E&C Press would like to know who you think was the a€?Pop Culture Stara€? of the month. Coming to you in our next issue; information on some of the biggest events and moments from the upcoming month. Every month, I will continue to do the best job that I can to make your reading experience enjoyable. The new season begins for everyonea€™s favorite offbeat work buddy comedy from TBS is back on April 4th.
A new thriller that takes you inside the world of crime and intrigue and shows you just how far one woman will go to protect her family.
Based in part by the book Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln by Doris Kearns Goodwin this film was adapted for the screen by the creative screenplay from Tony Kusherner. Steven Spielberg helmed his long-in-the-making biopic of Abraham Lincoln for DreamWorks and Touchstone Pictures. Based on the autobiographical writings of California-based journalist and poet Mark Oa€™Brien, tells the story of a man confined to an iron lung who is determined at age 38 to lose his virginity and study the inner workings of sexual mechanisms through scientific research. The ensemble cast included: James Franco, Michelle Williams, Rachel Weisz, Zach Braff, Mila Kunis, Bruce Campbell, Bill Cobbs, and Tony Cox. In the past month, in the pages of Batman Incorporated, Damian Wayne, Robin died a heroically in Gotham.
After the events of the last few months of the Rise of the Third Army that took place over the pages of Green Lantern, Green Lantern: New Guardians, Red Lanterns, and Green Lantern Corps, the next Green Lantern-centric story-arc started with the Wrath of the First Green Lantern. An epic, destiny-fueled adventures began here with the beginning of Wrath of the First Lantern.
Tony Bedard and Aaron Kuder were the creative team behind the latest adventure of Kyle Rayner as this Green Lantern had mastered the emotional spectrum. Peter Milligan and Miguel Sepulveda were the creative team behind the fourth chapter of Wrath of the First Lantern.
Richard Castlea€™s Storm Season reunites the lauded writing duo of Brian Michael Bendis and Kelly Sue DeConnick for their second Castle story. The Championship match on the Womena€™s side at Indians Wells, on March 17th was between #2 seeded, Maria Sharapova and #8 seeded, Caroline Wozniacki. The Championship match on the Mena€™s side at Indians Wells, on March 17th was between #5 seeded, Rafael Nadal and #7 seeded, Juan Martin Del Potro. The Championship match on the Womena€™s side at Miami, on March 30th was between #3 seeded, Maria Sharapova and #1 seeded, Serena Williams.
The Championship match on the Mena€™s side at Miami, on March 31st was between #3 seeded, David Ferrer against #2 seed, Andy Murray. The final score of the 2nd and final regular season match-up between UNC & Duke was- 69-53. Meanwhile this month marked plenty of political drama on top of the sequester, 2013 C-PAC conference took place with heavy hitters, Mitt Romney, Sarah Palin, Rick Perry, Michelle Bachman and Paul Ryan each taking the podium.
March was especially big for the complete chaos that was the Pop Culture world of comic books. To cap off an incredible month in the DCU: The New 52 management and content shake-ups, on March 19th, writer Andy Diggle went on Twitter and explained to his fans and the press that he has stepped down as writer of Action Comics which he recently was announced as the new ongoing writer of the series starting with the issue in April. From the world of basketball, to politics, to Popes, to tennis, pop culture & comic books a€?March Madnessa€? was never a more appropriate phrase to describe the past month. 2.Marvel announced that on September 4th, it would release the first ever Once Upon A Time OGN HC. 3.DC announced that Superman Unchained #1 would include a 4-page 2-sideded Jim Lee foldout, showing two different sides of The Man of Steel in combat.
6.Guillermo del Toro updates the Justice League Dark adaptation once titled Heaven Sent now going by Dark Universe at #WonderCon 2013. Habemas Papam, a€?We have a pope.a€? And the name of the man to emerge on the balcony in Vatican City is Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio of Argentina.
The church leader that believing Roman Catholics call the a€?successora€? of the apostle Peter and a€?the vicar of Christa€? will go by the name of Pope Francis and is the first non-European pope in modern times, and the first from a developing country. He was elected by a conclave that overwhelmingly shares the conservative views of Benedict who has held sway as an enforcer of orthodoxy in the Vatican since 1982. As John Allen of the National Catholic Reporter writes, a€?Either John Paul II or Benedict XVI appointed each of the 117 cardinals who will cast a ballot, including 11 Americans, so there will be little ideological clash. Left-of-center media have descended into a feeding frenzy to attack the Conservative Political Action Committee (CPAC) in the wake of its 40th year of hosting a successful gathering for conservative activists. Isabella Penola, a 15-year-old from the Midwest, is a co-editor at Brumbargera€™s website for conservative high schoolers.
In the United States federal budget, the sequester or sequestration refers to budget cuts to particular categories of federal spending that began on March 1, 2013 as an austerity fiscal policy.
The cuts are split evenly (by dollar amounts) between the defense and non-defense categories. Over the 2014a€“2023 period, the sequester would reduce planned spending outlays[note 2] by $995 billion with interest savings of $228 billion or a total of over $1.2 trillion in debt reduction. Check back next month for plenty more details on the above information and more about overall first impressions as the fall season less than a week old.
It was a month filled with announcements by the major networks and some notable cable series.
As for the pilots ordered from the last few weeks they include: ABC announced it signed Rebel Wilson to star in the ensemble comedy, Super Fun Night. There is another interesting map of this kind in the Hosyoin temple in the Siba Park at Tokyo, reproduced as frontispiece in the second volume of the travels of Yu-ho Den, in the collection of Buddhist books, 1917, and entitled Sei-eki Zu [Map of the Western Regions]. According to these documents Hiuen-tchoang, while on his travels in the Indies, found the original of the map, and, after having marked on it in vermilion ink the route he had followed, he placed it in the Ta€™sing-loung-tseu [Blue Dragon Temple] at Tcha€™ang-ngan, then the capital of China. These editors made history by quoting many Chinese books on the title of the map, which was originally Go Tenjuku Zu [Map of the Five Indiesa€?] and which, in their opinion, was not correct, since it dealt not only with the Indies but with the western regions also.
From the point of view of date alone the Hosyoin copy is not interesting, for we know of many other similar specimens much older. In 1710 (Hoei 7th year) this large (1 m 45 cm x 1 m 15 cm) woodcut map, supplied with a detailed explanatory text in Chinese, was published at Kyoto by a priest named Rokashi Hotan, under the pseudonym of Zuda Rokwa Si (died in 1738 at age 85). This map is a great example for Japanese world maps representing Buddhist cosmology with real world cartography.
On the other hand, this map is much more than a world map and the main concept by the author was to celebrate a historically very important event.
This all was based on the Japanese version of Hsuan-Tsanga€™s Chinese narrative, the Si-yu-ki, printed as late as 1653.
In the preface, in the upper margin of the sheet, are listed the titles of no less than 102 works, Buddhist writings, Chinese annals, etc., both religious and profane, which the author consulted when making his map. In the Buddhist world maps or Shumi world, the space for the regions called Nan-sen-bu and Nan-en-budai, etc.
This map can be described as a characteristic specimen of the type of early East Asiatic maps whose main distinctive feature is their completely unscientific character. From every point of view, however, the map preserved among the precious objects in the North Pavilion of the Horyuzi Temple at Nara is the most interesting. The nomenclature of this map, as well as that of the Hosyoin map, is taken from the Si-yA?-ki. There must certainly have been formerly in China some examples of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary, now long lost, while that taken from China to Japan must have been preserved there through long centuries. From Nakamuraa€™s examination of a many manuscript and printed Korean mappaemundi he has come to the conclusion that they cannot in themselves be dated earlier than the 16th century. A hybrid map, forming a link between the Korean mappamundi and Hiuent-choanga€™s itinerary, which dates from the eighth century, causes one to seek further the connection between these two groups of maps to establish the parentage of the Korean mappamundi. The first portions of this monograph conveys the results of Nakamuraa€™s researches into the nomenclature of these maps from the historical point of view, and into their dates, but it is absolutely necessary to carry out alongside these examinations an investigation of their relationships in configuration, that is to say, to study their morphology.
We do not know if Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary map was known from the commencement as The Map of the Five Indies, although it may commonly have been so called. But by whatever title it may be called, its content is always that of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary. Rokashi Hotan [Zuda Rokwa Si]a€™s Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu, 1710, a€?woodblock print, 118 x 1456 cm, Kobe City Museum, Japan.
Contains a list of Buddhist sutras, Chinese histories and other literary classics on the left side of the map title. Even as far back as the Tcheou Dynasty, Chinese cartography was well established where the court then had regular officials whose duties were concerned with the production and preservation of maps. Therefore, so far from the area described in Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels being the whole of the world known to the Chinese at the Thang period, the world they actually did know was very much greater. The map covers almost the whole of Asia, from the extreme east to Persia and the Byzantine Empire in the west, from the countries of the Uigours, the Kirghis and the Turks in the north to the Indies in the south, an area incomparably wider than that covered by Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels. This alone is sufficient to prove that the Chinese at this period well knew that the Map of the Five Indies was not of the whole world, but that it extended into the west and north beyond the areas indicated by the Si-yA?-ki. The fact that the Chinese represented the geographical content of the Si-yA?-ki in world form, without taking the slightest trouble to show the true shape of countries they knew well, not even China itself shows that, at the period of the Thang Dynasty, seventh to eighth century, they had a mappamundi of the Tchien-ha-tchong-do type in common use that they adopted it just as it was, without modifying it at all, and entered on it the Si-yA?-ki nomenclature. Therefore it may be said that the Korean mappamundi had its beginnings at a period rather earlier that than of the Thang Dynasty; that a map very like it in form was introduced into Korea from China at a certain period and, thanks to the development of printing in the 16th century. There is no doubt that the map by JA?n-cha€™ao, which also represented Jambu-dvipa as India-centric continent, utilized the Map of the Five Indies for reference, as we can see from the method of drawing both the boundary lines of the Five Indies and the courses of the four big rivers. The map, however, has a distinctive feature of its own, namely, the outline of the continent in the center and a number of islands lying scattered around it. Professor Nakamura treats this map in detail in his paper and states that the Ta€™u- chu-pien map is a hybrid between the Korean mappamundi of Tchien-ha-tchong-do type and the map of Jambu-dvipa.
But neither JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s map nor this Ta€™u-shu-pien map could not go beyond Asia in their representation. Chang-huang, the compiler of the Ta€™u-shu-pien, who was rather critical of Buddhist teachings, dared to insert this map in his book saying that a€?although this map is not altogether believable, it shows that this earth of ours extends infinitelya€?. Among the maps made by Japanese we find none which regard China as the center of the world. There is another interesting map of this kind in the Hosyoin temple in the Siba Park at Tokyo, reproduced as frontispiece in the second volume of the travels of Yu-ho Den, in the collection of Buddhist books, 1917, and entitled Sei-eki Zu [Map of the Western Regions].A  It is accompanied by two documents, also reproduced in the book. This information is not easy to accept, since it often confuses the copy and the original.A  Moreover it is impossible that the map should have been of Indian origin, and it is doubtful that it was constructed by Hiuen-tchoang, seeing that it shows an area greater even than the Indies. From the point of view of date alone the Hosyoin copy is not interesting, for we know of many other similar specimens much older.A  An example of Japanese world maps representing Buddhist cosmology can be seen in the earliest map of this type, the Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu [Outline Map of All the Countries of the Jambu-dvipa]. In 1710 (Hoei 7th year) this large (1 m 45 cm x 1 m 15 cm) woodcut map, supplied with a detailed explanatory text in Chinese, was published at Kyoto by a priest named Rokashi Hotan, under the pseudonym of Zuda Rokwa Si (died in 1738 at age 85).A  It is not a faithful copy of the preceding, but has many corrections and additions.
The nomenclature of this map, as well as that of the Hosyoin map, is taken from the Si-yA?-ki.A  They are just the itineraries of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s travels.
There must certainly have been formerly in China some examples of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary, now long lost, while that taken from China to Japan must have been preserved there through long centuries.A  This very precious geographical relic, though it may have undergone some slight alteration, remains nevertheless to shed much light on the development of the Korean mappamundi. The first portions of this monograph conveys the results of Nakamuraa€™s researches into the nomenclature of these maps from the historical point of view, and into their dates, but it is absolutely necessary to carry out alongside these examinations an investigation of their relationships in configuration, that is to say, to study their morphology.A A  That is what is proposed for this final portion. But by whatever title it may be called, its content is always that of Hiuen-tchoanga€™s itinerary.A  Moreover, its central continent being always entirely surrounded by an immense ocean, it would seem that for its draughtsman this continent represented the whole of the then known world.
Rokashi Hotan [Zuda Rokwa Si]a€™s Nansenbushu Bankoku Shoka no Zu, 1710, woodblock print, 118 x 1456 cm, Kobe City Museum, Japan. Even as far back as the Tcheou Dynasty, Chinese cartography was well established where the court then had regular officials whose duties were concerned with the production and preservation of maps.A  Nevertheless certain scholars are doubtful about the positive knowledge of scientific cartography possessed by the Chinese of that period.
A  We cannot suppose, however, that JA?n-cha€™ao was the first to produce a map of this type. Chang-huang, the compiler of the Ta€™u-shu-pien, who was rather critical of Buddhist teachings, dared to insert this map in his book saying that a€?although this map is not altogether believable, it shows that this earth of ours extends infinitelya€?.A  But so long as it remains a Buddhist map, dogmatism stands in the way of reality. An Amazing Fact: Science tells us that light is constituted of three primary rays, or groups of wavelengths. Jesus accepted worship that according to the Ten Commandments is reserved only for the Almighty (Matthew 14:33). The Scriptures also teach that only God knows the thoughts of a mana€™s heart (1 Kings 8:39).
Some of these monographs may be thought of as an anthology of maps, which, like all anthologies, reflects the taste and predilection of the collector. Cartography, like architecture, has attributes of both a scientific and an artistic pursuit, a dichotomy that is certainly not satisfactorily reconciled in all presentations.
