Here we provide reference information on the chemical pathways by which the classic neurotransmitters are synthesized.
As it turns out, AChE is very widely distributed, but ChAT is found primarily in the nuclei shown in the cholinergic pathway in Figure 4.4 of the printed text. Note that only neurons that possess the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase have the capacity to produce any catecholamine transmitter, and that l-dopa is a precursor for all three.
The monoamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, and melatonin) are inactivated through a combination of presynaptic reuptake and enzymatic breakdown. This impact report is for anyone interested in learning about impact and audience engagement campaigns for documentary films, and about animal rights issues.
Between December 2014 and January 2015, LizMars Productions conducted a formal impact evaluation in partnership with the US-based nonprofit organization the Humane Research Council (now rebranded as Faunalytics), funded by the Bertha BRITDOC Connect Fund. It is with immense gratitude that we conclude the film’s robust global campaign by releasing this important in-depth report. Please study it, share it, and know that we couldn’t have achieved any of it without you.
Watch The Ghosts In Our Machine around the world in English, French, German, Portuguese and Spanish. For questions, or to book a live or virtual presentation, please email filmmaker and impact producer Liz Marshall. ABOUTWith the exception of our companion animals and a few wild and stray species within our urban environments, we experience animals daily as the food, clothing, animal tested goods and entertainment we make of them. Injury forced Steve Garcia to the sidelines just days before Bellator 97 where he was to face Shawn Bunch. This entry was posted in Bellator MMA, MMA and tagged Bellator 105, Steve “Mean Machine” Garcia by MikaFrankl. Fetuses maintained in the mother’s body rely on her to provide warmth and regulate temperature. Because rat pups are born without hair, they have a hard time maintaining body temperature when exposed to cold. Nonetheless, one problem for newborn rats is insulating their hairless bodies to conserve the heat they generate. Sound arriving at the oval window causes traveling waves to sweep along the basilar membrane of the cochlea. Movement of the stereocilia of the hair cells causes the opening and closing of ion channels, thereby transducing mechanical movement into changes in electrical potential. The organ of Corti has both inner hair cells (IHCs, about 3,500 in humans) and outer hair cells (OHCs, about 12,000 in humans). Afferents from the inner hair cells transmit auditory information to the cochlear nuclei of the brainstem. Primary auditory cortex is specialized for processing complex, biologically important sounds, rather than pure tones.
Some forms of deafness may be alleviated by direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve by a cochlear implant. The receptors of the vestibular system that detect movement of the head lie within the inner ear next to the cochlea.
In contrast to being able to detect only a few tastes, humans can detect thousands of different odors.
There is a large family of odor receptor molecules, each of which utilizes G proteins and second messengers. Outputs from the olfactory bulb extend to prepyriform cortex, amygdala, and hypothalamus, among other brain regions. The vomeronasal organ (VNO) contains receptors to detect pheromones released from other individuals of the species.
Regeneration of the axons of the peripheral nervous system has always been accepted, but comparable structural regrowth has also been observed in the brain and spinal cord (Veraa and Grafstein, 1981). In the peripheral nervous system the story goes like this: If a peripheral sensory or motor fiber is injured, the terminal portions degenerate, and sensory or motor function in the affected region is immediately lost.
This mechanism seems to provide functional compensation for a loss of neuronal connections. Demonstrations of collateral sprouting in the brain and spinal cord, once rarely observed, are now reported with regularity.


Lesions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) abolish activity rhythms in constant conditions. Almost all mammals show two sleep states: slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep. REM sleep is characterized by rapid, low-amplitude EEG (almost like an EEG while awake), but also by profound muscle relaxation because motoneurons are inhibited.
Sleep stages cycle through the night, with stage 3 SWS prominent early, while REM predominates later. Four proposed functions of sleep are energy conservation, ecological niche adaptation, body restoration, and memory consolidation. Narcolepsy is characterized by sudden, uncontrollable periods of sleep, which may be accompanied by cataplexy, paralysis while remaining conscious.
By understanding these pathways, pharmacologists can target drug discoveries toward affecting specific transmitter systems.
Most of this enzymatic action is performed by a class of enzymes called monoamine oxidases (MAOs).
It is a tool for the global animal advocacy community, and for the global documentary industry. It marked the final phase of the film’s global 18-month outreach and engagement campaign. In fact, 96% of those who saw The Ghosts in Our Machine believe that animal rights is an important social justice issue. The match-up has been remade and Garcia has the opportunity for the fight he desperately wants. Most birds keep their eggs warm by using a specially vascularized area of skin (the brood patch), which transfers heat efficiently to the eggs. The rat mother keeps her pups protected in a warm nest, and warms them with her own body heat. The sound arriving at the tympanic membrane (eardrum) is focused by the three ossicles of the middle ear onto the oval window to stimulate the fluid-filled inner ear (specifically, the cochlea). For sounds of high frequency, the largest displacement of the basilar membrane is at the base of the cochlea, near the oval window; for low-frequency sounds, the largest amplitude is near the apex of the cochlea.
Cochlear neurons project bilaterally to the superior olivary nucleus, which in turn innervates the inferior colliculus.
For low-frequency sounds, differences in time of arrival at the two ears (latency differences) are especially important.
Experiences with sound early in life can influence later auditory localization and the responses of neurons in auditory pathways.
Conduction deafness consists of impairments in the transmission of sound through the external or middle ear to the cochlea.
Genetic manipulations can induce new hair cell growth in laboratory animals, raising hope of a gene therapy for sensorineural deafness. In mammals the vestibular system consists of three semicircular canals, plus the utricle and the saccule.
Taste cells extend fine filaments into the taste pore of each bud, where tastants come into contact with them. This gustatory system extends from the taste receptor cells through brainstem nuclei to the thalamus and then to the cerebral cortex.
Olfactory receptor cells are small neurons whose dendrites in the olfactory epithelium express olfactory receptor proteins. Large subfamilies of receptors are synthesized in distinct bands of the olfactory epithelium. Olfactory projections to the cortex maintain a stereotyped olfactory map of slightly overlapping projections from the glomeruli. These receptors transmit signals to the accessory olfactory bulb, which in turn communicates with the amygdala. For example, injury to catecholamine-containing fibers in the medial forebrain bundle leads to regrowth of axonal portions connected to nerve cells. Nerve fibers adjacent to the injured fibers recognize this injury (perhaps by a chemical signal delivered from the injured site), and they respond by developing sprouts or branches from intact axons. The injured nerve fiber (axon) slowly regrows, and as it approaches the skin or muscles to which it had been connected, the sprouts retract.


