We have an Art Studio in Sultanahmet area and we have 2 teachers that are professional in Traditional Turkish Tile & Ceramics workshop. 2 Hours Turkish Tile & Ceramic Workshop ( Per Student ) 2 - 5 Guest ,55 Euro ,6 - more ,40 Euro ,1 Guest 65 Euro,Tour Includes. Mimar Sinan University,The Anatolian Seljuks were of course influenced by the cultural heritage they encountered in their new homeland, adapting them to the techniques that they had brought with them from the Iranian plateau. A type of architectural decoration used in conjunction with glazed brick was hexagonal, triangular, square, and rectangular monochrome tiles. Excavations carried out in 1965-66 at Kalehisar near Alacahoyuk have revealed important evidence of the Seljuks' ceramics industry in the 13th century. Sgraffito and slip-decorated wares continuing Seljuk techniques and styles were also produced during the Emirate period. The earliest example of the new styles that emerged in the early Ottoman period are the 'blue-and-white' Iznik ceramics. Another blue-and-white group from Iznik is erroneously called 'Golden Horn ware' because the first examples of it were discovered at a site on the Golden Horn in Istanbul. Iznik is also where another misnamed group of ceramics known as Damascus ware was manufactured. Yet another group of polychrome underglaze Iznik ceramics to be erroneously attributed to another place is the one misleadingly known as Rhodos wares, so-called because of the numerous examples of them purchased from the island of Rhodes and taken into the Cluny Museum. As late as the middle of the 16 century, the Ottoman ceramic industry was producing more utensils than architectural tiles.
During the first half of the 19th century, Kutahya's ceramics industry suffered a downturn from which it slowly recovered during the second half and into the early part of this century. There is a third important group of Turkish ceramics that are quite different from both the sublime products of Iznik and the humbler wares of Kutahya. To summarize, the art of Turkish tile and ceramic-making developed over the centuries incorporating many different techniques and styles. The art of Turkish tiles and ceramics have a very important in the history of Islamic art.
There is a widely held but quite erroneous belief that figurative painting, is not found in Islamic art due to prohibition by the Koran. We have an Art Studio in Sultanahmet area and we have 2 teachers that are professional in Traditional Turkish Tile & Ceramics workshop.
Please send us an e-mail if you are interested in participating our classes as individual or a student group. Chris is planning one of his very infrequent trips to New York for next Januarya€™s BSI weekend, and I think I know what aspect of it is on his mind. Ia€™ve just finished re-reading Irregular Crises of the Late a€?Forties which, of course, had to end just as the BSJ was about to be relaunched. Edgar Smith provided some of the desired information himself in a a€?Special Notice to a€?Old-Timea€™ Irregularsa€? that was included with some copies of the July 1951 issue sent out. The press runs for each issue were already growing, he told the 60 graybeards: a€?Only 200 copies of Volume 1, Number 1 were printed, and 250 copies of Volume 1, Number 2. Almost precisely a year ago, during my websitea€™s Great Hiatus, I received a BSI history question from John, so here it is, and Thucydidesa€™ answer.
I recently thought maybe I could buy a copy of the same book by Grillparzer that Morley used for the original Irregulars, and I remembered Tom Stix once telling me that he owned the book, but didna€™t want to give it to the BSI, instead to pass it on to someone who would care for it.
Mike Whelan wrote me saying that Tom Stix never had possession of the Grillparzer Book, and that there are no copies extant because it was a blank book into which club members wrote short commentaries. George Fletcher has an entire chapter describing Morleya€™s Grillparzer Book and its history in my BSI Archival History volume Irregular Memories of the a€™Thirties. Never used a typewriter, I think I said Adrian claimed (along with knowing his father better than anyone else living or dead). As Peter says, a€?ita€™s hard to imagine anyone forging Juliana€™s signature to make some money, since he signed just about everything he sent to anyone .
My recollection is about the same as Jima€™s, and along the following lines, althoughA uncertain after all these years.
The report at Stevea€™s link on Ye Sette of Odd Volumes makes interesting reading even if we fail to find a connection to the BSI.
I know about Bostona€™s Club of Odd Volumes,A as Ia€™m sure you do, but this English outfit is new to me. Ita€™s possible Christopher Morley, deep-dyed bookman, was aware of Ye Sette of Odd Volumes.
The other day I had the good fortune to meet a famous English printer who is visiting in this country; and instead of talking about Plantin and Caslon and Bruce Rogers we found ourselves, I dona€™t know just how, embarked on a mutual questionnaire of famous incidents in the life of Sherlock Holmes.
How I wish therea€™d been a garrulous eye-witness to that meeting of Morley and Morison in New York in 1926! Now Smith might have been peeved with Ben Abramson, given the OS BSJa€™s collapse, butA I doubt he was a€?excommunicatinga€? him in giving Hoffman the same investiture in a€™52: Smith was a benign personality never given to nastiness even in exasperation, something clear from the many score letters of his in my Archival Histories. And then, Edgar Smith excommunicating the likes of David Randall, Rufus Tucker (Smitha€™s colleague at GM), Rolfe Boswell, or Belden Wigglesworth? But even in 1985, when Julian Wolff had Peter Blaua€™s excellent lists to work from, and Tony Montag and Dean Dickensheet were both alive, he conferred Vamberry the Wine Merchant a third time, on Arthur Liebman.