The significance of maps - and much of their meaning in the past - derives from the fact that people make them to tell other people about the places or space they have experienced. It is assumed that cartography, like art, pre-dates writing; like pictures, map symbols are apt to be more universally understood than verbal or written ones. As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared). Many libraries and collections were not in the habit of preserving maps that they considered a€?obsoletea€? and simply discarded them. A series of maps of one region, arranged in chronological order, can show vividly how it was discovered, explored by travelers and described in detail; this may be seen in facsimile atlases like those of America (K. As mediators between an inner mental world and an outer physical world, maps are fundamental tools helping the human mind make sense of its universe at various scales. The history of cartography represents more than a technical and practical history of the artifacts. The only evidence we have for the mapmaking inclinations and talents of the inhabitants of Europe and adjacent parts of the Middle East and North Africa during the prehistoric period is the markings and designs on relatively indestructible materials.
Although some questions will always remain unanswered, there can be no doubt that prehistoric rock and mobiliary art as a whole constitutes a major testimony of early mana€™s expression of himself and his world view.
Despite the richness of civilization in ancient Babylonia and the recovery of whole archives and libraries, a mere handful of Babylonian maps have so far been found. Egypt, which exercised so strong an influence on the ancient civilizations of southeast Europe and the Near East, has left us no more numerous cartographic documents than her neighbor Babylonia. In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extant Egyptian achievement is represented by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (see monograph #102) . In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extent that Egyptian achievement is represented is by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (#102). It has often been remarked that the Greek contribution to cartography lay in the speculative and theoretical realms rather than in the practical realm, and nowhere is this truer than in the Archaic and Classical Period.
To the Arab countries belongs chief credit for keeping alive an interest in astronomical studies during the so-called Christian middle ages, and we find them interested in globe construction, that is, in celestial globe construction; so far as we have knowledge, it seems doubtful that they undertook the construction of terrestrial globes. Among the Christian peoples of Europe in this same period there was not wanting an interest in both geography and astronomy. Above the convex surface of the earth (ki-a) spread the sky (ana), itself divided into two regions - the highest heaven or firmament, which, with the fixed stars immovably attached to it, revolved, as round an axis or pivot, around an immensely high mountain, which joined it to the earth as a pillar, and was situated somewhere in the far North-East, some say North, and the lower heaven, where the planets - a sort of resplendent animals, seven in number, of beneficent nature - wandered forever on their appointed path. Now, it is remarkable that the Greeks, adopting the earlier Chaldean ideas concerning the sphericity of the earth, believed also in the circumfluent ocean; but they appear to have removed its position from latitudes encircling the Arctic regions to a latitude in close proximity to the equator.
Notwithstanding this encroachment of the external ocean - encroachment which may have obliterated indications of a certain northern portion of Australia, and which certainly filled those regions with the great earth - surrounding river Okeanos - the traditions relating to the existence of an island, of immense extent, beyond the known world, were kept up, for they pervade the writings of many of the authors of antiquity.
In a fragment of the works of Theopompus, preserved by Aelian, is the account of a conversation between Silenus and Midas, King of Phrygia, in which the former says that Europe, Asia, and Africa were lands surrounded by the sea; but that beyond this known world was another island, of immense extent, of which he gives a description. Theopompus declareth that Midas, the Phrygian, and Selenus were knit in familiaritie and acquaintance.
The side of the boat curves inwards, so that when reversed the figure of it would be like an orange with a slice taken off the top, and then set on its flat side. Comparing these early notions, as to the shape and extent of the habitable world, with the later ideas which limited the habitable portion of the globe to the equatorial regions, we may surmise how it came to pass that islands--to say nothing of continents which could not be represented for want of space - belonging to the southern hemisphere were set down as belonging to the northern hemisphere. We have no positive proof of this having been done at a very early period, as the earlier globes and maps have all disappeared; but we may safely conjecture as much, judging from copies that have been handed down. Early maps of the world, as distinguished from globes, take us back to a somewhat more remote period; they all bear most of the disproportions of the Ptolemaic geography, for none belonging to the pre-Ptolemaic period are known to exist.
We have seen that, according to the earliest geographical notions, the habitable world was represented as having the shape of an inverted round boat, with a broad river or ocean flowing all round its rim, beyond which opened out the Abyss or bottomless pit, which was beneath the habitable crust. The description is sufficiently clear, and there is no mistaking its general sense, the only point that needs elucidation being that which refers to the position of the earth or globe as viewed by the spectator. Our modern notions and our way of looking at a terrestrial globe or map with the north at the top, would lead us to conclude that the abyss or bottomless pit of the inverted Chaldean boat, the Hades and Tartaros of the Greek conception, should be situated to the south, somewhere in the Antarctic regions.
The internal evidence of the Poems points to a northern as well as a southern location for the entrance to the infernal regions. Another probable source of information: The Phoinikes of Homer are the same Phoenicians who as pilots of King Solomona€™s fleets brought gold and silver, ivory, apes and peacocks from Asia beyond the Ganges and the East Indian islands. European mariners and geographers of the Homeric period considered the bearing of land and sea only in connection with the rising and setting of the sun and with the four winds Boreas, Euros, Notos, and Sephuros. These mariners and geographers adopted the plan - an arbitrary one - of considering the earth as having the north above and the south below, and, after globes or maps had been constructed with the north at the top, and this method had been handed down to us, we took for granted that it had obtained universally and in all times. Such has not been the case, for the earliest navigators, the Phoenicians, the Arabs, the Chinese, and perhaps all Asiatic nations, considered the south to be above and the north below.
It is strange that some historians, in pointing out so cleverly that the Chaldean conception was more in accordance with the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe than had been suspected, fails, at the same time, to notice that Homer in his brain-map reversed the Chaldean terrestrial globe and placed the north at the top.
During the middle ages, we shall see a reversion take place, and the terrestrial paradise and heavenly paradise placed according to the earlier Chaldean notions; and on maps of this epoch, encircling the known world from the North Pole to the equator, flows the antic Ocean, which in days of yore encircled the infernal regions. At a later period, during which planispheric maps, showing one hemisphere of the world, may have been constructed, the circumfluent ocean must have encircled the world as represented by the geographical exponents of the time being; albeit in a totally different way than expressed in the Shumiro-Accadian records. It follows from all this that, as mariners did actually traverse those regions and penetrate south of the equator, the islands they visited most, such as Java, its eastern prolongation of islands, Sumbawa, etc., were believed to be in the northern hemisphere, and were consequently placed there by geographers, as the earliest maps of the various editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography bear witness. These mistakes were the result doubtless of an erroneous interpretation of information received; and the most likely period during which cognizance of these islands was obtained was when Alexandria was the center of the Eastern and Western commerce of the world.
But to return to the earlier Pre-Ptolemaic period and to form an idea of the chances of information which the traffic carried on in the Indian Ocean may have offered to the Greeks and Romans, here is what Antonio Galvano, Governor of Ternate says in 1555, quoting Strabo and Pliny (Strabo, lib.
Now as the above articles of commerce, mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, after leaving their original ports in Asia and Austral-Asia, were conveyed from one island to another, any information, when sought for, concerning the location of the islands from which the spices came, must necessarily have been of a very unreliable character, for the different islands at which any stay was made were invariably confounded with those from which the spices originally came. From these facts, and many others, such as the positions given to the Mountain of the East or North-East of the Shumiro-Accads, the Mountain of the South, or Southwest, of Homer, and the Infernal Regions, we may conclude that the North Pole of the Ancients was situated somewhere in the neighborhood of the Sea of Okhotsk. It is in the Classical Period of Greek cartography that we can start to trace a continuous tradition of theoretical concepts about the size and shape of the earth.
Likewise, it should be emphasized that the vast majority of our knowledge about Greek cartography in this early period is known primarily only from second- or third-hand accounts. There is no complete break between the development of cartography in Classical and in Hellenistic Greece. In spite of these speculations, however, Greek cartography might have remained largely the province of philosophy had it not been for a vigorous and parallel growth of empirical knowledge. That such a change should occur is due both to political and military factors and to cultural developments within Greek society as a whole. The librarians not only brought together existing texts, they corrected them for publication, listed them in descriptive catalogs, and tried to keep them up to date.
The other great factor underlying the increasing realism of maps of the inhabited world in the Hellenistic Period was the expansion of the Greek world through conquest and discovery, with a consequent acquisition of new geographical knowledge. Among the contemporaries of Alexander was Pytheas, a navigator and astronomer from Massalia [Marseilles], who as a private citizen embarked upon an exploration of the oceanic coasts of Western Europe. As exemplified by the journeys of Alexander and Pytheas, the combination of theoretical knowledge with direct observation and the fruits of extensive travel gradually provided new data for the compilation of world maps. The importance of the Hellenistic Period in the history of ancient world cartography, however, has been clearly established. In the history of geographical (or terrestrial) mapping, the great practical step forward during this period was to locate the inhabited world exactly on the terrestrial globe. Thus it was at various scales of mapping, from the purely local to the representation of the cosmos, that the Greeks of the Hellenistic Period enhanced and then disseminated a knowledge of maps. The Roman Republic offers a good case for continuing to treat the Greek contribution to mapping as a separate strand in the history of classical cartography. The remarkable influence of Ptolemy on the development of European, Arabic, and ultimately world cartography can hardly be denied. Notwithstanding his immense importance in the study of the history of cartography, Ptolemy remains in many respects a complicated figure to assess.
Still the culmination of Greek cartographic thought is seen in the work of Claudius Ptolemy, who worked within the framework of the early Roman Empire. When we turn to Roman cartography, it has been shown that by the end of the Augustan era many of its essential characteristics were already in existence.
In the course of the early empire large-scale maps were harnessed to a number of clearly defined aspects of everyday life. Maps in the period of the decline of the empire and its sequel in the Byzantine civilization were of course greatly influenced by Christianity. Continuity between the classical period and succeeding ages was interrupted, and there was disruption of the old way of life with its technological achievements, which also involved mapmaking. The Byzantine Empire, though providing essential links in the chain, remains something of an enigma for the history of the long-term transmission of cartographic knowledge from the ancient to the modern world. It may be necessary to emphasize that the ancient Greek maps shown in this volume are a€?reconstructionsa€? by modern scholars based upon the textual descriptions of the general outline of the geographical systems formed by each of the successive Greek writers so far as it is possible to extract these from their writings alone.
China is Asiaa€™s oldest civilization, and the center from which cultural disciplines spread to the rest of the continent. An ancient wooden map discovered by Chinese archaeologists in northwest China's Gansu Province has been confirmed as the country's oldest one at an age of more than 2,200. The map of Guixian was unearthed from tombs of the Qin Kingdom at Fangmatan in Tianshui City of Gansu Province in 1986 and was listed as a national treasure in 1994.
Unlike modern maps, place names on these maps were written within big or small square frames, while the names of rivers, roads, major mountains, water systems and forested areas were marked directly with Chinese characters. Whoever sets out to write on the history of geography in China faces a quandary, however, for while it is indispensable to give the reader some appreciation of the immense mass of literature which Chinese scholars have produced on the subject, it is necessary to avoid the tedium of listing names of authors and books, some of which indeed have long been lost. As for the ideas about the shape of the earth current in ancient Chinese thought, the prevailing belief was that the heavens were round and the earth square. The following attempts to compare rather carefully the parallel march of scientific geography in the West and in China.
Comic Book News presented this past month with more steps into newer formats, as Twitter has never been busier with the various Tweets from this past month across the board.
The network begins in the summer and will take the place of the digital Sports FOX network, Speed. A new deal between the network and Sony has been reached to bring the show back for a fifth season 13-episodes are said to be in development. She will step down during her various primetime specials, her various News specials in primetime and most importantly as head semi-host of the View.
The cast includes: Jorge Garcia, Emmanuelle Chriqui, Charlie Cox, Hope Davis, Audra McDonald, Fredric Lehne and Nestor Serrano. It will reprint the first part of the epic DC story-arc from the creative team of Richard Donner, Geoff Johns and Adam Kubert.
This issue ships in May from the creative team of: Tom DeFalco, Joe Bennett and Marc Deering. This issue ships in May from the creative team of: Justin Jordan, Edgar Salazar, Scott Hanna and Aaron Kuder. This issue ships in May from the creative team of: Michael Alan Nelson, Ig Guara, Norm Rapmund and Ken Lashley. The first issue will have stories written by: Aaron Johnston, Jeff Parker and Orson Scott Card. Based on the NBC series, the title is from the creative team of: David Greenwalt, Jim Kauf, Marc Gaffen, Kyle McVey and Jose Malaga.
The third and a€?finala€? 8-issue series begins in May from the creative team of: Mark Millar and John Romita Jr. The story-arc will continue in June with Avengers Assemble #16 and Captain Marvel #13, before wrapping up in July in Avengers Assemble #17 and Captain Marvel #14.
The story based on the upcoming film will be from the creative team of: Travis Beacham, Yvel Guichet, Pericles Junior, Chris Batista and Sean Chen.
Tomasi and Fernando Parasin will be leaving Green Lantern Corps with the wrap up of the current story-arc, Wrath of the First Lantern in Maya€™s #20. Also the collectora€™s bundle (containing each of the 53 editions) and the digital combo pack have additionally sold out respectively.
Included in this next group of titles will be a four-issue weekly miniseries; What If, AvX. Kyle Higgins, Thony Silas, Sean Murphy and Jordie Bellaire will be the new creators behind Terry McGinnisa€™ upcoming adventures. Rowling announced the recent ebook release of Quidditch Through the Ages and Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them. In the vein of Netflix House of Cards, it would launch original TV shows starting with Alpha House, a political series starring John Goodman; and the comedy- Onion News Empire starring Jeffrey Tambor.
Kristen Bell has voiced her excitement about the possibility to return to playing the title character of the fictional detective that made her a breakout star.
See what these four guys are up to when this show returns to the post-March Madness-less NCAA TBS primetime schedule.
Meet Marta Walraven (played by Radha Mitchell) a suburban housewife who is living the good life in Northern California.
