To see our content at its best we recommend upgrading if you wish to continue using IE or using another browser such as Firefox, Safari or Google Chrome. Rights groups are pushing the United Nations high commissioner for human rights to open an international investigation into Pyongyang's "deplorable" record on its citizens' rights, including a system of political prisons that has operated for more than 50 years. The fence has two checkpoints and six guard posts, while a number of accommodation units and office buildings are also clearly visible. The American secret service NSA was able to access to sensitive North Korean systems since 2010. The American secret service would have decided to penetrate Chinese networks which connect North Korea with the rest of world in 2010. The NSA would have succeeded to smuggle malware inside networks used by North Korean hackers. The data the NSA gathered using the malware would have been used to convince President Obama that North Korea is behind the hack on Sony pictures, according to The New York Times which claims it received information from government employees and computer experts. The latest piece of news on a war of villans (the NSA, Sony, and the north Korean government).
Register in 10 seconds, pick a username, enter your mail address and proof you're human, that's all! At Myce most social media feature are done server side and impose no privacy risk to the visitor when not used. Switch to the List layout for an index with chronologycally listed news items or Grid layout for a block based layout. During the Battle of Britain 13 Group Fighter Command HQ was a key part of the Dowding air defence system.
Gathering, standardising, disseminating and coordinating all of this involved not just fighter pilots and ground crews but radar technicians, plotters, teleprinters, fighter controllers, Anti-Aircraft and Royal Observer Corps Liaison Officers, 30,000 Royal Observer Corps members, pilot trainers, air raid precautions members, members of the public the Royal Navy and many more. People played a massive role in making 13 Group HQ operate effectively but it was only as good as the information and technology at its disposal. To understand the role of technology in the bunker and defending the skies a basic knowledge is needed of the structure of Fighter Command and the channels of information. Radar relies on a transmitted radio signal being reflected back from an aeroplane, like an echo.
Radar intelligence was reported direct to Fighter Command HQ at Stanmore who passed it to Group HQs. As the raids got closer The Royal Observer Corps, often positioned on the coast, would then be the first to spot incoming raids and report further on range, height and bearing via telephone or VHF radio whilst those inland were able to help track the raids once they had passed over the coastline. The combination of radar and spotters was very effective though Reichsmarschall Hermann Wilhelm Goering failed to recognis the importance of British radar or thought it too primitive in comparison to their own radar systems to be of any significance. The observer corps reported to Observer Corps Centres who passed the information to Sector Control Rooms. The information from radar and Observer Corps was passed up and down the chain of command to allow the overall picture to be plotted and to ensure if one sector was knocked out of action, Fighter Command could still function effectively.

With the vast amount of information going in and out of 13 Group HQ it was important to have a strong telecommunications infrastructure. In 1937 Kenton Bar, Newcastle was identified as a possible location for the 13 Group Headquarters as the large number of telephone and signaling circuits that would be required for a fighter command HQ could easily be provisioned. Telephones were used to relay relatively non-sensitive information or scrambled to make the information more secure. Teleprinters, an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages from point to point and point to multipoint over various types of communications channels were also heavily used. Whilst plotters and controllers at Group 13 HQ received continual updates on the locations of raids from sector control rooms and from Fighter Command it was also important for the commanders and controllers at group and sector levels to know where the squadrons were, in a timely fashion. Inside the 13 Group bunker the tote and state of squadrons board told them a number of pieces of vital information. In order to vector (direct) the defending fighters on to an incoming raid, the controller had to know exactly where they were. Pip-Squeak was the code-word for Identification Friend or Foe equipment installed in at least two key aircraft in each RAF Sector Station's Flight or Squadron. With all the incoming and outgoing information plots were made on the board to represent flight path of raids, current position, altitude and raid number with similar being done to plot the friendly fighter squadrons. On the blocks in our reconstructions, which were modeled from those shown at the Uxbridge, 11 Group HQ, bunker, there are two lines of text. Information gathered by espionage software on these systems led to the conclusion that North Korea is behind the Sony hack, according to The New York Times.
Together with South Korea and some other partner countries, the NSA would have been able to track internet connections frequently used by North Korean hackers.
A team of hackers in the communist country would operate by the name Bureau 121 which in its turn was under control of the secret service of the Asian country. Also German publication Der Spiegel published a new NSA document which underlines the information. The United States have initiated economical sanctions against the country due to the incident.
Each Group had its own area of Britain to defend and was split into Sectors with RAF stations in each sector area, one of which was the Sector Control Station. Initially appointed by the Air Ministry in 1934 to develop a weapon in response to rumours of a German death ray machine, Watson-Watt instead began experimenting on the potential use of radar. This echo is then received and analysed to determine the aircraft's range, height and bearing. Each command group had numerous sector airfields and the teleprinter could be used to send secure messages to them as well as Group Fighter Command and even Bletchley Park, Churchill's Secret Intelligence and Computers Headquarters as well as other military establishments throughout the UK. This allowed them to assess which squadrons were best placed to patrol or intercept at any given time and to pass around necessary orders and feed information back into the intelligence network.
When enabled, Pip-Squeak regularly keyed the Hurricane or Spitfire radio transmitter for 14 seconds every minute.

This gave a timely overview of what the general situation was and allowed discussions to happen and decisions to be made. The first line shows the raid number on enemy plots, the blocks without yellow flags, whilst the lower level text shows altitude. The United States would have taken action because the country was worried about increasing cyberwarfare capabilities of North Korea.
Sector Control rooms could scramble pilots from not only the sector airfield but other airfields within their sector area. Whilst primitive at its time, the network of radar stations from the south west of England all the way to the north east of Scotland, Chain Home, cast a defensive net around Britain.
Group then passed it up to Fighter Command HQ and the plots were successfully updated at Sector, Group and Fighter Command HQ levels.
This gave a solid indication as to the fighting strength of a squadron and its ability to regroup and rearm after a sortie. Three ground-based aerials in each sector allowed finding station operators, normally women from the Women’s Auxiliary Air Force, to take bearings from these signals, triangulate and determine the position of the Squadron Leader's aircraft and hence the general location of his Squadron.
Some evidence from other bunkers shows enemy raid blocks which contain a third level of information stating the estimated enemy aircraft number. All the Sector Control Stations reported to the Group Headquarters, and they in turn reported to Fighter Command Headquarters at Stanmore in Middlesex, near London. Dowding had recognised the importance of early warning and radar and though at this time hard to interpret accurately, it gave crucial early intelligence on incoming raids.
By the time raids were within Observer Corps line of sight it was important for Sector Operations to get the information first as they needed to react quickly and order their sector airfield or other airfield squadrons to specific states, raids, altitudes etc. This information was then passed on by the WAAFs at the Direct Finding Station via dedicated GPO phone lines to the Sector Control Room where they were plotted on the general situation map. The Fighter Command Headquarters also acted as a filter and communications centre passing information from radar intelligence down to Group level who could pass it down to Sector level. Those bomber formations could make the English coastline within 10-15 mins but in order to reach optimal operational height fighter defence squadrons needed around 15-20 mins. The RAF refer to a transponder system, possibly the same thing, code-named Parrot with the instruction to switch it on being “Squawk your Parrot”. Optimal height meant higher than the enemy which gave them an element of surprise and tactical advantage.) This clearly demonstrates that time is of the essence if controllers were to give the pilots and squadrons the best chance of advantage against an enemy that often outnumbered them.

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