I appreciate the attempt by my opponent at Augusta€™s Great Debate at Minnesota over the Sherlockian insignificance of Fr. The first three stock certificates were issued in January 1948 to Morley, Smith and Starrett. Miriam a€?Deea€? Alexander, Smitha€™s secretary at GM Overseas Operations at the time, and serving as Secretary-Treasurer of the BSI, Inc., had already received a share as a gift in recognition of her unpaid service. I cana€™t say now whether Smith succeeded in unloading any more shares to any additional stockholders in the 1950s, but if he did, it would have been as a purely charitable act on the part of the new stockholders, because it was clear by then that the BSI Inc. Manfred Lee, half of the pair of cousins who were the mystery-writing team of Ellery Queen starting in the 1920s, was not a Baker Street Irregular, though he did attend the annual dinner in 1946.
ROBERT KATZ: I recollect hearing that the BSI once met at the Players Club and the speaker (possibly Leslie Marshall) ended his presentation by igniting a piece of flash paper, as used by professional magicians. The Irregularsa€™ annual dinner was held at The Players on January and was attended by 100 thirsty enthusiasts. Of course, all of our customs were strictly observed, and the Conanical and Irregular toasts were drunk. It was a long time ago, 1971: the second dinner at The Players, I believe, falling beyond the scope of my Archival Histories but before my first annual dinner at the Regency Hotel (the second there) in 1973. With regard to Jim Montgomery, and the difference between membership in the BSI and the Irregular Shilling [see below], I dona€™t think we disagree .
Roosevelt and Rathbone and Bruce received membership certificates, but so far as I know never Shillings nor Investitures . Ia€™m reminded of the distinction that once was made between Irregular and irregular, but I dona€™t recall who started it . Ita€™s the same with my list of Sherlockian societies, which does not distinguish in any way between societies that are scions and those that are not . Actually, Don Pollock and I once wrote about a€?Packaging Holmes for the Paperbacksa€? that way in Baker Street Miscellanea (No.
Rex Stout was well-known for his Nero Wolfe mysteries when in early January 1941 Irregular Lawrence Williams suggested to Edgar W. But in not too much time, the Irregulars decided Stouta€™s heart was in the right place (after all, Archie Goodwin in at least one Nero Wolfe book had mentioned a picture of Sherlock Holmes hanging on the wall of their West 35th Street office), and he became a regular at the dinners; soon with a place at the head table, and the investiture a€?The Boscombe Valley Mysterya€? (conferred in 1949).
In 1954, the Higher Criticism of the Wolfe Canon got underway with an article in Harpera€™s Magazine (July) by editor Bernard DeVoto. According to a friend of mine who belongs to the Baker Street Irregulars [DeVoto began], a paper by one of his colleagues suggests that Nero Wolfe may be the son of Sherlock Holmesa€™s brother Mycroft.
DeVoto proceeded to spread frivolous speculation tricked out to look like scholarship across half a dozen pages in that montha€™s Harpera€™s, all for the purpose of confounding Irregular speculation about Nero Wolfea€™s parentage. DeVotoa€™s volley only encouraged Irregular speculation, and the principal word on the subject, a€?Some Notes Relating to a Preliminary Investigation into the Paternity of Nero Wolfe,a€? was published in the Baker Street Journal in 1956 by John D. Back in 1942, at that Januarya€™s BSI dinner, Julian Wolff had responded to Stouta€™s a€?Watson Was a Womana€? with a talk of his own entitled a€?Nuts to Rex Stout.a€? Stout was not in attendance to hear it. Besides Baring-Gould, well known to Irregulars is John McAleera€™s biography Rex Stout in 1977.
Thata€™s right, and I didna€™t exactly find space for Woollcott in Baker Street Irregular -- he storms up the stairs to Morleya€™s hideaway office on West 47th Street, flings open the door, marches in, and seizes control of the secret meeting going on between Morley, Elmer Davis, Edgar W. However, the sad lack of a good old-fashioned bodice ripping in the previews of Baker Street Irregular is a discouragement for further page turning.
I dona€™t know that Ia€™d call it seismic, exactly; though I wouldna€™t call it joyous either. I suspect the attrition rate among men in these scions due to the change of policy by the BSI is close to zero, though it did affect the allegiance of some to the BSI itself. And now that women do have seats at the national table, why, in your view,A have we seen so little classic Sherlockian scholarship from women or leadership at the scion level? Many scion societies today do have women at the helm, on the other hand, and not only recently founded scions. The question is whether Woollcott was expected by Morley that night, or instead came as an unwelcome surprise to him. I cana€™t swear that Smith invited Woollcott to the 1940 dinner, or subsequent ones prior to Woollcotta€™s death in January 1943. The saga of the Holmes Peak will have to await another historian to do it and its Head Sherpa, the late Richard Warner, full justice, Bob. As if to prove that the age of Sherlockian fun is far from over, let us turn to 1985a€™s humorous highlight, Richard Warnera€™s guide to the ascent of Holmes Peak.