Daniel Day-Lewis portrayed the former head of state in the Tony Kushner-penned adaptation of Doris Kearns Goodwin's book Team of Rivals, which chronicles the President's time in office between 1861 and 1865 as he dealt with personal demons and politics during the Civil War.
Russell, this film had an astonishing ensemble cast which included: Bradley Cooper, Jennifer Lawrence, Jacki Weaver, Julia Stiles, Chris Tucker and Robert De Niro. With the help of his therapists and the guidance of his priest, he sets out to make his dream a reality. A small-time magician arrives in an enchanted land and is forced to decide if he will be a good man or a great one. Now this title shifts its theme (not name) in the next five issues starting with this issue and it is a Batman team-up book. The threat that first led to the formation of the Guardians of the Universe returns, and hea€™s set his sights on the biggest and brightest of the Corps. In this issue, Atrocious and his Red Lanterns seek final vengeance against the Guardian of OA, but things do not go as planned.
In this adaptation of Richard Castlea€™s second Derrick Strom novel, the private investigation is hired to help a wealthy woman get back the money she lost to a con artist, but what should have been routine mission quickly spirals out of control when the con artist reaches out to Storm seeking his help finding a missing woman.
Emanuela Lupacchino supplied artwork for this new tale of the hit ABC drama fictionalized character Derrick Storm. The overall #1 seed went to Louisville (Midwest Region), the other #1 seeds followed in order: Kansas (South Region), Indiana (East Region) and Gonzaga (West Region). Sharapova beat Wozniacki in straight sets to capture her first Championship trophy of 2013. Williams won her 6th Championship trophy in front of her a€?hometowna€? fans with a final score of: 4-6, 6-3, 6-0.
The Blue Devils swept the season series against the Tar Heels after winning this game at UNC. On the heels of NCAA Mena€™s Basketball tournament, March Madness, Duke faced off against UNC.
The first part of the month belonged to California where in Indian Wells Maria Sharapova claimed another championship. Another story made its own headlines on the other side of the political Aisle was that in the middle of the month the infamous video from a closed door Boca Raton fundraiser during the 2012 Presidential Campaign for Mitt Romney, a€?47%a€? comments came forth and revealed himself to the country as the person who recorded those comments. Between the Emerald City Comic Convention, news came out that Geoff Johns would be leaving his tenure on Green Lantern, his long running DC title, and a flagship book of DCU: The New 52. For details on this, check below for some highlights from the first day of the event that was not complete as of press time. DC was caught by surprise because it already went to press with a five-page Action Comics preview in the back of its weekly books in March to showcase the new creative team, which also included Tony S.
Coming soon, Entertainment & Press is developing a Twitter themed section that just kicked off in the pages of this very issue. This will tie into the in-continuity series of the hit ABC fairytale adventure show, Once Upon A Time. The much-awaited choice is something of a surprise, as the new pope was not foreshadowed prominently on the short lists of various experts, though the 76-year old was said to be the runner-up to retiring Pope Benedict in the 2005 conclave. Like his predecessor Pope Benedict XVI who resigned last month, the first head of the Catholic church to do so in 600 years, Pope Francis is said to be theologically orthodox and socially conservative. No matter what happens, the church almost certainly won't reverse its bans on abortion, gay marriage or women priests.a€? After all is said and done, a new Pope has emerged.
The cuts were enacted by the Budget Control Act of 2011 and initially set to begin on January 1 but that date was postponed by two months by the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012. Some major programs like Social Security, Medicaid, federal pay (including military pay and pensions) and veterans' benefits are exempt. The blunt nature of the cuts has been criticized, with some favoring more tailored cuts and others arguing for postponement while the economy improves.
Below is a majority of the moves made by all sorts of networks including NBC, CBS, The CW, ABC, and FOX.
The entries in the boxes in the sea part of the manuscript are extracts from the Da Tang xiyu ji.
This traditional Buddhist depiction of the civilized world (mainly India and the Himalayan regions, with a token nod to China) divides India into five regions: north, east, south, west and central India.
Huei-kuo (746- 805), chief priest of the temple, presented it to Kukai (774-835), his best Japanese disciple, when he returned to his own country.
Here numerous details are given, including the interesting feature of the so-called a€?iron-gatea€?, shown as a strongly over-sized square, and the path taken by the monk whilst crossing the forbidden mountain systems after leaving Samarkand.
Japan itself appears as a series of islands in the upper right and, like India, is one of the few recognizable elements a€“ at least i??from a cartographic perspective. They are based not on objective geographical knowledge or surveys but only on the more or less legendary statements in the Buddhist literature and Chinese works of the most diverse types, which are moreover represented in an anachronistic mixture.
Prior to this map America had rarely if ever been depicted on Japanese maps, so Rokashi Hotan turned to the Chinese map Daimin Kyuhen Zu [Map of China under the Ming Dynasty and its surrounding Countries], from which he copied both the small island-like form of South America (just south of Japan), and the curious land bridge (the Aelutian Islands?) connecting Asia to what the Japanese historians Nobuo Muroga and Kazutaka Unno conclude a€?must undoubtedly be a reflection of North Americaa€?.
The map has been reproduced in Mototsugu Kuritaa€™s atlas Nihon Kohan Chizu Shusei, Tokyo and Osaka, 1932 and in color in Hugh Cortazzia€™s Isle of Gold, 1992.
Their content however, their nomenclature, being for the most part that of the Han period, and taking into consideration the periods at which the few additions to that nomenclature have been made, is of a date not latter than the 11th century. The editors of the map preserved in the Hosyoin temple insisted that such a title was wrong and renamed it The Map of the Western Regions. A land bridge connects China to an unnamed continent in the upper right corner, and the island of Ezo [Japan] with its fief of Matsumae is located slightly to the south of the mystery continent.
Kia Tana€™s map is perhaps not a proof of this, since it no longer exists, and was always, in any case, kept secret at the Imperial Court, and so was not easily consulted even by those of the generation in which it was produced. It proves finally, therefore, that Hiuen-tchoanga€™s map does not represent the whole of the world known to the Chinese at the time of the Thang Dynasty. Why, then, should the area described by Hiuen-tchoang have been represented in the form of a shield surrounded by an immense ocean?
But the distinctive feature of the map is that China, which had till then occupied a purely notional situation, was represented as a vast country in the eastern part of the continent with place-names of the period of the Ming Dynasty.
When we note that his map is not free from errors and omissions due to repeated transcription, and that almost contemporaneously there were maps of closely analogous type, such as the Ta€™u-shu-pien map mentioned below, there is little doubt that maps of this kind had already been produced before by somebody.
This is the Ssu-hai-hua-i-tsung-ta€™u [Map of the Civilized World and its Outlying Barbarous Regions within the Four Seas] contained in the Ta€™u-shu-pien, a Chinese encyclopedia compiled by Chang-huang and published in 1613.
The continent as a whole is wide in the north and pointed in the south, and still shows the traditional shape of Jambu-dvipa. He rests this statement on the ground that a map closely resembling the Ta€™u-shu-pien map is to be found among the maps of the Tchien-ha-tchong- do type that were widely circulated in Korea. Chan, Old Maps of Korea, The Korean Library Science Research Institute, Seoul, Korea, 1977, 249 pp.
According to Nakamura, it was drawn by someone else, after his return, to illustrate the story of his travels, and that the map given to Kukai by his master was a copy, and not the original. Nansen Bushu is a Buddhist word derived from the Sanskrit, Jambu-dvipa, or the southern continent. The most striking innovation is an indication of Europe to the northwest of the central continent, and of the New World in an island to the southeast.
Japan itself appears as a series of islands in the upper right and, like India, is one of the few recognizable elements a€“ at least from a cartographic perspective. Among several maps of this kind that of Horyuzi is certainly the oldest and the most authentic in existence, though even it is not quite free from alterations.A  The others are very far from being in their original condition.
The editors of the map preserved in the Hosyoin temple insisted that such a title was wrong and renamed it The Map of the Western Regions.A  Which is, in Nakamuraa€™s opinion, still not correct, for it contains not only the Western Regions but India and China also, so that Terazima is right in calling it The Map of the Western Regions and of the Indies, the title he gives to his small reproduction of part of Hiuen-thoanga€™s map. This idea does not arise simply from the imagination, for the Hindus and the Chinese, like the Greeks, believed that an immense, unnavigable ocean entirely surrounded the habitable world. Yet in face of the number of early references to maps it cannot be doubted that they had, under the Tsa€™in Dynasty, maps sufficiently exact for their own purposes.
This is the Ssu-hai-hua-i-tsung-ta€™u [Map of the Civilized World and its Outlying Barbarous Regions within the Four Seas] contained in the Ta€™u-shu-pien, a Chinese encyclopedia compiled by Chang-huang and published in 1613.A  With the exception of many quaint islands lying scattered in the surrounding seas, this map has much in common with JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s, the central continent consisting of India, with the place-names from the Si-yA?-ki, and of China under the Ming Dynasty. In the Ta€™u-shu-pien map the eastern coastline of the continent is represented with approximate accuracy, yet Fu-lin is drawn on the western side, is a fictitious peninsula similar to Korea on the east, so as to keep the symmetrical figure of the continent of Jambu-dvipa.
Churches have split and wars have even been fought over the issues that surround the nature of the Godhead. Because God defines Himself as everlasting and the ultimate power, presence, and knowledge, this field of study is deeper, wider, and broader than any other. Finite human minds will never be able to fully understand everything about the eternal God, anymore than we can jump to the stars with our feeble legs. Thus, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit represent different hats or titles that God wears, depending on how He wishes to communicate with man at the time.
The church recognized Sabelliusa€™ ideas as contrary to Bible teaching, and he was quickly excommunicated. Jesus prayed to His Father in Gethsemane, a€?And now, O Father, glorify thou me with thine own self with the glory which I had with thee before the world was. Jesus so mirrored the character of the Father that He perfectly reflected Him, hence the title a€?The Everlasting Father.a€? Another reason Jesus is called the Everlasting Father is because this world and everything in it was created through Christ. Keep in mind that Jesus also calls Himself the Son of man, our brother, our shepherd, our friend, and our priest. While always remaining one in purpose and origin, Jesus and the Father are clearly separate and distinct persons.
As we compare Scripture definitions for God with the Bible record of Jesus, we see the characteristics of Jehovah are also ascribed to Jesus. Yet Jesus consistently knew what people were thinking, a€?for he knew what was in mana€? (John 2:25). When He boldly proclaimed, a€?I and my Father are one,a€? Jewish leaders were outraged and sought to execute Him. In fact, to distance themselves from the Catholic version of the trinity, many Protestant leaders from the 19th century preferred the more biblical term a€?Godheada€? when referring to the triune God. However, even though the word a€?millennium,a€? meaning one thousand years, does not appear in Revelation 20, we use it to describe eartha€™s 1,000-year rest after Jesusa€™ return.
God has a long-established habit of using various names to describe a persona€™s character. Did He trisect Himself into a voice from heaven, the dove wafting down through the sky, and His body on the bank of the river? Granted, it is a brain exercise to grasp that one God (a€?Hea€?) is also, and equally, a€?They.a€? Like one rope with three united strands, the three persons of the Father, Son, and Spirit make up the one God. The truth that God is a a€?tri-unitya€? of two invisible persons (Father and Spirit) and one visible person (Jesus) is evident even in creation.
Jesus, God the Son, laid aside or veiled the full dimension of His divinity when He came to earth. As we consider the mysteries of the Godhead, we notice that there seems to be an order of authority concerning the three persons in the trinity. Another class of sincere Christians believes that while the Father and Son are truly distinct persons, they only see the Holy Spirit as a cosmic force or essencea€”an impersonal power conduit or vehicle to do the bidding of the Father and Son. We must ask, would John have put the Spirit between the Father and the Son if he had not regarded the Spirit as a divine intelligence in the same sense as they are?
In essence, when we consider John, we read that God the Father so loved the world that He sent God the Son that we might be born of God the Spirit (John 3:8, 13, 16, 17).
Before eartha€™s creation, the triune God discussed the potential of mana€™s rebellion and fall. If Christ is not deity itself, then any angel or sinless created being could have served the purpose.
Had Jesus sinned, He would have been working at cross-purposes with the Spirit and His Father. As he meditated, he observed a little boy with a seashell running back and forth from the waters edge, filling his shell, and then pouring it into a crab hole in the sand. Standing on the shores of time, I am trying to get into this little finite mind things which are infinite.a€? Likewise, let us be content to let God know some things that we cannot yet know. This three-in-one not only created us, but they love us and devised an amazing plan to save a lost world from sin to restore us to His presence in paradise.
It may also be likened to a book of reproductions of works of art, in the sense that the illustrations, even with the accompanying commentary, cannot really do justice to the originals. A knowledge of maps and their contents is not automatic - it has to be learned; and it is important for educated people to know about maps even though they may not be called upon to make them. Some maps are successful in their display of material but are scientifically barren, while in others an important message may be obscured because of the poverty of presentation.
Maps constitute a specialized graphic language, an instrument of communication that has influenced behavioral characteristics and the social life of humanity throughout history.


Maps produced by contemporary primitive peoples have been likened to so-called prehistoric maps. In earlier times these maps were considered to be ephemeral material, like newspapers and pamphlets, and large wall-maps received particularly careless treatment because they were difficult to store. When, in 1918, a mosaic floor was discovered in the ancient TransJordanian church of Madaba showing a map of Palestine, Syria and part of Egypt, a whole series of reproductions and treatises was published on the geography of Palestine at that time.
Kretschner, 1892), Japan (P.Teleki, 1909), Madagascar (Gravier, 1896), Albania (Nopcsa, 1916), Spitzbergen (Wieder, 1919), the northwest of America (Wagner, 1937), and others. Indeed, much of its universal appeal is that the simpler types of map can be read and interpreted with only a little training. Crone remarked that a€?a map can be considered from several aspects, as a scientific report, a historical document, a research tool, and an object of art.
It may also be viewed as an aspect of the history of human thought, so that while the study of the techniques that influence the medium of that thought is important, it also considers the social significance of cartographic innovation and the way maps have impinged on the many other facets of human history they touch.
