solarstrom, der ohnehin DC daher kommt. This design operates in the input voltage ranging from 90 VAC to 265 VAC with an output of 12 V at 1.5 A. It is primary-side sensed output overload and overvoltage protection, even with a single fault.
This information includes performance results pertaining to regulation, efficiency, standby, transient load, power-limit data, and conducted EMI scans. It uses a proprietary Multi-cycle-modulation (MCM) function to eliminate the need for special operating modes triggered at specific loads. The power supply output voltage is sensed on the secondary side by shunt regulator U2 and provides a feedback signal to the primary side through optocoupler U3.
The microcontroller (ATMega128L) controls the power of the rest of the functional units by a CMOS switch network. The microcontroller is interfaced with a radio transceiver working in the 433MHz band, a 32-bit DSP and an EEPROM storing the code for the DSP. Presented in what's usually a mundane box spitting cables from one end, this is a product that's neither aesthetically pleasing nor technically interesting to the majority of self-builders. That DC power is then routed to various PC components to give them the electrical juice required to run. In this guide, we'll explain which features to look for when purchasing a new power supply, and we'll aim to bust a few myths along the way.
In addition to this change, the power supply's primary connection to the motherboard was changed to a large, 20-pin, keyed connector to prevent any potentially-hazardous mix-ups.
In 2003, the then-new-and-improved ATX 2.0 standard re-evaluated the way in which power is distributed by specifying that two independent 12V rails should be used with independent over-current protection to power most of a PC's components.
If your power supply is rated as 70 per cent efficient, it would require 200W of AC power in order to create a 140W DC output. Using the efficiency graph of a Corsair 520W power supply, below, we can see that the unit is most-efficient when a load of between 50 and 60 per cent is applied. For example, using the above-mentioned Corsair 520W unit to power a system that typically consumes around 100W (representing an approximate 20 per cent load) would not be optimal.
If a power supply claims a 400W continuous output, it is able to constantly provide that much power. Buying a 500W PSU doesn't mean that your PC will consume 500W at all times - it will only use what the PC calls for!
Trouble is, if both of them are said to offer benefits, which allocation of rails is right for you, and why did we go from single to multiple in the first place? With modern-day components placing a greater demand on the 12V rail, Intel's ATX specification was amended to suggest that PSUs should feature two 12V rails with independent over-current protection for safety reasons.
Instead of separating PCIe connectors across multiple rails, some PSUs were found to feature all of their available PCIe connections on one rail - resulting in an overload when multiple components were attached, ensuring an automatic shutdown. Certain certifications - such as NVIDIA SLI - are available to indicate that PCIe connectors will be placed on their own 12V rail. For the vast majority of users, there's no perceivable difference between a single- or multiple-rail PSU.
This 24-pin connector provides a PC motherboard with power, and it's backward-compatible, too, meaning it'll work just fine on an older motherboard with a 20-pin port.
These compact cables are primarily used to power storage devices - ensure you have enough of them for all of your optical drives and hard drives. These Molex cables are used to power a variety of components ranging from hard disks to system fans, but have been used less frequently since the arrival of SATA. Introduced as part of the ATX 2.1 specification in 2005, this connector is generally used to supply power to powerful graphics cards.
Commonly configured as a 6+2-pin connector, this provides more power to high-end graphics cards and can be used with both 6-pin and 8-pin products.
Seems like a good idea, but all that cabling is going to introduce more clutter to your PC, and it may obstruct your chassis' airflow.

A wide range of cables are typically bundled with the unit, and the cables are often available in different lengths - making it easier to choose the right cable for your chassis. For personal computers, it aims to ensure that the total system power consumption does not exceed 1W when turned off or placed into standby. In addition to everything we've mentioned thus far, keep an eye out for sleeved cables (they help keep your PC looking tidy), a large, well-positioned fan (it'll help keep your PSU running cool, and larger fans are typically quieter) and a mean time between failure of at least 50,000 hours (a higher MTBF suggests that your PSU will live longer). I came across this problem while searching for an efficient power supply for my new Atom-based home server. I created a little table to show you how the the levels correspond to the actual efficiency.
It regulates the output by adjusting the MOSFET duty cycle, based on the current fed into its CONTROL © pin.
This simplifies circuit design since it removes the need to design for aberrant or specific operating conditions or load thresholds. This high frequency operation has no major impact on efficiency or EMI thanks to very low capacitance PI MOSFET technology and proprietary frequency jitter feature.
With R23 fitted, the absolute current into the CONTROL pin to set a given duty cycle is reduced by ~50% reducing power consumption from both the bias winding and output. Once the microcontroller is waked up, it communicates with the UAV via the radio transceiver (CC1100).
The microcontroller also controls a network of CMOS switches used to selectively disconnect the different parts of the node from the power source. The remaining 60W (30 per cent) is wasted in heat, and the heightened temperature can result in more noise as the PSU fan speeds up to keep the unit cool.
A useful rule of thumb, but note that the efficiency curve will vary from manufacturer to manufacturer. In contrast, if a power supply claims a peak output of 600W, it will only be able to provide that much power for a short period of time and will likely deliver far less in real-world scenarios.
By limiting the flow of amps in each rail, there's less chance of wires becoming dangerously hot. The 4-pin ATX12V connector is common to most power supplies, but the 8-pin EPS12V connector is available on high-end units for motherboards and processors that require considerably more power.
I started to look at my other passive power supplies and found another label on the Toshiba R400′s. Based on the instruction received from the UAV, the microcontroller then fetches the instructions for the DSP (TMS320C2811) that stored in the EEPROM (Microchip 25AA256) via the SPI interface.
A passive radio-triggering circuit is used to generate an interrupt to wake it up when a proper signal is sent by the UAV. And, as a general rule, higher temperatures are detrimental to long-term component longevity. To help make it easier to identify the most-efficient units, keep an eye out for the 80 PLUS logo - it certifies units that are at least 80 per cent efficient at varying workloads.
Gamers and enthusiasts - who often use powerful discrete graphics cards - are more likely to use power supplies rated up to 800W, and extreme users - who may have multiple graphics cards or multiple CPUs - can find power supplies rated in excess of 1,000W. Despite the lower power rating, the PSU claiming 400W of continuous output would be the better choice in this example. After start-up, the bias winding powers the controller via the current through the optocoupler into the CONTROL pin.
The DSP is interfaced to 1Mb of SRAM (CY7C1021), a DAC (DAC902), and two signal conditioning stages (actuation and sensing). As a consequence, the microcontroller is the only component drawing current from the power source in sleep mode. This input filter is compliant to UL standard 60950-1 without bleed resistor to allow safe removal of the AC source. SHiMmer is equipped with a an energy harvesting circuit which collects energy by means of solar cells and stores it in super-capacitors. No batteries are included in the node because of their low durability and fast performance degradation.
The solar cells integrated in the node sum up to an area of 100cm2 and can produce up to 360mW in sunny conditions. I tried to google for efficient converter, but had no luck, so I gave up… until the case of my new home server arrived, a Gigabyte MIB T5140. Also, the DSP controls a multiplexer that selects different PZT as sensor or actuator from a group of 16 PZTs.
The super-capacitors are commercial devices with a working voltage of 2.5V and a low ESR, which results in a low leakage current. CEC stands for Canadian Energy Commision  (Energy Star) and would be perfect for certifying power supply efficiencies. I started going through white papers of CEC and they only mentioned what I-IV mean, showing that V is reserved for future use.

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