But time and Warner prevailed, and in this little chapbook, with a foreword by Michael Hardwick who represented the Empire at the dedication of Holmes Peak, Warner relates all one needs to know in order to scale this lofty monument to the best and wisest man we have ever known. Buster Keaton could not do it better than the deadpan Warner, without whom Holmes Peak might never have been named (or even noticed).
It is a lovely hill, what in the Ozarks would be called a a€?bald knoba€? (that means no trees, for the less botanically astute), and the view is very fine.
Dicka€™s case, boiled down, was that as Sherlock Holmes was once employed by the Vatican, naming the Peak after him qualified as meaningful to the Bishopa€™s work.
Billa€™s contributions to the BSI and our understanding of its history are legion, but his masterpiece is his splendid history of a piece of Irregular folklore bestowed upon the BSI at the end of the a€™40s by its greatest musical voice, James Montgomery (a€?The Red Circlea€?) of Philadelphiaa€™s Sons of the Copper Beeches: We Always Mention Aunt Clara. Will Oursler was invested in the BSI in a€?The Abbey Grangea€? in 1956, preceded in that investiture by his father Fulton Oursler whoa€™d received it in 1950.
Bill Vande Water has been engaged for some time in deep research on both Ourslers, for both the BSI and Mystery Writers of America, and if he ever finishes it, it should be the definitive account of the two men in our sphere.
Can any reader shed light on this?A  Please let Thucydides know at the email address at the top of the column. The starting-point for preparation of the original version of this key, in my 1998 BSJ Christmas Annual a€?Entertainment and Fantasya€?: The 1940 Dinner, was a partial one by Harry Hazard, Jr.
Two listed in Smitha€™s minutes, Frank Henry and Malcolm Johnson, were old associates of Christopher Morley from his Doubleday years, and early Irregulars, but are not in the photograph nor in surviving copies of 221B from that night.
Reviewing Russell McLauchina€™s 1946 memoir of his youth, Alfred Street, I reported that he wrote in one chapter about his boyhood interest in Sherlock Holmes going beyond mere enjoyable reading of the stories.
He was born in 1894, and was nine years old when the Return of Sherlock Holmes stories began to appear in Colliera€™s Weekly in 1903.
I was too young to know the wave of dismay that went round the English-speaking world when Sherlock and Professor Moriarty supposedly perished together in the Reichenbach Fall, but I can well remember the sombre effect on my ten-year-old spirits when I first read the closing paragraphs of the Memoirs.
Elmer Davis, born the same year as Morley, wrote in his introduction to The Return of Sherlock Holmes in their 1952 Limited Editions Club appearance: a€?We who were born around the year 1890 have seen many things that we would just as soon have missed seeing. I can testify to the domestic excitement among subscribers to Colliera€™s, and gratefully acknowledge the self-abnegation of my parents who let me have first look at the issue that finally came in with The Return of Sherlock Holmes .
Thanks to William Gillette, the second establishing factor in Russell McLauchlina€™s account in Alfred Street. In the Sherlock Holmes Collections Newsletter, June 2009, I wrote the a€?50 Years Agoa€? column about Evelyn Waugha€™s 1959 biography of Msgr.
I actually heard John Bennett Shaw explain the Cult of Sherlock Holmes and began my collecting mania with the Shaw 100, and organize my bookshelves by the religious categories: Canon, Apocrypha, and Writings about the Sacred Writings.
2011 will be the 100th anniversary of the lecture a€?Studies in the Literature of Sherlock Holmes,a€? and by it the founding of Sherlockian scholarship, by Ronald Knox. For those bibliographers, a€?Studies in the Literature of Sherlock Holmesa€? has been published six times, the first being The Blue Book (conducted by Oxford undergraduates) Vol.
As a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford in 1911, Christopher Morley heard Knoxa€™s lecture a€?Studies in the Literature of Sherlock Holmesa€? and wrote about it in Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Of special note is that Sir Arthur Conan Doyle wrote a letter to Knox dated July 5, 1912, which Waugh quotes in his book.
In the letter Conan Doyle plays the Game and refers to the commentators as the learned and profound Sauwosch and the no less erudite Piff-Pouff, and ended with a€?renewed amazementa€”at the trouble you have taken.a€? The Great Game and Sherlockian studies were blessed by the Literary Agent.
There to supplement his meager stipend as chaplain he began writing classic detective stories, publishing six in all including five novels and a short story featuring Miles Bredon, who is employed as a private investigator by the Indescribable Insurance Company. The criminal must be mentioned in the early part of the story, but must not be anyone whose thoughts the reader has been allowed to know. No hitherto undiscovered poisons may be used, nor any appliance which will need a long scientific explanation at the end.