It is reasonable to expect some evidence in this art of the societya€™s spatial consciousness. There is, for example, clear evidence in the prehistoric art of Europe that maps - permanent graphic images epitomizing the spatial distribution of objects and events - were being made as early as the Upper Paleolithic. In Mesopotamia the invention by the Sumerians of cuneiform writing in the fourth millennium B.C. In the former field, among other things, they attained a remarkably close approximation for a?s2, namely 1.414213.
The courses of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers offered major routes to and from the north, and the northwest, and the Persian Gulf allowed contact by sea along the coasts of Arabia and east to India. Within this span of some three thousand years, the main achievements in Greek cartography took place from about the sixth century B.C. Stevenson, it is not easy to fix, with anything like a satisfactory measure of certainty, the beginning of globe construction; very naturally it was not until a spherical theory concerning the heavens and the earth had been accepted, and for this we are led back quite to Aristotle and beyond, back indeed to the Pythagoreans if not yet farther. We are now learning that those centuries were not entirely barren of a certain interest in sciences other than theological. It has now been ascertained and demonstrated beyond doubt that the earliest ideas concerning the laws of the universe and the shape of the earth were, in many respects, more correct and clearer than those of a subsequent period. Ragozin, says the Shumiro-Accads had formed a very elaborate and clever idea of what they supposed the world to be like; they imagined it to have the shape of an inverted round boat or bowl, the thickness of which would represent the mixture of land and water (ki-a) which we call the crust of the earth, while the hollow beneath this inhabitable crust was fancied as a bottomless pit or abyss (ge), in which dwelt many powers. The account of this conversation, which is too lengthy here to give in full, was written three centuries and a half before the Christian era. Of the familiaritie of Midas, the Phrigian, and Selenus, and of certaine circumstances which he incredibly reported. This Selenus was the sonne of a nymphe inferiour to the gods in condition and degree, but superiour to men concerning mortalytie and death.
The Chaldean conception, thus rudely described, shows a yet nearer approximation to the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe, when we bear in mind that this actually is in shape a flattened sphere, with the vertical diameter the shorter one.
A curious example of the difficulties that early cartographers of the circumfluent ocean period had to contend with, and of the sans faA§on method of dealing with them, occurs in the celebrated Fra Mauro mappamundi (Book III, #249), which is one of the last in which the external ocean is still retained. The influence of the Ptolemaic astronomical and geographical system was very great, and lasted for over thirteen hundred years.
There are reasons to believe however, apart from the evidence we gather in the Poems, that these abyssal regions were supposed or believed to be situated around the North Pole. Homer, The Outward Geography Eastwards: a€?The outer geography eastwards, or wonderland, has for its exterior boundary the great river Okeanos, a noble conception, in everlasting flux and reflux, roundabout the territory given to living man. The Phoenician reports referred to came most likely therefore, not so much from the north, as from these regions which, tradition tells us (Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi #249), were situated propinqua ale tenebre. These winds covered the arcs intervening between our four cardinal points of the compass, which points were not located exactly as with us; but the north leaning to the east, the east to the south, the south to the west and the west to the north (see Beatusa€™ Turin map, Book II, #207).
The reason for this is plausible, for whereas the northern seaman regulated his navigation by the North Star, the Asiatic sailor turned to southern constellations for his guidance. This is all the more strange when we take into consideration that, in the light of his context, the fact is apparent and of great importance as coinciding with other European views concerning the location of the north on terrestrial globes and maps. The Chaldeans placed their heaven in the east or northeast; Homer placed his heaven in the south or southwest.
In this ocean we find also EA the Exalted Fish, but, deprived of his ancient grandeur and divinity, he is no doubt considered nothing more than a merman at the period when acquaintance is renewed with him on the SchA¶ner-Frankfort gores of Asiatic origin bearing the date 1515 (Book IV, #328). The divergence was probably owing in a great measure to the inability of representing graphically the perspective appearance of the globe on a plane; but may be also traceable to an erroneous interpretation of the original idea, caused by the reversion of the cardinal points of the compass. According to this division other continents south of the equator were supposed to exist and habited, some said, but not to be approached by those inhabiting the northern hemisphere on account of the presumed impossibility of traversing the equatorial regions, the heat of which was believed to be too intense. We shall see, when dealing with Ptolemy's map of the world, some of the results of this confusion. Thomas, after the dispersion of the Apostles, preached the Gospel to the Parthians and Persians; then went to India, where he gave up his life for Jesus Christ.
That he corroborates Homera€™s views as to the sphericity of the earth by describing Cratesa€™ terrestrial globe (Geographica; Book ii. That he accentuates Homera€™s views concerning the black races that lived some in the west (the African race) others in the east (the Australian race). That he shows the four cardinal points of the compass to have been situated somewhat differently than with us, for he says (Book 1, c. That he appears to be perpetuating an ancient tradition when he supposes the existence of a vast continent or antichthonos in the southern hemisphere to counterbalance the weight of the northern continents. The relativeness of these positions appears to have been maintained on some mediaeval maps. To appreciate how this period laid the foundations for the developments of the ensuing Hellenistic Period, it is necessary to draw on a wide range of Greek writings containing references to maps. We have no original texts of Anaximander, Pythagoras, or Eratosthenes - all pillars of the development of Greek cartographic thought.
In contrast to many periods in the ancient and medieval world and despite the fragmentary artifacts, we are able to reconstruct throughout the Greek period, and indeed into the Roman, a continuum in cartographic thought and practice. Indeed, one of the salient trends in the history of the Hellenistic Period of cartography was the growing tendency to relate theories and mathematical models to newly acquired facts about the world - especially those gathered in the course of Greek exploration or embodied in direct observations such as those recorded by Eratosthenes in his scientific measurement of the circumference of the earth. With respect to the latter, we can see how Greek cartography started to be influenced by a new infrastructure for learning that had a profound effect on the growth of formalized knowledge in general. Thus Alexandria became a clearing-house for cartographic and geographical knowledge; it was a center where this could be codified and evaluated and where, we may assume, new maps as well as texts could be produced in parallel with the growth of empirical knowledge. In his treatise On the Ocean, Pytheas relates his journey and provides geographical and astronomical information about the countries that he observed. While we can assume a priori that such a linkage was crucial to the development of Hellenistic cartography, again there is no hard evidence, as in so many other aspects of its history, that allows us to reconstruct the technical processes and physical qualities of the maps themselves. Its outstanding characteristic was the fruitful marriage of theoretical and empirical knowledge. Eratosthenes was apparently the first to accomplish this, and his map was the earliest scientific attempt to give the different parts of the world represented on a plane surface approximately their true proportions. By so improving the mimesis or imitation of the world, founded on sound theoretical premises, they made other intellectual advances possible and helped to extend the Greek vision far beyond the Aegean. While there was a considerable blending and interdependence of Greek and Roman concepts and skills, the fundamental distinction between the often theoretical nature of the Greek contribution and the increasingly practical uses for maps devised by the Romans forms a familiar but satisfactory division for their respective cartographic influences. The profound difference between the Roman and the Greek mind is illustrated with peculiar clarity in their maps. Through both the Mathematical Syntaxis (a treatise on mathematics and astronomy in thirteen books, also called the Almagest and the Geography (in eight books), it can be said that Ptolemy tended to dominate both astronomy and geography, and hence their cartographic manifestations, for over fourteen centuries. A modern analysis of Ptolemaic scholarship offers nothing to revise the long-held consensus that he is a key figure in the long term development of scientific mapping. In its most obvious aspect, the exaggerated size of Jerusalem on the Madaba mosaic map (# 121) was no doubt an attempt to make the Holy City not only dominant but also more accurately depicted in this difficult medium. In both Western Europe and Byzantium relatively little that was new in cartography developed during the Dark Ages and early Middle Ages, although monks were assiduously copying out and preserving the written work of many past centuries available to them. Researcher He said that the map, drawn in black on four pine wood plates of almost the same size, had clear and complete graphics depicting the administrative division, a general picture of local geography and the economic situation in Guixian County in the Warring States era.
Only a few examples can be given, but it should be understood, even when it is not expressly said, that they must often stand simply as representative of a whole class of works. It may be said at the outset that both in East and West there seem to have been two separate traditions, one which we may call a€?scientific, or quantitative, cartographya€™, and one which we may call a€?religious, or symbolic, cosmographya€™.
This is a magazine that highlights key movements from pop culture, politics and other goodness.
The first issue will feature cover artwork from: Joe Benitez, Ardian Syaf, Billy Tan and J. Original creators, Kurt Busiek and Brent Anderson will reunite and return for this DC The New 52 themed title. He will complete the story drawn by himself and be credited along the lines of a€?co-plottera€? with Andy Diggle credited for script.
Lee directs this fifth installment that parodies the last number of scary movies from the recent pop culture fodder.
The movie, lead actor, and some supporting actor categories are in play along with a nomination for Best Screenplay seems to be in the cards. After a stint in a mental institution, former teacher Pat Solitano moved back in with his parents and tried to reconcile with his ex-wife.
Haunted by a recording of the womana€™s scream for help, Storm investigates, and soon discover an international conspiracy reaching further than he ever imagined, perhaps all the way to Clara Strike, a CIA agent the world thinks is dead. The fans in South Beach got their moneya€™s worth with these two great athletic tennis players. The two powerhouses teams each made the grand tournament during a busy Selection Sunday on March 17th.
On the mena€™s side the tennis world was happy to reaffirm how much it missed the prodigal son, when Nadal returned to the U.S. Once Upon A Time: Shadow of the Queen features Queen Regina and an untold tale between her and The Huntsman. He has opposed Argentinaa€™s gay marriage laws, has been fiercely pro-family, and is also known as an advocate for the poor.
He said the issue he is mainly concerned with is the persecution of Christians around the world. Her site, RepublicanGirlProbs, grew as an online hub for young people with right-of-center views to congregate and speak truth to power. She said her interests were in discussing a€?why we believe what we believe.a€? She focuses on history and reviving young peoplesa€™ faith in our nationa€™s heritage. The spending reductions are approximately $85.4 billion during fiscal year 2013, with similar cuts for years 2014 through 2021. Each of these five regions is again divided into many kingdoms a€“ those current during the career of Buddha. They all represent a large, imaginary India, where Buddha was born, as the heart of the world, but also depictions of Europe and the New World. The largest part of the map is dedicated to Jambudvipa with the sacred Lake of Anavatapta (Lake Manasarovar in the Himalayas, a whirlpool-like quadruple helix lake believed to be the center of the universe and, in Buddhist mythology, to be the legendary site where Queen Maya conceived the Buddha). Also, in the upper left corner there are 102 references from Buddhist holy writings and Chinese annals that are mentioned to increase the credibility of the map. China and Korea appear to the west of Japan and are vaguely identifiable geographically, which itself represents a significant advancement over the Gotenjikuzu map. Thus, on this map we see, in addition to the mythical Anukodatchi-pond which represents the center of the universe and from which flow four rivers in the four cardinal directions, in the left-hand upper corner of the map a region designated as Euroba, around which are grouped, clockwise, the following named countries: Umukari (Hungary?), Oranda, Barantan, Komo (Holland, the country of the redhaired), Aruhaniya (Albania), Itaryia (Italy), Suransa (France) and Inkeresu (England). Whether this represents ancient knowledge from early Chinese navigations in this region, for which there is some literary if not historical evidence, or merely a printing error, we can only speculate. Another, almost analogous edition of the same map, also dated 1710, but published by Chobei Nagata in Kyoto, is reproduced in George H.
The names of the countries, written in the rectangles are in Chinese and Tibetan characters. Both maps came from the same temple so that they must have been co-existent there, and moreover, there is reason to believe that both had their origin at almost the same period. Evidently the composition of this map owed much to the ideas of Chih-pa€™an and JA?n- cha€™aoa€™s book contains another map entitled Tun-chA?n-tan-kuo-ta€™u [Map of the Eastern Region or China], which followed Chih-pa€™ana€™s Topographical Map of the Eastern Region or China. Possibly one such prototype of JA?n-cha€™aoa€™s map, introduced into Japan and repeatedly copied, constituted the greatly transfigured SyA»gaisyA? map. But instead of the geometrical figure, its coastline is drawn more realistically and is indented.
But with regard to their representation of both the central continent and outlying islands, these two maps have very little in common and there seems to be no need to seek any particular relation between them. Certainly the map is full of inaccurate and even false information, but it gave the Chinese people a fresh conception of the world in contrast to their traditional view of their own country as the center of the world both culturally and geographically.
There are not many of these Chinese world maps in Japan, but the remaining Daimin Kyuhen Bankoku Jinseki Rotei Zenzu, of various sizes, are common.
The place names are derived from mythical places noted in Chinese classics and from known lands around China, which occupies the centre 'of the map.
But whatever the authorship of the map there is no doubt that it was brought from China by a religious student, whether Kukai or another. Jambudvipa is the Indian name for the great continent south of the cosmic Mount Meru, marked on this map by a central spiral. Even in those remote times, he says, there existed manuscript maps, named Go-Tenziku-Zu [Map of the Five Indies] in the most famous temples, but they were even worse than that of the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki.
But these maps treat India as the heart of their world, and consequently we can say that they never recognized the European world maps. On the verso is the title, Go Tenjiku-Zu, but neither authora€™s name nor date.A  The inscriptions are only partly completed.
Japan and Korea, northeast of the central continent, having no connection with the Si-yA?-ki, must be later additions.
Under the Han Dynasty maps played a very important part in political and military affairs, and many of them covered a vast area. As for the contents of the map, more respect was paid to the old classical authority than to the new geographical findings, so that many quaint, legendary place-names were mentioned to advertise the bigoted belief that the world of Buddhist teaching included even the farthest corners. In the book of Job, Zophar uttered the cry of each human heart when he declared, a€?Canst thou by searching find out God? Therefore, we need to approach this mystery shrouding His person with a large measure of barefoot reverence and deep humility. Yet he still has adherents today in what is commonly known as the a€?Onenessa€? or a€?Jesus Onlya€? doctrine.