A growing view is that injury of the nervous system might release neurotrophic factors that stimulate collateral sprouting (Nieto-Sampedro and Cotman, 1985). Transplanting the SCN from one animal into another results in a free-running rhythm of the donor, demonstrating that the SCN contains a clock that can drive circadian activity.
Human SWS has three distinct stages (stages 1, 2, 3) defined by electroencephalography (EEG) criteria, including sleep spindles and large, slow delta waves. People awakened from REM frequently report vivid dreams, while people awakened from SWS report ideas or thinking. A few people sleep only an hour per night, suggesting that they accomplish the function(s) of sleep very efficiently, but all healthy people sleep. It also incurs sleep debt, although the lost SWS and REM may be partially restored in subsequent nights. The basal forebrain promotes SWS, the brainstem reticular formation promotes arousal, a pontine system triggers REM sleep, and hypothalamic neurons releasing hypocretin regulate these three centers. Furthermore, because enzyme action is crucial for transmitter synthesis, neuroanatomists can use the anatomical distribution of these enzymes to determine which transmitters are used by different brain regions.
The Ghosts in Our Machine was made available for free for a 3-day period, and the response was overwhelmingly positive: more than 4,500 people from more than 90 different countries (on 6 continents) viewed the film in just 72 hours! This is a remarkable achievement for a movement that has been historically marginalized – even stigmatized – and is considered by many people to be far less important than other social justice causes. We talk the match-up, the injury, and watching Bellator 97 instead of fighting at the event. Even after hatching or birth, the young of many species cannot regulate body temperature very well, mainly because they are small (and lose heat quickly) and have limited energy resources. Newborn rat pups are able to generate heat by using brown-fat deposits like the one between the shoulder blades, shown in Figure 1a (Blumberg et al., 1997). The outer hair cells change their length under the control of the brain, amplifying the movements of the basilar membrane in response to sound and sharpening the frequency tuning of the cochlea. From there auditory information is relayed to the medial geniculate nucleus and then the primary auditory cortex in the temporal lobe.
For high-frequency sounds, intensity differences are especially important, and spectral filtering provides cues about elevation. Sensorineural deafness arises in the cochlea, often because of the destruction of hair cells, or in the auditory nerve.
The semicircular canals use hair cells to detect rotation of the body in three planes, and the utricle and saccule sense static positions and linear accelerations. The taste buds are situated on small projections from the surface of the tongue called papillae. Each taste axon responds most strongly to one category of tastes, providing a labeled line to the brain. The fine, unmyelinated axons of olfactory neurons run to the olfactory bulbs and synapse within glomeruli. In time, usually weeks, these sprouts connect to denervated skin or muscle and acquire functional control of these regions on the periphery of the body (J. Several proteins (including Clock and Cycle) interact, increasing and decreasing in a cyclic fashion that takes about 24 hours.
During SWS, the body shows decreases in muscle tension, heart rate, respiratory rate, and temperature. When asked how much the film influenced them, 85% of viewers said 10 out of 10, meaning the film had “a great deal” of influence on them. Pups frequently change their positions in the huddle, regulating their temperature by moving to the inside or the outside of the clump. The tastes of salty and sour are evoked primarily by the action of simple ions on ion channels in the membranes of taste cells. The Ghosts in Our Machine is making a difference for animals, as demonstrated by results from the large-scale follow-up impact evaluation.
Sweet, umami, and bitter tastes are perceived by specialized receptor molecules belonging to the T1R and T2R families, which are coupled to G proteins.



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