No accident must ever help the detective, nor must he ever have an unaccountable intuition which proves to be right. The stupid friend of the detective, the Watson, must not conceal from the reader any thoughts which pass through his mind: his intelligence must be slightly, but very slightly, below that of the average reader. Twin brothers, and doubles generally, must not appear unless we have been duly prepared for them. In his will, Ronald Knox left his manuscripts and copyrights to Evelyn Waugh and the royalties to the Asquith family.
The game of applying the methods of the a€?Higher Criticisma€? to the Sherlock Holmes canon was begun, many years ago, by Monsignor Ronald Knox, with the aim of showing that, by those methods, one could disintegrate a modern classic as speciously as a certain school of critics have endeavoured to disintegrate the Bible. Waugh notes that thirty years after a€?Studies in the Literature of Sherlock Holmesa€? was published, it had brought Knox a form of fame he found tedious.
Both Christopher Morley and Ronald Knox died in 1957.A Knox is gone but not forgotten and is especially remembered by us for starting Sherlockian scholarship.
Wella€” I am no expert in false-memory disorder, but must point out that none of us remembers Ronald Knox starting Sherlockian scholarship.
We have come to think that a€?the Mastera€? and a€?the Sacred Writingsa€? are religious affectations derived from Knoxa€™s talk. As for Morley bringing Knoxa€™s paper to America, we dona€™t even know if he heard it in 1911. But let us assume Morley did a€” for it reinforces my point that he didna€™t bring it to America and spread the gospel.
Only in 1926, said Morley in the Saturday Review of Literature that year, was his enthusiasm rekindled. It was a game Morley proceeded to transfer to a luncheon club of his wherein the BSI gestated (or perhaps marinated) at his favorite Manhattan speakeasy. In 1930 a€?Studies in the Literaturea€? came out in America, but it wasna€™t Morleya€™s kind of game, and he went his own way. Roberts earned this accolade through two critical works, influential where Knox was not except in terms of refutable error that Roberts exposed in the lesser of them, a 1929 leaflet called A Note on the Watson Problem. Smith explained that Knoxa€™s paper, appearing in Essays in Satire, a€?elicited a rejoinder in 1929 from S. He said so because of the biographical treatment of Watson that Roberts was commissioned to write in 1930. Davis was also at Oxford in 1911, and his Constitution refers a€?the study of the Sacred Writings.a€? But Davis was a devotee long before, and in any event the term a€?Sacred Writingsa€? does not appear in Knoxa€™s talk. There is no hint of Knox in that 1941 memoir about the BSIa€™s beginnings, nor in Morleya€™s rewriting of it in 1946 for the Baker Street Journal. We Baker Street Irregulars possess more than a few religious parallels in our structure and lore.A For example, Sherlockianaa€™s beginnings in a 1912 parody of contemporary biblical exegesis by Ronald A. Poor Jon, Ia€™m sorry to hear that you lost your faith in Knox and no longer believe that Christopher Morley brought the gospel to America. Roberts goes on to say that it was Desmond MacCarthy who first printed his early life of Watson essay in Life and Letters.A After he wrote about Watsona€™s later life the two essays were combined for the Criterion Miscellany series and there by association with Frank Morley. Vincent Starretta€™s The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes reprinted a€?A Final Examination Paper on the Life and Work of Sherlock Holmesa€? by E. The Knox brothers, much like the Morleys, had an early interest in Sherlock Holmes and wrote to Doyle in 1905 their a€?Sign of Foura€? letter.A Knox also wrote the Decalogue Symposium, an early play with Sherlock Holmes along with sixteen named characters from history and literature along with New Women, Bimetallists, Flagellants, Seventh Day Baptists, and Choruses of Virtue and Vices.
I realize some Sherlockians are deeply invested in the Knox myth, even unto multiple revenue streams for the BSI over the next two years. And people at that time, when so much was suddenly stirring in canonical scholarship, did not believe Knox was its founder. The question of the Sherlock Holmes canon is once more before the public, and it will not be out of place to make some remarks on it in these columns, the place in which the Higher Criticism of the Holmes saga was first originated by Frank Sidgwick in 1902. It is not unfair to say that the article then published by Sidgwick has determined the whole tendency of this branch of learning.
I am interested in what you wrote me in your last letter: you spoke of Monsignor Ronald Knox and Mr.
In fact there is another important a€?Clinical Notea€? from Morley that you omitted to mention in your debate.
Well, like Lady Frances Carfax, therea€™s still some fight in the corpse, but we shall see. 1931a€™s Saturday Review comment nodded to Knox in the course of Morley lavishly praising S. Elmer Davis, born the same year as Morley, wrote in his introduction to The ReturnA  of Sherlock Holmes in their 1952 Limited Editions Club appearance: a€?We who were born around the year 1890 have seen many things that we would just as soon have missed seeing. 1.The criminal must be mentioned in the early part of the story, but must not be anyone whose thoughts the reader has been allowed to know. Sense and Sustainability is a podcast devoted to exploring the diversity of perspectives on issues of sustainable development. In the first installation of the El Nino series, we looked at the wind and water mechanics of El Nino, and how it can create abnormal weather patterns around the world.