I have manifested thy name unto the men which thou gavest me out of the worlda€? (John 17:5, 6). To build a doctrine on one Scripture is as foolish as building a house on top of a single fence post.
He taught that prior to making anything else, God created a son who was neither equal to, nor coeternal with, the Father. Upon seeing the risen Savior, the converted skeptic, Thomas, confessed, a€?My Lord and my God!a€? (John 20:26a€“29). A teaching is not any less true simply because an extra-biblical word is used to define what is clearly a biblical teaching. Jacob earned his name that means a€?swindlera€? when he practiced deception to steal his fathera€™s blessing away from his brother Esau (Genesis 27:35, 36).
To Him who loved us and washed us from our sins in His own blood, and has made us kings and priests to His God and Father, to Him be glory and dominion forever and evera€? (Revelation 1:4a€“6 NKJV).
Keep in mind that while all three are the same in properties and attributes, and equal in power and glory, it appears that the Father is recognized as the ultimate authority. In fact, the Father, Son, and Spirit always seem to be trying to outgive and glorify each other. The Scriptures compareHim to everything from wind and fire, to a dove, water, and even a defense attorney! Ita€™s true that a map or GPS can lead you, but no one calls a map a€?he.a€? It would have been very easy for Jesus to simply say, a€?When it comes,a€? but Jesus called the Holy Spirit a€?Hea€? more than 15 times. I have never seen a lonely child run to a vacuum cleaner for an embracea€”only intelligent beings can offer comfort.
At times, they might even seem to have a a€?personality.a€? But motor vehicles cannot be grieved. The Spirit is plainly portrayed as a being who speaks, teaches, guides, makes choices, witnesses, comforts, and can be grieved. Through the lens of divine foreknowledge, He saw the terror that sina€™s rape of the world would cause. This would have virtually sustained Satana€™s charge that God is selfish by demonstrating that He is only willing to sacrifice His creation and not Himself. When Jesus hung on the cross, suffering for our sins, every fiber of His being was torn as the eternal relationship with His Father and Spirit was ripped apart. They have often served as memory banks for spatial data and as mnemonics in societies without the printed word and can speak across the barriers of ordinary language, constituting a common language used by men of different races and tongues to express the relationship of their society to a geographic environment. Certain carvings on bone and petroglyphs have been identified as prehistoric route maps, although according to a strict definition, they might not qualify as a€?mapsa€?. In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals. Since the maps were missing, he drew them himself from indications in the ancient text, and when the work was finished, he commemorated this too in verse. The map answered many hitherto insoluble or disputed questions, for example the question as to where the Virgin Mary met the mother of John Baptist.
A series of maps of a coastal region (for example, that of Holland or Friesland) or of river estuaries (the Po, Mississippi, Volga, or lower Yellow River) gives information on the rate of changes in outline and their causes. Maps represent an excellent mirror of culture and civilizationa€?, but they are also more than a mere reflection: maps in their own right enter the historical process by means of reciprocally structured relationships. But when it comes to drawing up the balance sheet of evidence for prehistoric maps, we must admit that the evidence is tenuous and certainly inconclusive.
The same evidence shows, too, that the quintessentially cartographic concept of representation in plan was already in use in that period. Our divisions into 60 and 360 for minutes, seconds and degrees are a direct inheritance from the Babylonians, who thought in these terms. The Pharaohs organized military campaigns, trade missions, and even purely geographical expeditions to explore various countries. From earliest times much of the area covered by the annual Nile floods had, upon their retreat, to be re-surveyed in order to establish the exact boundaries of properties.
We find allusions to celestial globes in the days of Eudoxus and Archimedes, to terrestrial globes in the days of Crates and Hipparchus. In Justiniana€™s day, or near it, one Leontius Mechanicus busied himself in Constantinople with globe construction, and we have left to us his brief descriptive reference to his work. But above all these, higher in rank and greater in power, is the Spirit (Zi) of heaven (ana), ZI-ANA, or, as often, simply ANA--Heaven.
On this map of the world the islands of the Malay Archipelago follow the shores of Asia from Malacca to Japan. Even the Arabs, who, after the fall of the Roman Empire, developed the geographical knowledge of the world during the first period of the middle ages, adopted many of its errors. Volcanoes were supposed to be the entrances to the infernal regions, and towards the southeast the whole region beyond the river Okeanos of Homer, from Java to Sumbawa and the Sea of Banda, was sufficiently studded with mighty peaks to warrant the idea they may have originated.
Many cartographers of the renascence, whose charts indeed we cannot read unless we reverse them, must have followed Asiatic cartographical methods, and this perhaps through copying local charts obtained in the countries visited by them. Taprobana was the Greek corruption of the Tamravarna of Arabian, or even perhaps Phoenician, nomenclature; our modern Sumatra.
Geographical science was on the eve of reaching its apogee with the Greeks, were it was doomed to retrograde with the decline of the Roman Empire. John III, King of Portugal, ordered his remains to be sought for in a little ruined chapel that was over his tomb, outside Meliapur or Maliapor. In some cases the authors of these texts are not normally thought of in the context of geographic or cartographic science, but nevertheless they reflect a widespread and often critical interest in such questions. In particular, there are relatively few surviving artifacts in the form of graphic representations that may be considered maps.
Despite a continuing lack of surviving maps and original texts throughout the period - which continues to limit our understanding of the changing form and content of cartography - it can be shown that, by the perioda€™s end, a markedly different cartographic image of the inhabited world had emerged.
Of particular importance for the history of the map was the growth of Alexandria as a major center of learning, far surpassing in this respect the Macedonian court at Pella. Later geographers used the accounts of Alexandera€™s journeys extensively to make maps of Asia and to fill in the outline of the inhabited world. Not even the improved maps that resulted from these processes have survived, and the literary references to their existence (enabling a partial reconstruction of their content) can even in their entirety refer only to a tiny fraction of the number of maps once made and once in circulation.
It has been demonstrated beyond doubt that the geometric study of the sphere, as expressed in theorems and physical models, had important practical applications and that its principles underlay the development both of mathematical geography and of scientific cartography as applied to celestial and terrestrial phenomena. On his map, moreover, one could have distinguished the geometric shapes of the countries, and one could have used the map as a tool to estimate the distances between places.
To Rome, Hellenistic Greece left a seminal cartographic heritage - one that, in the first instance at least, was barely challenged in the intellectual centers of Roman society. Certainly the political expansion of Rome, whose domination was rapidly extending over the Mediterranean, did not lead to an eclipse of Greek influence. Such knowledge, relating to both terrestrial and celestial mapping, had been transmitted through a succession of well-defined master-pupil relationships, and the preservation of texts and three-dimensional models had been aided by the growth of libraries. The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections.
Yet Ptolemy, as much through the accidental survival and transmission of his texts when so many others perished as through his comprehensive approach to mapping, does nevertheless stride like a colossus over the cartographic knowledge of the later Greco-Roman world and the Renaissance. Pilgrims from distant lands obviously needed itineraries like that starting at Bordeaux, giving fairly simple instructions.
When we come to consider the mapping of small areas in medieval western Europe, it will be shown that the Saint Gall monastery map is very reminiscent of the best Roman large-scale plans.
Some maps, along with other illustrations, were transmitted by this process, but too few have survived to indicate the overall level of cartographic awareness in Byzantine society. Eighty-two places are marked with their respective names, locations of rivers, mountains and forested areas on the map. Experts said that graphics, symbols, scales, locations, longitude and latitude are key elements of a map. Thus in the Ta Tai Li Chi, Tseng Shen, replying to the questions of Shanchu Li, admits that it was very hard to see how, on the orthodox view, the four comers of the earth could be properly covered. Reports touch upon: pop culture, movies, politics, sports, Music, Twit Pictures, comic book conventions, and much more. We hope you enjoy the new feel of the issue what will become a hotter pop culture melting pot in the months ahead.
Stewart announced he would be taking the hiatus in order to direct his first ever film, currently titled, Rosewater. One of the shows set to launch includes a talk show sports series, Rush Hour hosted by Regis Philbin. The Cast includes: Ashley Tisdale, Lindsay Lohan, Terry Crews, Jerry Oa€™Connell, Tyler Posey, Bow Wow, Molly Shannon, Heather Locklear and Kate Walsh. Things get more challenging when Pat met Tiffany, a mysterious girl with problems of her own. The downside these newfound powers he had been honing does not help in this issue as he was kidnapped and psychologically tortured by the First Lantern. While all this was going on through the start of spring, the weather patterns around the globe also changed. Romney speaking at a $50,000-a-plate Florida fund-raiser had revealed himself as Scott Prouty, a bartender working at that event. To further deepen the heartbreak of the Emerald Warriora€™s world, DC announced that all of the current creators of the other three Green Lantern sub-themed books would be leaving their respective titles with #20 issues shipping throughout May. Daniel will take the reigns on the scripts for the remainder of this first story-arc of Action Comics.
In church terms, he is seen as a master conciliator who will be adroit at healing many of the rifts and scandals over finances and pedophile priests that have dogged the Vatican in recent years. When asked if she felt out of place in any way at CPAC, she responded by saying a€?The older people stand out more than we do.a€?a€?a€? Benji Backer, a 15-year-old from Wisconsin, said he came to CPAC with a group known as Turning Point USA.
She said a€?Ita€™s great that there are so many young people here.a€? The Breitbart News gathering of these brilliant young minds was put together by Bethany Bowra, the 16-year-old blogger extraordinaire who gave the opening prayer for CPAC. However, total federal outlays will continue to increase by an average of $238.6 billion per year during the next decade, although at a somewhat lesser rate because of the sequester. FOX announced that the 2-part, season finale of American Idol would be May 15th & 16th.
The Himalayas are shown as snow-capped peaks in the center of the map, and Mount Sumeru, the mythical center of the cosmos, is depicted in the whirlpool-like form. Much later a priest named Komatudani presented it to the 41st chief priest of the temple Zozyozi at Yedo. During this time period Japan maintained an isolationist policy which began in 1603 with the Edo period under the military ruler Tokugawa Ieyasu, and lasting for nearly 270 years. From the quadruple beast headed helix (heads of a horse, a lion, an elephant, and an ox) of Manasarovar or Lake Anavatapta radiate the four sacred rivers of the region: the Indus, the Ganges, the Bramaputra [Oxus], and the Sutlej [Tarim]. Strong impression, printed on several sheets of native paper, joined; colored fully in yellow and ochre, and a few marks in red. Southeast Asia also makes one of its first appearances in a Japanese Buddhist map as an island cluster to the east of India. Europe, which had no place at all in earlier Buddhist world maps, makes this one of the first Japanese maps to depict Europe. No one succeeded in deciphering these until Professor Teramoto did so, publishing his findings at the end of 1931 in an article entitled a€?Relations between Japan and Tibet in the history of Japana€? (#208). It is not very probable that the originators of these two maps tried deliberately to represent the world in two different ways. Did the draughtsman of this Buddhist pilgrima€™s itinerary exaggerate, making these travels represent the whole world? The forerunner of these maps can therefore be traced back far beyond the end of the Ming Dynasty. What attracts particular attention is that Fu-lin [the Byzantine Empire], west of the continent, is represented as a peninsula symmetrical with Korea in the east. It is true that among the Korean mappaemundi may be found one almost exactly like the Ta€™u-shuh-pien map. Much later a priest named Komatudani presented it to the 41st chief priest of the temple Zozyozi at Yedo.A  The latter, delighted with this wonderful Buddhist geographical treasure, and deeming it too rare and important to keep to himself, caused another copy of it to be made, for what he had received was only a rough sketch. In spite of this authora€™s boasting his map is, in reality, according to Nakamura nothing but a mutilated copy of the a€?Map of the Five Indies,a€? made up from a confusion of heterogeneous and anachronistic materials, and including topographic names from the time of the Chan-hai-king up to modern times, some betraying European influence. In their maps the Buddhists connected the Five Continents with the Spiritual World where the spirit of human beings must go after death.
In the Horyuzi and Hoyuzi and Hosyoin maps the Japanese Archipelago is shown by a birda€™s eye view, in Hotana€™s map and in its reduced reproduction it is shown in plan, adopted from a modern map, and in the SyA»gaisyA? map Korea has been placed in a rectangle to the northeast of the central continent in place of Japan. In putting forward the idea that the Chinese of the 7th and 8th centuries believed that the geographical knowledge acquired by Hiuen-tchoang in his travels was concerned with the whole of the then known world we are saying that their world had become smaller than that known in the Han period, which is impossible.
The invention of paper at the beginning of the second century, by the eunuch Tsa€™ai Louen, made possible a great step forward in cartography, thanks to its handiness, and its cheapness compared with wooden or bamboo tablets, or the linen or silk stuffs in use up to that time.
In the text of the Ta€™u-shu-pien is found a quotation from the prefatory note written by an unknown priest who drew this map. The problem now was to introduce heterogeneous information without conflict with the Buddhist teachings and to give the dogma some apparent plausibility.
Countries like Korea, Japan and Ryuku are only described in the text and are not represented on the map. Like Moses, when he came into Goda€™s presence, we must take off our shoes, a€?for the place whereon thou standest is holy grounda€? (Exodus 3:5). The Jesus Only teaching claims that Jesus Christ is not only the Son, but also the Father and the Holy Spirit. According to this idea, called Arianism, Jesus Christ is a supernatural creature, but He is neither fully human nor fully divine.
This goes for the trinity, second coming, investigative judgment, and a host of other concise terms for doctrines. This was not simply a clever act of holy smoke and mirrors, but rather a regal reunion revealing the truth of the trinity.
Each dimension is separate and distinct in itself, yet the three form spacea€”if you remove height, you no longer have space. In Isaiah 6:3, the angels around Goda€™s throne cry a€?Holy, Holy, Holya€? three timesa€”once for the Father, once for the Son, and once for the Holy Spirit. Why would God go to so much trouble to personify His own inherent power to the extent that it possessed emotions, thoughts, and speech independent of Himself? By definition, blasphemy is a€?a contemptuous or profane act, utterance, or writing against God.a€? By this simple deduction, the Holy Spirit must be God!