Because no two El Ninos are the same, it is difficult to predict the precise impacts of El Nino and to plan ahead. So far, this year’s El Nino has wreaked havoc in two major (and paradoxical) ways: droughts and floods. To hone in on a few places where El Nino has made its presence felt, there are currently large swaths of central and southern America that are experiencing vast displacement. As the effects of El Nino continue to play out in much of the developing world, the United Nations and World Health Organization are urging strong action by national and international organizations to offset the human costs.
This fact underscore Sen’s crucial insight: world hunger is not solely a result of a lack of food, or a population outgrowing its food supply, but rather is largely a result of political and policy failures around the world. When you think about it, the fact that we could feed the entire world if we better managed our food system is a fairly remarkable achievement, one that’s largely the result of the “Green Revolution” that played out in laboratories, industrial parks, and farmland over the 1940s, 50s, and 60s.
This last point is crucial, and is actually a point of hope for proponents of small-scale local agriculture. However, it would be a mistake to promote this approach as the universal solution to the problems created by industrial agriculture.
Located in the Veneto Region of Northeast Italy, the city of Venice and its lagoon was founded in the 5th century AD and became a maritime power in the 10th century.
Being spread over 118 small islands makes Venice a unique place, and probably what makes this city so attractive. During the winter months, Venice faces an annual high water phenomenon as a result of convergence of high tides and a strong south wind (sirocco) in the Venetian Lagoon; this is known as high water or Acqua alta.
High water is a phenomenon that the City of Venice’s Administration seems to understand very well, which allows it to implement the right strategies to mitigate the effects. Faced with the challenge of increasing sea levels, the Italian Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport entrusted Consorzio Venezia Nuova with the MOSE project. The MOSE project will install 78 mobile steel gates laid at the bottom of the seabed at the three inlets – Lido, Malamocco and Chioggia – which connect Venice and the Lagoon with the Adriatic Sea. When a tide of more than 110m height is expected, compressed air is pumped into the foundation structure, rising up the barriers (floodgates) to the surface of the water to block the flow of the tide preventing water from going into the lagoon. In terms of cost, the estimated total investment for this monumental project is around €7bn ($8.8bn USD), which will be financed during the three installments of €450m ($568m USD), €709m ($896m USD) and €380m ($480m USD). As the barriers will be located in the open water inlets to the Venetian Lagoon, a number of concerns were raised by activist group about the environmental impact of the project.
As Jim Titus, sea level rise expert at EPA’s Global Change Information Branch noted, “As the sea level rises, they’ll have to close the gates more…but if they do that, they’ll mess up the estuary”. Developing and implementing infrastructure projects at a large scale is a complex system that has to take into account many variables. April 12 was declared as the International Day of Human Space Flight in recognition of the first manned space flight made on April 12, 1961 by the 27-year-old Russian Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin.
Today remote sensing from space is a cost-effective way of obtaining unbiased and essential data on the physical world. As the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space put it at the opening of its annual meeting in Vienna, “Space-based information technologies must be fully integrated into the international efforts to overcome such challenges to sustainable development as climate change and food insecurity. Yet the very same climate phenomenon that gave us such beautifully warm December days is also responsible for some of the worst droughts, floods, and cyclones that our generation has ever seen in one condensed period of time. Occurring every two to seven years, El Nino is characterized by the buildup of warmer-than-normal ocean temperatures in the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.
The changes in trade winds and sea surface temperature (SST) then affect a system much higher up – the atmosphere. The El Nino weather phenomenon is actually part of a larger weather cycle dubbed “ENSO,” or the El Nino Southern Oscillation.
El Nino episodes typically last 9-12 months, peaking during the late autumn or winter (November-February), and then weakening during the spring or early summer (March-June). In the second installation of this series, I will summarize the health consequences of El Nino, using data from the WHO El Nino report.
When economists discuss climate change policies such as carbon taxes, cap-and-trade systems, and carbon intensity standards, effectiveness is a key question. Since a 2008 article, there has been a discussion in the environmental economics community about the “Green Paradox”: the phenomenon of emissions increasing, at least temporarily, in response to climate change policy that is targeted at fossil fuel use. This could be quite problematic if emissions released sooner result in greater-than-otherwise damages or damages for which we are simply unprepared. The classic model of resource extraction that led to Hotelling’s results also leads to the Green Paradox. When we play with some of the assumptions of that model to make them match the real world more closely, we find that the Green Paradox becomes less likely. The classic model, additionally, does not take into account the possibility of carbon leakage between countries or regions. So, our models predict that climate change policies might lead suppliers to move up their extraction of fossil fuels. The expert scientific community is near unanimous:  Climate change is occurring and human action is driving this change. None of this is new information for those familiar with the state of climate change research and policy.
A “Gateway Belief” is a piece of knowledge, a fact that — when known — opens the door for greater and deeper understanding of an issue. In other words, want greater support for climate mitigation and adaptation action, a good starting point is educating people about the substantive (overwhelming) climate consensus.
Here’s the kicker: The authors explain that although many science teachers themselves believe that climate change is happening, because most are not aware of the scientific consensus on human-caused climate change many opt to teach “both sides” of the so-called climate debate, mistakenly giving students the impression that the basic facts are still contested, rather than conveying the fact that there is a deep and well-established consensus among climate scientists. Sadly, rather than 97% being understood by 97% of Americans, only about half the country believes that human activity is the cause of climate change. Leading financial firm JP Morgan has issued a new Environmental and Social Policy Framework document. This 23 page document has 16 uses of the words “climate change.” And, reflecting this, the document lays out explicitly that how a firm once one of leading financiers of coal projects will accelerate its move beyond coal. With this, JP Morgan has joined Morgan Stanley and Citigroup in creating ‘no go’ zones for coal as part of a shift toward climate aware financing. To be clear, these financiers haven’t renounced coal entirely — but have created significant restrictions and guidance as to what is and isn’t acceptable coal-related investing (see pages 8-9). JPMorgan Chase believes that balancing environmental and human rights issues with financial priorities is fundamental to sound risk management and a core part of corporate responsibility.
Moving the financial markets and financial firms toward climate-sensible policies is critical to fostering a climate-friendly and prosperous future.
This document is an interesting read, from the high-level objectives to the wording to enable their desired flexibility for financing that might conflict, in some manner, with those objectives. As a global provider of financial advisory and lending services for clients in various sectors and geographies around the world, we recognize that our business decisions have the potential to impact surrounding communities and the environment. Protecting the natural systems which all life depends on while lifting people out of poverty and advancing economic development are among the greatest challenges confronting humanity.
Obviously the leaders of global finance are not going to solve climate change on their own – especially without explicit financial incentive to do so.
As a response to this crisis, oil and gas companies have decided to reorganize their corporate structures and have started to cut down jobs.
Fossil fuels contribute to the increase of global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, one of the key greenhouse gases causing climate change.
Last year, at the Convention of Parties (COP21) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), more than 150 heads of state and government gathered in Paris and proposed a global agreement to tackle climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions levels, promoting the transition to low-carbon economies and strategies that promote a global sustained development. Climate Change Action, in collaboration with the Climate Action Network, released an analysis report in 2015 showing that leading countries are spending 40 times more in fossil fuels subsidies than on clean energies.
The International Energy Agency (IEA) has also measured fossil fuel subsidies with the objective “to demonstrate the positive impacts that their removal would have in energy markets, climate change and distribution of government budgets.” In the IEA’s World Energy Outlook, the agency estimated that fossil fuel subsidies worldwide amounted to $439 billion USD in 2014. With the world in Paris, the attention was drawn to the imperative need to provide solutions to climate change from social, economic and environmental perspectives. The positive impacts of cutting subsidies to fossil fuels are not limited to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.
The International Institute for Sustainable Development hosted a side event at COP21 where it provided examples of successful cases where economic resources from fossil fuel subsidy-budgets have been reallocated.
Fossil fuels and climate change are definitely a hot topic, and reducing and eventually stopping the financial support that subsidies provide, require a strong political will. Despite these difficulties ahead, the Fossil Fuel Subsidy Reform proves itself as a tangible demonstration of the opportunities that exist to provide real tangible solutions to climate change, not only from the expected and well-known aspired reduction in greenhouse gases; but to deliver a prosperous future characterized by a strong and sustainable growth, encouraged by the burning desire to bring about change for good.
The world’s soils and their potential to sequester carbon have been driven into global dialogues on climate change mitigation.
Depending on how the soil is managed, soil organic carbon can increase or decrease in magnitude over time. The sequestration of carbon in the soil has many co-benefits that also deserve attention in these dialogues beyond climate change mitigation.
The SOM increase of water infiltration in the soil decreases runoff over land which is a large contributor to soil erosion.  Increases in SOM can result in higher plant yields, more resilient agroecosystems, and can decrease greenhouse gas emissions or even capture greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. Just as these soil properties and processes can be enhanced with increased levels of SOM, the properties and processes can be disrupted with the loss of SOM. Among other side effects, these land management practices deplete the soil carbon pool, thus disturbing the vital ecosystem functions listed above.
Many people already have some notion of this as each spring they will purchase manure, compost, or peat moss to put in their flowerbeds and gardens. Sustainable development in all parts of the world requires careful management of soil organic carbon. Taking this view on soil carbon can surpass political boundaries, as increasing soil quality has desired outcomes that most political parties can agree on: increased agricultural productivity and resilience as well as environmental protection and improved ecosystem functioning.
As the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Conference of Parties(COP21) in Paris concluded, diplomats and technocrats created— and are expected to sign in April 2016 —a binding commitment to reduce emissions. The French government has been drumming up support for one possible solution that reflects ideas discussed in a previous article relating to soil carbon sequestration. Through the program, governments and organizations would set-up incentives for farmers to adopt carbon sequestering agricultural practice (i.e. This means incentives for farmers have to be large enough to offset upfront capital and make the practice attractive for many years before the co-benefits are seen.