And there, before man was formed, it was decided that Jesus would leave the throne of heaven and become humanitya€™s substitute. In agony He cried out, a€?My God [for the Father], my God [for the Spirit], why hast thou forsaken me?a€? (Matthew 27:46). If we could completely unpack Him like cracking some genetic code, He would cease to be God.
The ministry of Jesus both begins and ends with an emphasis on the three persons in the Godhead.
48: a€?Whoever receives this child in my name receives me, and whoever receives me receives him who sent me. This implies that throughout history maps have been more than just the sum of technical processes or the craftsmanship in their production and more than just a static image of their content frozen in time.
The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction.
After the fall of Byzantium in 1453, its conqueror, the Turkish Sultan Mohammed II, found in the library that he inherited from the Byzantine rulers a manuscript of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, which lacked the world-map, and he commissioned Georgios Aminutzes, a philosopher in his entourage, to draw up a world map based on Ptolemya€™s text. Comparison of travelersa€™ maps from various periods show the development and change of routes or road-building and allows us to draw conclusions of every kind about the development or decay of farms, villages and towns. They were artistic treasure-houses, being often decorated with fine miniatures portraying life and customs in distant lands, various types of ships, coats-of-arms, portraits of rulers, and so on.
The development of the map, whether it occurred in one place or at a number of independent hearths, was clearly a conceptual advance - an important increment to the technology of the intellect - that in some respects may be compared to the emergence of literacy or numeracy. The historian of cartography, looking for maps in the art of prehistoric Europe and its adjacent regions, is in exactly the same position as any other scholar seeking to interpret the content, functions, and meanings of that art. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence for the use of cartographic signs from at least the post-Paleolithic period. They are impressed on small clay tablets like those generally used by the Babylonians for cuneiform inscriptions of documents, a medium which must have limited the cartographera€™s scope.
The survey was carried out, mostly in squares, by professional surveyors with knotted ropes. We find that the Greek geographer Strabo gives us quite a definite word concerning their value and their construction, and that Ptolemy is so definite in his references to them as to lead to a belief that globes were by no means uncommon instruments in his day, and that they were regarded of much value in the study of geography and astronomy, particularly of the latter science. With stress laid, during the many centuries succeeding, upon matters pertaining to the religious life, there naturally was less concern than there had been in the humanistic days of classical antiquity as to whether the earth is spherical in form, or flat like a circular disc, nor was it thought to matter much as to the form of the heavens.
Hyde Clarke has more than once pointed out in The Legend of the Atlantis of Plato, Royal Historical Society 1886, etc., that Australia must have been known in the most remote antiquity of the early history of civilization, at a time when the intercourse with America was still maintained. Between the lower heaven and the surface of the earth is the atmospheric region, the realm of IM or MERMER, the Wind, where he drives the clouds, rouses the storms, and whence he pours down the rain, which is stored in the great reservoir of Ana, in the heavenly ocean. Then in a northeasterly direction Homera€™s great river Okeanos would flow along the shores of the Sandwich group, where the volcanic peak of Mt.
Aristotlea€™s writings, for example, provide a summary of the theoretical knowledge that underlay the construction of world maps by the end of the Greek Classical Period. Our cartographic knowledge must, therefore, be gleaned largely from literary descriptions, often couched in poetic language and difficult to interpret. The ambition of Eratosthenes to draw a general map of the oikumene based on new discoveries was also partly inspired by Alexandera€™s exploration. In this case too, the generalizations drawn herein by various authorities (ancient and modern scholars, historians, geographers, and cartographers) are founded upon the chance survival of references made to maps by individual authors. Yet this evidence should not be interpreted to suggest that the Greek contribution to cartography in the early Roman world was merely a passive recital of the substance of earlier advances. If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps. This is perhaps more remarkable in that his work was primarily instructional and theoretical, and it remains debatable if he bequeathed a set of images that could be automatically copied by an uninterrupted succession of manuscript illuminators.
While almost certainly fewer maps were made than in the Greco-Roman Period, nevertheless the key concepts of mapping that had been developed in the classical world were preserved in the Byzantine Empire. What is more surprising is that the map marks the location of Wei Shui, now known as the Weihe River, and many canyons in the area. The map of Guixian County has all these elements except longitude and latitude, according to historians.
The movie is based on the book, Then They Came For Me: A Familya€™s Story of Love, Captivity, and Survival,a€? by Iranian journalist Maziar Bahari. The plot revolves around Jamie, a very attractive lady lawyer who happens to be a Yankee, and Roy, a Southern attorney.
Martaa€™s father, her brother, and husband Franklin all make their living through illegal means, and up until now, she has turned a blind eye to this fact. This dramedy had an original plot filled with wonderful chemistry, characters and controlled chaos. Macy, Annika Marks, Moon Bloodgood and Rhea Perlman star in this r-rated deep-philosophy flick. This issue played a bit as a€?Ita€™s A Wonderful Life,a€? in an alternate world in which Alex survived and Kyle tired to be with her.
The month started off in The Vatican with the Conclave taking place on March 1st to figure out who will become the next Pope?
From the West coast, to the East coast, by the end of the month the tennis world came together in South Beach for the annual Sony Open tournament. He gave his first public interview and explained his side of those events to the general public. In a year where The Man of Steel is going to be released on the big screen as a summer blockbuster, Superman showed he has his vulnerabilities in its iconic flagship ongoing comic book title, Action Comics. The conclave appeared to steer away from popular choices like the cardinals of New York and Boston, Timothy Dolan and Sean Oa€™Malley, as well as the local Italian favorite Angelo Scola.
He said the group avoids social issues while focusing on fiscal matters and providing space for meetings, speakers, and debates at universities. Bowra said the most interesting aspect of the young minds here is that they all met over Twitter or other social media, though they live across the country from each other.
CBS announced Robin Williams and Sarah Michelle Geller have signed on to star in the pilot comedy, Crazy Ones.
A much reduced China (Changa€™an is visible on the plain at the upper right) is labeled a€?Great Tanga€?. Although knowing the world map by Matteo Ricci, published in Peking in 1602, Japanese maps mainly showed a purely Sino-centric view, or, with acknowledge-ment of Buddhist traditional teaching, the Buddhist habitable world with an identifiable Indian sub-continent.
In essence this is a traditional Buddhist world-view in the Gotenjikuzu mold centered on the world-spanning continent of Jambudvipa. Africa appears as a small island in the western sea identified as the a€?Land of Western Women.a€? Hiroshi Nakamura regarded this map, therefore, simply a mutilated copy of the Map of the Five Indies which is said to have come to Japan about 835, and a copy of which, dating from the 14th century, is preserved in the Horyuji Temple of Nara, Japan. Moreover, the geometrical form of the Sino-Tibetan map was foreign to China, so that it must owe something to western influence. Perhaps JA?n-cha€™ao, too, drew his map on the basis of a map of this type, simultaneously taking the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki and other new maps for reference. Perhaps this indicates that people were no longer content with geographical representations in an unrealistic form, as the pilgrimage map of Holy India had been transformed into the map of the world, in which the intellectual interest requires a more objective and concrete image.
But this can be explained on the supposition that the Koreans, happening to find a map of similar form in this widely circulated encyclopedia, adopted it as a substitute for their world map. Ninkai, Ryoseki and Dyogetu drew the map, while Ryogetu, Keigi and Zyunsin added the place-names, collating and correcting them according to the Si-yA?-ki and other works. Drawn by a Japanese Buddhist monk of the Kegon sect and published in Kyoto in 1710, this map is based on earlier Japanese Buddhist world maps that illustrate the pilgrimage to India of the Chinese monk Xuanzang (602a€“664). This map became the prototype of Buddhist world maps, the Nan-en-budai Shokoku Shuran no Zu (a world map), the date of which is still uncertain, and the Sekai Daiso Zu (a world map), En-bu-dai-Zu (a world map), Tenjuku Yochi Zu (a map of India), a trilogy by Sonto, a Buddhist, are derived from Hotana€™s world map. We shall presently see what really was the extent of geographical and cartographical knowledge in the Thang period.
At the same time the expansion of geographical knowledge under the Han Dynasty brought out the importance of the invention of paper.
Perhaps JA?n-cha€™ao, too, drew his map on the basis of a map of this type, simultaneously taking the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki and other new maps for reference.A A  In this map the Han-hai [Large Sea] is represented as a desert and the River Huang rises in Lake Oden-tala. According to it, the map was newly compiled on the basis three maps in the Fo-tsu-ta€™ung-ki, as well as many other materials. But this can be explained on the supposition that the Koreans, happening to find a map of similar form in this widely circulated encyclopedia, adopted it as a substitute for their world map.A  Any close relationship, beyond this, can hardly be imagined between the Chinese Buddhist World Map and the Korean Tchien-ha-tchong-do. So it was of course quite inconceivable that the compiler of this map should utilize the newly acquired information for the purpose of altering the dogmatic notion of the world.
The fact that such dogmatic world maps were widely favored in old Japan shows that some Japanese in the Age of National Isolation believed China to be the center of the world and all the other countries to be in subordination to her.A  The sheet under discussion is a reprint by the book dealer Yahaku Umemura in Kyoto, which is tentatively dated 1700 by Professor Kurita.
By laying aside our preconceived ideas, opinions and sectarian training, we can go directly to Goda€™s Word and learn what He has chosen to reveal about Himself.


Still others hold that the Father and Son are indeed God but the Holy Spirit is only the impersonal force that does their bidding. Isaiah 9:6, in which the Messiah (or the promised Son) is called a€?The everlasting Father,a€? is used to provide biblical support for this belief.
Either Jesus and the Father are two separate individual persons, or Jesus was an expert ventriloquist. Still others embrace a more immature version of this doctrine, holding that back in the dawn of time, God the Father had some form of cosmic intimate relations with the Holy Spirit and Jesus was the product. Doctrinal validity must be based on biblical authority and not upon whom advocates it or rejects it. Then his name was changed to a€?Israel,a€? which means a€?a prince with Goda€? (Genesis 32:26a€“28).
This means that inspired authors preferred to use Elohim about 10 times more than the singular form a€?Ela€? when they described God.
And on top of this, it is through the shared authority of these three persons that we are commissioned to baptize.
If there had been only one person in the Godhead, there would not have been this excruciating pain of separation to wring the life out of the heart of Jesus. Indeed, any history of maps is compounded by a complex series of interactions, involving their intent, their use and their purpose, as well as the process of their making.
All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times. He knew it would be out of date, but that is precisely what he wanted - an ancient map; to perpetuate it, he also had a carpet woven from the drawing. Inferences have to be made about states of mind separated from the present not only by millennia but also - where ethnography is called into service to help illuminate the prehistoric evidence - by the geographical distance and different cultural contexts of other continents.
Two of the basic map styles of the historical period, the picture map (perspective view) and the plan (ichnographic view), also have their prehistoric counterparts.
However, the measurement of circular and triangular plots was envisaged: advice on this, and plans, are given in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus of ca.
From Ptolemaic Egypt there is a rough rectangular plan of surveyed land accompanying the text of the Lille Papyrus I, now in Paris; also two from the estate of Apollonius, minister of Ptolemy II. There is, however, but one example known, which has come down to us from that ancient day, this a celestial globe, briefly described as the Farnese globe.
Yet there was no century, not even in those ages we happily are learning to call no longer a€?darka€?, that geography and astronomy were not studied and taught, and globes celestial as well as armillary spheres, if not terrestrial globes, were constructed.
Here however he makes his hero confess that he is wholly out of his bearings, and cannot well say where the sun is to set or to rise (Od.
Although these views were continued and developed to a certain extent by their successors, Strabo and Ptolemy, through the Roman period, and more or less entertained during the Middle Ages, they became obscured as time rolled on.
The bones of the holy apostle were found, with some relics that were placed in a rich vase. Again, if we consider the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans as devoid of the American Continent, and the Atlantic Ocean as stretching to the shores of Asia, as Strabo did, the parallel of Iberia (Spain) would have taken Columbusa€™ ships to the north of Japan--i.e. At the time when Alexander the Great set off to conquer and explore Asia and when Pytheas of Massalia was exploring northern Europe, therefore, the sum of geographic and cartographic knowledge in the Greek world was already considerable and was demonstrated in a variety of graphic and three-dimensional representations of the heavens and the earth. In addition, many other ancient texts alluding to maps are further distorted by being written centuries after the period they record; they too must be viewed with caution because they are similarly interpretative as well as descriptive. Eudoxus had already formulated the geocentric hypothesis in mathematical models; and he had also translated his concepts into celestial globes that may be regarded as anticipating the sphairopoiia [mechanical spheres]. And it was at Alexandria that this Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander, had founded the library, soon to become famous through the Mediterranean world.
It seems, though, that having left Massalia, Pytheas put into Gades [Cadiz], then followed the coasts of Iberia [Spain] and France to Brittany, crossing to Cornwall and sailing north along the west coast of England and Scotland to the Orkney Islands. On the contrary, a principal characteristic of the new age was the extent to which it was openly critical of earlier attempts at mapping.
Disregarding the elaborate projections of the Greeks, they reverted to the old disk map of the Ionian geographers as being better adapted to their purposes. This shape was also one which suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade. 90-168), Greek and Roman influences in cartography had been fused to a considerable extent into one tradition.
The Almagest, although translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, appears to have had little direct influence on the development of cartography.
Ptolemya€™s principal legacy was thus to cartographic method, and both the Almagest and the Geography may be regarded as among the most influential works in cartographic history. However, the maps of Marinus and Ptolemy, one of the latter containing thousands of place-names, were at least partly known to Arabic geographers of the ninth to the 10th century.