In addition to the COP21 participating countries creating a binding agreement on climate change mitigation, countries reaffirmed their commitment to funding the Global Climate Fund (GCF)—at $100 billion USD per year until 2025, when a new funding floor will be set. The second issue that must be addressed is developing effective evaluation criteria, has to do with that in many parts of the world there is little to no access to soil analytical laboratories. The global community must use a suite of innovative programs and technologies to both meet obligations at reducing GHG emissions and ensure their countries are prepared for the effects of climate change. Jason Bordoff,  Professor of Professional Practice at Columbia University and Director of the Center on Global Energy Policy at Columbia, shares his insights into how the climate-energy challenge might affect national security for the United States and the world. Jason Bordoff joined the Columbia faculty after serving until January 2013 as Special Assistant to the President and Senior Director for Energy and Climate Change on the Staff of the National Security Council, and, prior to that, holding senior policy positions on the White House’s National Economic Council and Council on Environmental Quality. One of the world’s top energy policy experts, he joined the Administration in April 2009. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the National Petroleum Council, a consultant to the National Intelligence Council, and serves on the boards of Winrock International (a leading nonprofit organization that works to empower the disadvantaged, increase economic opportunity, and sustain natural resources), the New York Energy Forum and the Association of Marshall Scholars. Never before has the opportunity to go green in the energy sector been as appealing and accessible as in the Caribbean. Although these efforts are impressive compared to most of Jamaica’s neighbors, they only scratch the surface of what is possible in the country.
In our place, we give beginner, intermediate & advanced level of traditional Turkish Tile & Ceramic painting lessons.
This resulted in a distinctively Anatolian style of Seljuk architecture that was in full bloom by the 13th century. Unlike brick, these were preferred for indoor applications and were suitable for a multiplicity of geometrical arrangements. Two kilns were unearthed along with a substantial quantity of kiln material and incomplete and spoiled examples of ceramics decorated with the sgraffito and slip techniques.In the sgraffito technique, the object is allowed to dry to leather-hardness after which the design, usually plant and floral motifs, is incised into the surface, which may or may not be given a coat of slip beforehand.
During early Ottoman times, they appear among Iznik wares reflecting the tastes of folk art.In the course of excavations at the site of ancient Miletus, the archaeologist and art historian F.
The techniques involved in their manufacture are quite advanced as compared with anything previously done. Dr Oktay Aslanapa's excavations at Iznik have demonstrated incontrovertibly that these wares were manufactured there. Thereafter however production shifted heavily in favor of the latter as there was a strong surge in the demand for tiles as decorations in the extensive building programs undertaken by Suleyman I (1520-1566) and his successors when the Ottoman Empire was politically, economically, and culturally at its peak. Thus do we find examples of Kutahya-made tiles decorating a number of late-Ottoman buildings. Canakkale ceramics have begun attracting the interest and attention of researchers and collectors more and more in recent years.The earliest examples of these ceramics can be dated to the end of the 17th century.
Enriched by the arrival of the Seljuks, the ceramic industry in Anatolia achieved a deservedly worldwide reputation with the support of the Ottoman court. Its roots can be traced at least as far back as the Uighurs of the 8th and 9th centuries. Religious rulings issued only in the ninth century discouraged the representation of any living beings capable of movement but they were not rigidly enforced until the fifteenth century.
I mean the quotation from the bar bill at some long-ago BSI Dinner, listing the number of whiskies, gins, and scotches consumed, and "1 beer"? Anxious to avoid another failure through lack of support, he was appealing to 60 BSI a€?old-timersa€? (a€?in order to spread the clerical load, and to facilitate the voluntary work by which alone the Journal can keep goinga€?), to renew their subscriptions for 1952 right away without waiting for the renewal form that would accompany the October issue, the final one of the year. 1 and 2 a€?reproduction issuesa€? had to wait until the NS BSJ seemed securely on its feet, its subscriber base grown to a safe point and new subscribers seeking copies of the first two Numbers.
I contacted Mike Whelan about it: I thought he would know enough about it that I could get another copy. Someone (dona€™t remember who it was) who fancied himself a bit of a conjuror was at the head table, which included Alfred Drake as then-president of The Players, and seated next to Drake. Julian told me later that the bar bill was of the magnitude of treble the food bill.A Thing was, the bartenders, of whom there were several, strategically located around the rooms,A were pouring generously, including for themselves, encouraging BSIs to put down their partially consumed glasses and get fresh ones -- and soon lost the ability to check off accurate numbers of drinks served.
A Both for its own sake, and because it suggests what the typewriter that Conan Doyle owned in the early 1890s may have been like. Symons a€” author of The Quest for Corvo a€” and am thus reading his brother Juliana€™s biography of him. The notiona€™s wrong, and theA tip-off should have been the misapprehensiona€™s source a€” S. All it takes is to know the notiona€™s absurd is to look up what men Smith supposedly excommunicated.