The most accomplished Byzantine map to survive, the mosaic at Madaba (#121), is clearly closer to the classical tradition than to maps of any subsequent period. He Shuangquan, a research fellow with the Gansu Provincial Archaeological Research Institute, has made an in-depth study of the map and confirmed its drawing time to be 239 B.C. It was a heavy film most of the time but it took plenty of side steps to make light of the subject and themes throughout the plot. The answer came to the world on Wednesday March 13th when the world greeted Pope Francis, originally an Argentinean Cardinal. McNally, clearly very socially conservative in his own views, saw no issue with being involved with an edgy site or working with others who may have differing social views than the ones he holds. She felt that such a well-organized showing of youth would go a long way to convince older people that young people do have a voice and do matter in the dialogue. CBS announced that Vegas has been moved from Tuesdays 10pm to Fridays 9pm starting April 5th. Directly across from China, over the stormy seas, the islands of Kyushu and Shikoku and the form of Honshu can be detected. The map was drawn by the scholar-priest Zuda Rokashi, founder of Kegonji Temple in Kyoto, and illustrates the fusion of existing Buddhist and poorly known European cartography. For it is a historical fact that, under the Thangs, the Chinese, having conquered the eastern Turks, annexed an immense territory, stretching from Tarbagatai in the north to the Indus in the south, and their national prestige was then at its zenith. This could not have been so, for Hiuena€™s travels were not always mapped in the form of a shield. And this growth of geographical consciousness led to a fresh demand for maps to comprise the whole of the known world.
Hotan has not drawn the route of this famous pilgrim here, but the toponymy of India and Central Asia accords with Xuanzanga€™s account.
The special features of these maps are the representation of an imaginary India, where Buddha was born, and the illustration of the religious world as expounded by Buddhists. All these heterogeneous elements, so different from the other parts of the map are clearly the result of retouching at a later date, so that, in its most authentic form, the map of Hiuen-tchonga€™s itinerary had doubtless the shape of a shield, with a few small, rocky islands near the south and southeast coasts of the central continent, but without showing either Japan or Korea.
But it was not until the middle of the third century that the correct scientific principles for the production of a good map were enunciated. Therein lies the character and limitation of the Buddhist maps.A  The Ta€™u-shu-pien map was rough and small, but as it appeared in a popular encyclopedia, it attracted wide attention, which in time came to affect even the maps produced in Japan. But remember, only God can fully understand God, so even after the most diligent research, we may still have some unanswered questions that will prove to be a fruitful field of study even throughout the eons of eternity. For a Christian who accepts the substitutionary death of Christ on the cross, the third option is the only tenable one. Even in the Old Testament book of Daniel, we see a picture of the Father and the Son as two separate persons.
Computer programs exist that can reproduce speech, but they cannot create inspired thought. One sin could have sent the Godhead and the universe spinning into cosmic chaos; the proportions of this disaster are staggering.
Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made.
It was said that as the Archangel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias in the holy of holies, Zacharias must have been High Priest and have lived in Jerusalem; John the Baptist would then have been born in Jerusalem.
I have not been able to find any such evidence or artifacts of map making that originated in the South America or Australia. This is described in an inscription in the Temple of Der-el-Bahri where the ship used for this journey is delineated, but there is no map. It is of marble, and is thought by some to date from the time of Eudoxus, that is, three hundred years before the Christian era.
The Venerable Bede, Pope Sylvester I, the Emperor Frederick II, and King Alfonso of Castile, not to name many others of perhaps lesser significance, displayed an interest in globes and making. See the sketch below of an inverted Chaldean boat transformed into a terrestrial globe, which will give an idea of the possible appearance of early globes.
Indeed, wherever we look round the margin of the circumfluent ocean for an appropriate entrance to Hades and Tartaros, we find it, whether in Japan, Iceland, the Azores, or Cape Verde Islands. Terrestrial maps and celestial globes were widely used as instruments of teaching and research. Despite what may appear to be reasonable continuity of some aspects of cartographic thought and practice, in this particular era scholars must extrapolate over large gaps to arrive at their conclusions. By the beginning of the Hellenistic Period there had been developed not only the various celestial globes, but also systems of concentric spheres, together with maps of the inhabited world that fostered a scientific curiosity about fundamental cartographic questions.
The library not only accumulated the greatest collection of books available anywhere in the Hellenistic Period but, together with the museum, likewise founded by Ptolemy II, also constituted a meeting place for the scholars of three continents. From there, some authors believe, he made an Arctic voyage to Thule [probably Iceland] after which he penetrated the Baltic. Intellectual life moved to more energetic centers such as Pergamum, Rhodes, and above all Rome, but this promoted the diffusion and development of Greek knowledge about maps rather than its extinction. The main texts, whether surviving or whether lost and known only through later writers, were strongly revisionist in their line of argument, so that the historian of cartography has to isolate the substantial challenge to earlier theories and frequently their reformulation of new maps. There is a case, accordingly, for treating them as a history of one already unified stream of thought and practice. With translation of the text of the Geography into Latin in the early 15th century, however, the influence of Ptolemy was to structure European cartography directly for over a century.
It would be wrong to over emphasize, as so much of the topographical literature has tended to do, a catalog of Ptolemya€™s a€?errorsa€?: what is vital for the cartographic historian is that his texts were the carriers of the idea of celestial and terrestrial mapping long after the factual content of the coordinates had been made obsolete through new discoveries and exploration. Similarly, in the towns, although only the Forma Urbis Romae is known to us in detail, large-scale maps were recognized as practical tools recording the lines of public utilities such as aqueducts, displaying the size and shape of imperial and religious buildings, and indicating the layout of streets and private property. But the transmission of Ptolemya€™s Geography to the West came about first through reconstruction by Byzantine scholars and only second through its translation into Latin (1406) and its diffusion in Florence and elsewhere. But as the dichotomy increased between the use of Greek in the East and Latin in the West, the particular role of Byzantine scholars in perpetuating Greek texts of cartographic interest becomes clearer. Forested areas marked on the map also tallies with the distribution of various plants and the natural environment in the area today.
This is where some of the montha€™s breaking news first gets reported before making it into the pages of the following issue of CBN. The pair of lawyers must struggle to deny their growing physical attraction when they find themselves on opposite sides of a police sex scandal. This film was wonderfully rendered and perfectly set up for plenty of Oscar recognition from top to bottom. Meanwhile, back in the United States, the dreaded Sequestration was going to take effect if the U.S. That prize went to local hometown resident, Serena Williams who won her 6th Miami trophy making her the most decorated female tennis athlete in the Miami Sony Open tournament history.
From the big names: Palin, Romney, Paul, Perry, and Santorum these names might have been the headliners, but these young individuals are the future of this political party and social media movement.
FOX announced that the season finales of Boba€™s Burgers & American Dad would be May 12th. The language is Chinese, except for a few Japanese characters on the illustrations of European countries. They were constantly in touch diplomatically and commercially with Tibet, Persia, Arabia, India and other countries both by land and sea. There is one map of his journeys, drawn as an itinerary, preserved in the Tongdosa Temple in the province of Kei-shodo (south) in Korea. The shape of the central continent is just the same as in the Korean mappamundi, as was demonstrated also by the hybrid map. It was Pa€™ei Hsiu, 234-271, who formulated them so that he may rightly be called the father of Chinese cartography.
To sum up, taking over Chih-pa€™ana€™s view of China as equal with India, and on the basis of the theory of four divisions of the world implicit in the Map of the Five Indies, JA?n-cha€™ao tried to reunify the world which had been disintegrated into three regional maps in the Fo-tsu- ta€™ung-ki, and he thus succeeded in offering an image of the whole of Jambu-dvipa anew. And when He has comes, He will convict the world.a€? It is obvious from this text that the Holy Spirit would be more personally present after Jesus ascended. No one person or area of study is capable of embracing the whole field; and cartographers, like workers in other activities, have become more and more specialized with the advantages and disadvantages which this inevitably brings. Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars. It has been shown how these could have appealed to the imagination not only of an educated minority, for whom they sometimes became the subject of careful scholarly commentary, but also of a wider Greek public that was already learning to think about the world in a physical and social sense through the medium of maps. The relative smallness of the inhabited world, for example, later to be proved by Eratosthenes, had already been dimly envisaged. The confirmation of the sources of tin (in the ancient Cassiterides or Tin Islands) and amber (in the Baltic) was of primary interest to him, together with new trade routes for these commodities. Indeed, we can see how the conditions of Roman expansion positively favored the growth and applications of cartography in both a theoretical and a practical sense.
The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into North and South.
Here, however, though such a unity existed, the discussion is focused primarily on the cartographic contributions of Ptolemy, writing in Greek within the institutions of Roman society. In the history of the transmission of cartographic ideas it is indeed his work, straddling the European Middle Ages, that provides the strongest link in the chain between the knowledge of mapping in the ancient and early modem worlds. Finally, the interpretation of modem scholars has progressively come down on the side of the opinion that Ptolemy or a contemporary probably did make at least some of the maps so clearly specified in his texts. Some types of Roman maps had come to possess standard formats as well as regular scales and established conventions for depicting ground detail. In the case of the sea charts of the Mediterranean, it is still unresolved whether the earliest portolan [nautical] charts of the 13th century had a classical antecedent. Byzantine institutions, particularly as they developed in Constantinople, facilitated the flow of cartographic knowledge both to and from Western Europe and to the Arab world and beyond. The next phase was that DC announced its slew of brand new creators of these above titles starting with #21 issues in June. FOX announced that the 1-hour (each) season finales of The Cleveland Show, The Simpsons & Family Guy would be May 19th respectively. CBS announced Marg Helgenberger has been in the news attaching herself to another pilot called Intelligence. Europe is shown at upper left as a group of islands, which can be identified from Iceland to England, Scandinavia, Poland, Hungary and Turkey, but deliberately deleting the Iberian Peninsula. Under the Thangs China had attained to a high degree of civilization, perhaps the highest it has ever reached, and cartography then made remarkable progress. In fact, while it might not be wrong, we are never told to pray to Jesus or the Spirit - but instead to the Father in the name of the Son.
If the Holy Spirit is mere energy, there is simply no explanation or logic to why He would not come unless Jesus left. The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature. Some saw in the a€?hill countrya€™ Hebron, a place that had for a long time been a leading Levitical city, while others held that Juda was the Levitical city concerned. The fact that King Sargon of Akkad was making military expeditions westwards from about 2,330 B.C. The whole northern region, of sea as he supposed it, from west to east, was known to him only by Phoenician reports. If a literal interpretation was followed, the cartographic image of the inhabited world, like that of the universe as a whole, was often misleading; it could create confusion or it could help establish and perpetuate false ideas. It had been the subject of comment by Plato, while Aristotle had quoted a figure for the circumference of the earth from a€?the mathematiciansa€? at 400,000 stades; he does not explain how he arrived at this figure, which may have been Eudoxusa€™ estimate. It would appear from what is known about Pytheasa€™ journeys and interests that he may have undertaken his voyage to the northern seas partly in order to verify what geometry (or experiments with three dimensional models) have taught him. Not only had the known world been extended considerably through the Roman conquests - so that new empirical knowledge had to be adjusted to existing theories and maps - but Roman society offered a new educational market for the cartographic knowledge codified by the Greeks. Ptolemy owed much to Roman sources of information and to the extension of geographical knowledge under this growing empire: yet he represents a culmination as well as a final synthesis of the scientific tradition in Greek cartography that has been highlighted in this introduction. Yet it is perhaps in the importance accorded the map as a permanent record of ownership or rights over property, whether held by the state or by individuals, that Roman large-scale mapping most clearly anticipated the modern world. If they had, one would suppose it to be a map connected with the periploi [sea itineraries].
Our sources point to only a few late glimpses of these transfers, as when Planudes took the lead in Ptolemaic research, for example. As Marta digs into this dark underworld, she will test her own strength, relying on her resourcefulness, determination and family ties like never before.
At the lower right South America is featured as an island south of Japan with a small peninsula as part of Central America, carrying just a few place-names including four Chinese characters whose phonetic Japanese reading is a€?A-ME-RI-KAa€?.
The scroll begins on the extreme right with the Touen-houang region and finishes with Ceylon. Then after He died and rose again, He ascended to a€?the right hand of Goda€? (Romans 8:34). The Son of man, Jesus, is seen coming before the Ancient of Daysa€”who is, obviously, God the Father. Yet just because the Father seems to have supreme authority, it does not in any way diminish from the divinity of Jesus and the Spirit. Viewed in its development through time, the map is a sensitive indicator of the changing thought of man, and few of these works seem to reflect such an excellent mirror of culture and civilization. Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps. Many solutions to this problem were put forward, but it was solved once and for all by the Madaba map, which showed, between Jerusalem and Hebron, a place called Beth Zachari: the house of Zacharias.
The paucity of evidence of clearly defined representations of constellations in rock art, which should be easily recognized, seems strange in view of the association of celestial features with religious or cosmological beliefs, though it is understandable if stars were used only for practical matters such as navigation or as the agricultural calendar. The celestial globe had reinforced the belief in a spherical and finite universe such as Aristotle had described; the drawing of a circular horizon, however, from a point of observation, might have perpetuated the idea that the inhabited world was circular, as might also the drawing of a sphere on a flat surface. Aristotle also believed that only the ocean prevented a passage around the world westward from the Straits of Gibraltar to India. The result was that his observations served not merely to extend geographical knowledge about the places he had visited, but also to lay the foundation for the scientific use of parallels of latitude in the compilation of maps. Many influential Romans both in the Republic and in the early Empire, from emperors downward, were enthusiastic Philhellenes and were patrons of Greek philosophers and scholars.
In this respect, Rome had provided a model for the use of maps that was not to be fully exploited in many parts of the world until the 18th and 19th centuries. But in order to reach an understanding of the historical processes involved in the period, we must examine the broader channels for Christian, humanistic, and scientific ideas rather than a single map, or even the whole corpus of Byzantine cartography. If you see this film, the only way to full embrace yourself in the world of Oz and what the director envisioned is to spend the extra cash and watch it through the 3D glasses lens. Bernard Chang would be the new artist on Green Lantern Corps, and that DC would launch a 5th GL-centric title, LarFleeze, the Orange Lantern from Keith Giffen and Scott Kolins.
Batgirl, Nightwing, Red Hood, Red Robin and Catwoman each had a tie-in to this overall theme for the month. North of Japan, a land bridge joins Asia with an unnamed landmass, presumably North America.
It is dated April 1652, lunar calendar, is roughly drawn and has no special interest from the geographical point of view, but it serves to prove that the map of the travels of Hiuen-tchoang was not always drawn in shield form.
It may be because the Buddhist Holy Writings referred to some islands belonging to Jambu-dvipa that the compiler of this map arranged islands around the central continent so as to represent the various data obtained from sources other than the Si-yA?-ki or the Fo-tsou-ta€™ong-ki. To our great regret is has disappeared without any trace, but the author of the stela map at Si-gna-fou, engraved in 1137 (#217), of which the original drawing was made before the middle of the 11th century, said that he had consulted it, and that it contained many hundreds of kingdoms. The maps of early man, which pre-date other forms of written communication, were attempts to depict earth distributions graphically in order to better visualize them; like those of primitive peoples, the earliest maps served specific functional or practical needs. Excavations on this site revealed the foundations of a little church, with a fragment of a mosaic that contained the name a€?Zachariasa€?.
What is certainly different is the place and prominence of maps in prehistoric times as compared with historical times, an aspect associated with much wider issues of the social organization, values, and philosophies of two very different types of cultures, the oral and the literate.
Later we encounter itineraries, referring either to military or to trading expeditions and provide an indication of the extent of Babylonian geographical knowledge at an early date.
Another of a land, also in the north, where a man, who could dispense with sleep, might earn double wages, as there was hardly any night. There was, however, evidently no consensus between cartographic theorists, and there seems in particular to have been a gap between the acceptance of the most advanced scientific theories and their translation into map form. Viewed in this context, some of the essential cartographic impulses of the 15th century Renaissance in Italy are seen to have been already active in late Byzantine society. The next chapter of this tale was that towards the end of the month, Joshua Hale Fialkov surprised everyone when he went on social media to share that he was walking away from writing Green Lantern Corps & Red Lanterns (even before these books were released) due to the equivalent of creative differences by management.
All organic life is made up from cells that consist of three primary parts: the outer wall, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus (like the shell, white, and yoke of an egg). Maps were also frequently used purely for decoration; they furnished designs for Gobelins tapestries, were engraved on goblets of gold and silver, tables, and jewel-caskets, and used in frescoes, mosaics, etc. They do not go so far as to record distances, but they do mention the number of nights spent at each place, and sometimes include notes or drawings of localities passed through. He probably had the first account from some sailor who had visited the northern latitudes in summer; and the second from one who had done the like in winter. The influence of these views on Chinese cartography, however, remained slight, for it revolved around the basic plan of a quantitative rectangular grid, taking no account of the curvature of the eartha€™s surface. The Green Lantern mythology was shaken, but DC came back with the final chapter of this current saga, when the company announced that Joshua Hale Fialkov would be succeeded by Charles Soule on Red Lanterns.
NBC announced it would move Smash from its Tuesday 10pm timeslot to Saturday nights starting on April 6th. It was not until the 18th century, however, that maps were gradually stripped of their artistic decoration and transformed into plain, specialist sources of information based upon measurement. As in Greek and Roman inscriptions, some documents record the boundaries of countries or cities. At the same time Chinese geography was always thoroughly naturalistic, as witness the passage about rivers and mountains from the LA? Shih Chhun Chhiu. Viewers will not want to learn answers to the questions that this pilot posed to its audience. I had this wonderful sermon today on resurrection but I am changing it due to something in this morninga€™s paper. Our daughter who is also in the Army was in special training for 3 A? months and Oma and I took care of Alan at our home. At the local daycare, Alan met his friend Noah and they played together for the duration of this time.
Donations can be sent to any PNC bank location in Pennsylvania directed to the Noah Staley Trust Fund. This cancer is so rare that only about 100 people in the US have ever been diagnosed with this. I am asking all of my readers, please pray to our Lord for his healing, that his parents get the much needed monies, and that everyonea€™s faith shall increase as they see the Glory of God do a miracle.
Help me boldly claim my full capacity for your use.a€? ------------- Donna Givlera€”quoting Katie Brazelton of Saddleback Church in her devotional book titled a€?Praying for Purpose, for Womena€?. Everyone who lives in me and believes in me will never die.a€?1 Corinthians Chapter 15, vs.
42: Our earthly bodies are planted in the ground when we die, but they will be raised to live forever.
27: For you will not leave my soul among the dead or allow your Holy one to rot in the grave. 2: The leaders were very disturbed that Peter and John were teaching the people that through Jesus there was a resurrection of the dead. 11: I want to suffer with him, sharing in his death, so that one way or the other I will experience the resurrection from the dead.
It proved that he was God and that He had power even over His own death and Satana€™s dominion.
God can resurrect our lives, our dreams, and our visions if we ask him to or if it is His will for us.
If we have a dream or vision and we lose sight of it we can gain our sight back if we ask Him in prayer.
She continued her life style and left her son with babysitters while she partied and enjoyed life (she thought).
One day, depressed of how her life was going, she drove past our church and stopped in on a whim. We sponsored her that Christmas and had much joy running around buying her son Jared presents.
Over the next two years we connected a couple more times and gave her encouragement when we seen her. Last year we gave her a gift card for a restaurant so that she and Jared could have a nice meal out together. She now has a good full time job with benefits, her son is doing fantastic in school, and she is looking exceptionally healthy and emotionally stable now. For she took the courage in her slow death of life and laid all her hope at the foot of the cross.
My wife and I thank God that he let us participate, even if it was very little, in her re-birth. Shortly after the dream, we were visiting YWAM in Lebanon and they were showing us their prayer tent that they use in Lancaster and Cape Cod. This was with the hope that someone would step up to the plate and donate a space to erect it. However, recently the pastors of the Gathering Place (a project to help people with Aids) asked us to help bring CAP some clothes this winter. Just open your mouth and ask.a€?A a€?Even though your promise may be postdated, remember whose signature is on the checka€? Pastor Pop-Pop 11-8--09. What started out as something to just help pastor my children, has turned into something that may be helping lots of people.
According to Yahoo my host, I have an average of 50 hits a week on the Pastor Pop Pop site.
This weekend at a prayer tent at a local flea market, I seen a leg grow that was shorter than the other one. Every week from now on there will be two tabs to the right of the Home Page that will be new. We will address both today and you may click on the Tab in future weeks to experience the Altar Call again. A Christian artist once said that when she was in another country and away from her Church, she would sit and pray alone and have communion by herself to remind her of her faith.
That inspired my wife and me to do it occasionally by ourselves and with some of our Amish friends. It can be about your body, mind, soul, family, friends, healing needed, finances, challenges, or anything that you wish. Turn away from your former self, study in the Word (the Bible) and find yourself a good Christian Church that will support you and help you grow in your faith. The Son being Jesus Christ who died on the cross at Calvary and shed his blood for our sins.
I believe that since I now accept Him as my Lord and Savior that I have been washed clean of my sins and guilt by his blood. Jesus, I love you.a€? A If you prayed this simple prayer, you are saved and re-born in Him.
We are going to drown!a€? He replied, a€?You of little faith, why are you afraid?a€? Then he got up and rebuked the winds and the waves, and it was completely calm. The eyes of the Lord are upon those who love him; he is their mighty shield and strong support, a shelter from the heat, a shade from the noonday sun, a guard against stumbling, a help against falling. Although I own and study from many various different Bible translations, I personally normally use the NAB version. Occasionally I like to read some of the a€?missing books of the Biblea€? sometimes called the Apocrypha. They include the books of the books of Baruch, Judith, both Maccabees, Sirach, Tobit and the book of Wisdom.
If youa€™re Amish (I do have some Amish readers), you may find these books in an earlier version of the King James printing. Any way, I was reading the book of Sirach and through some of the verses it was put on my heart that I treated this person somewhat wrongly and it could have been done through ambition or pride of mine. I immediately broke down and confessed this sin to Jesus and asked for Goda€™s forgiveness. However, I will declare that the Lord has closed a door but he will surely open a new and better one. I choose to believe this truth and not the news media and evil spirits who would much rather us to believe that this bad economy, unemployment, and world affairs will defeat us.
He was led by the Spirit in the wilderness, where he was tempted by the devil for forty days. The Scriptures say, a€?People do not live by bread alone.a€™a€? Then the devil took him up and revealed to him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. 12: For we are not fighting against flesh-and-blood enemies, but against evil rulers and authorities of the unseen world, against mighty powers in this dark world, and against evil spirits in the heavenly places. It is good for us to know the Scriptures and write some down to pray and declare a€?in Jesusa€™ namea€™ when we are being attacked. When you are in the battles of life, say a verse or two out loud and declare it over your life in Jesusa€™ name.
Tell Satan to, a€?Get out of my life, body, mind, and soul and leave me alone in Jesusa€™ namea€? And use the arrows against him. Have mercy on me and hear my prayer.Go away, all you who do evil, for the Lord has heard my weeping. He rescued me from my powerful enemies, from those who hated me and were too strong for me.
I will thank the Lord because he is just; I will sing praise to the name of the Lord Most High. My enemies retreated; they staggered and died when you appeared.Turn and answer me, O Lord my God!
Dona€™t let my enemies gloat, saying, a€?We have defeated him!a€? Dona€™t let them rejoice at my downfall.Even though I walk through the darkest valley, I will not be afraid, for you are close beside me. Protect my life from my enemiesa€™ threats.But God himself will shoot them with his arrows, suddenly striking them down.
Pray and think on this thing called freedom, which we take for granted but is being eroded away.
37-40: Then He said to him (a Pharisee), a€?Love the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul, and with all your mind. 21: The one who pursues righteousness and faithful love will find life righteousness, and faithful love.
Many relatives were coming to our home to partake in the golden turkey and all the other foods and treats my wife prepared. So I will not be spending Thanksgiving having dinner around a table with my family like you are going to. If people like you would not patronize this store on holidays and make sure that you have all your stuff the day before, it would be unlikely that they would stay open.
It also made me think about all the other stores that are open on these days and the countless others that have to work those days and cannot have an enjoyable time like some of the rest of us. And dona€™t forget to thank them for being there if you just cannot bear not to go to the store for that a€?emergencya€? item.
37-38: On the last day, the climax of the festival, Jesus stood and shouted to the crowds, a€?Anyone who is thirsty may come to me!
For the Scriptures declare, a€?Rivers of living water will flow from his hearta€™.a€?Matthew Chapter 11, vs.
On one day before his memorial service when we were all there at his home, his daughter went out in the backyard by her self. She was walking around in the back yard and my other brother and I decided to go out and comfort her. She said that she looked up in the sky (it was blue and full of clouds that day) and, a€?I saw a very large white hand that seemed to reach down to mea€?. She stated that she felt it was her daddya€™s hand and because of this she felt better knowing that he was still watching over her. We may go through many troubles and trials in our lives but God will always be with us and never forsake us. 12-13: If a man has a hundred sheep and one of them goes astray, will he not leave the ninety-nine in the hills and go and search of the stray?
And if he finds it, amen, I say to you, he rejoices over it more than over the ninety-nine that did not stray. After a few days, the younger son collected all his belongings and set off to a distant country where he squandered his inheritance on a life of dissipation. When he had freely spent everything, a severe famine struck that country, and he found himself in dire need.
So he hired himself out to one of the local citizens who sent him to his farm to tend the swine. Coming to his senses he thought, a€?How many of my fathera€™s hired workers have more than enough food to eat, but here am I, dying from hunger. I shall get up and go to my father and I shall say to him, a€?Father, I have sinned against heaven and against you. While he was a long way off, his father caught sight of him and was filled with compassion.
Loads of cars and cameras were set up by the Audubon society to just catch a glimpse of it. You may have had parents or grandparents that were religious and went to church and prayed. Perhaps you have done something you consider really bad and believe God just doesna€™t love you anymore. Through his Son, if you confess your sins and ask for his forgiveness, you will be washed clean again.
One that will help you feel better, enriches your soul, shower you with His Word, and nurture your faith so it grows in the path of Christ. I wish to thank all my readers for visiting my web site this year and I hope that it helped in some way.
She will give birth to a son and will call him Immanuel (which means a€?God is with usa€™).Micah Chapter 5, vs. 2: But you, O Bethlehem Ephrathah, are only a small village among all the people of Judah . God sent him to buy freedom for us who were slaves to the law, so that he could adopt us as his very own children.John Chapter 20, vs.
30-31: The disciples saw Jesus do many other miraculous signs in addition to the ones recorded in this book.
But these are written so that you may continue to believe that Jesus the Messiah, the Son of God, and that by believing in him you will have life by the power of his name.Luke Chapter 2, vs. 9-12: Suddenly, an angel of the Lord appeared among them, and the radiance of the Lorda€™s glory surrounded them.
The Savior a€“ yes, the Messiah, the Lord a€“ has been born today in Bethlehem, the city of David! The names have been changed and the name of their Church deleted to help keep their identities secret. It was at this Church that we also got baptized together and rededicated our lives to Christ. I desire a man after your own heart and if that is not Mark then remove him.a€? I also said, a€?But Lord, divorce is not your desire, I believe in you. Mark has too much pride to come down to the altar, but I know if you can make a Donkey talk, you can call him out!a€? (Read Numbers Chapter 22, vs.
God has something to say.a€? Now the Pastor did not know Mark and did not know what I had prayed before we came here, only God knew. I now read the Bible to them every day, monitor their TV, take them to Church, and lay hands on them and speak blessings into their lives.



Lack of confidence solutions
Secret life of pi sparknotes


 

  1. 28.11.2015 at 11:28:47
    Princ_Na_Cernom_BMW writes:
    Chanting, the secret universe of names online dating in addition to time put aside for chores and private reflection retreat has been designed around.
  2. 28.11.2015 at 18:52:13
    113 writes:
    That you'll be working with one within the current second and they.
  3. 28.11.2015 at 19:42:24
    KOLUMBIA writes:
    Individual guidance and assist alongside your religious journey, whether you happen.
  4. 28.11.2015 at 23:41:28
    Lotu_Hikmet writes:
    Centering exercises such as the observe I exploit in executive presence workshops in which.