The first comprehensive if imperfect list of investitures and holders I know of is one by C. Ronald Knox, to explain away such an elementary (let us say, fundamental) mistake on Knoxa€™s part, but Ia€™m reminded, a bit sadly, of the famous exchange between Dr. Smith started talking to Christopher Morley about incorporating the BSI sometime the summer of 1947, both to create a lucrative publishing program (they thought), and to manage takeover of the BSJ if Ben Abramsona€™s publishing of it collapsed (as it did in 1949). His cousin Frederic Dannay first attended it in 1942, and became part of the BSI for the rest of his long life (dying in 1982), and was invested as a€?The Dying Detectivea€? in 1950. I think the noted actor Alfred Drake was sitting next to the speaker and was, needless to say, quite startled by this. The Constitution and Buya€”Laws, as well as the Musgrave Ritual and Sherlock Holmesa€™s Prayer, were read, and the Sherlockian songs of Jim and Bruce Montgomery were played and enjoyed. So I asked Jim Saunders (a€?The Beryl Coroneta€?) and George Fletcher (a€?The Cardboard Boxa€?), both invested in 1969, for their memories.
Nash was, Morley once said, one of the Doubleday, Doran a€?assembly mena€? present at the speakeasy in the East a€™Fifties in 1930 when Morley was commissioned to write his a€?In Memoriama€? foreword for the first Complete Sherlock Holmes.
Perhaps the matter can be cleared up when I get to the a€™Fifties volumes of the Archival History, or perhaps Peter Blau or someone else can shed light on this. Smith that Stout would be a good person to attend the up-coming 1941 annual dinner (held the 31st) and respond to some awful things Somerset Maugham had said about the Sherlock Holmes stories in a recent Saturday Evening Post article.
He had already turned down an invitation from favorite-contributor Elmer Davis to join the Baker Street Irregulars, on grounds of silliness. I cannot find the treatise that contains this absurdity and mention it only as an example of the frivolous speculation tricked out to look like scholarship with which the Holmes cult defrauds the reading public. A strident anti-isolationist before Pearl Harbor, he was off creating the Writers War Board to support the U.S. In 1961, when he became the BSIa€™s Commissionaire, he created the honor known as the Two-Shilling Award a€?for extraordinary devotion to the cause beyond the call of duty,a€? and the first one went that January to Rex Stout. You cana€™t copyright titles of books, and if you could, this one would belong to the Conan Doyle Estate;-- fortunately, my client in a different sphere of my Irregular life. How heavily attended are the all-male scion societies these days, setting aside the Pips, as it is not a scion society? The all-male scion societies 20 years ago that occur to me were The Maiwand Jezails of Omaha, Hugoa€™s Companions of Chicago, Philadelphiaa€™s Sons of the Copper Beeches, The Speckled Band of Boston, and The Six Napoleons of Baltimore. It has been a long time since the a€?Junior Sherlockian movementa€? of the 1960s replenished the BSIa€™s ranks during the a€™70s, and since the comparable a€?Sherlock Holmes booma€? of the 1970s flowed from the successes of the Royal Shakespeare Company revival of William Gillettea€™s Sherlock Holmes and Nicholas Meyera€™s novel The Seven-Per-Cent Solution. I need to point out that the first woman to be an Irregular, mystery critic Lenore Glen Offord (a€?The Old Russian Womana€?), was tapped way back in 1958, but I also acknowledge that it didna€™t include invitations to the BSIa€™s annual dinners. So far, in the Manuscript and International Series published by the BSI, why am I not seeing womena€™s bylines more often, if at all?
Ita€™s a question youa€™d have to address to ones directly responsible for those series of books published by the BSI, or to the Big Cheese himself, Mike Whelan, who has also presided over the International Series from the start, I believe. He was of course a notorious enfant terrible, and Ia€™m sure not above crashing a party given by a fellow book-caresser like Christopher Morley. But he sent Woollcott a copy of his 1939 Appointment in Baker Street lavishly inscribed to Woollcott as Baker Street Irregular, and Woollcott appears on Smitha€™s December 5, 1940, BSI membership list given in my BSJ Christmas Annual a€?Entertainment and Fantasya€?: The 1940 BSI Dinner.
He has only one scene with a speaking part, and that in June 1940, but he was such a Fabulous Monster it was great fun to write him into the tale.
As you know, ita€™s been my steadfast intention from the start to cover the years 1930 to 1960, when Edgar Smith died and Julian Wolff succeeded him, and then stop, since the decades which followed are too recent for sound historical judgments.


Those acquainted with the doings of The Afghan Perceivers of Tulsa know well the daring of their intrepid exploits, which have struck awe (and some terror) in small towns throughout the American Southwest. To have been at the dedication last summer, complete with the Afghanistan Perceiversa€™ widely dreaded drum-and-bugle corps, must have been a marvelous one-of-a-kind occasion; but much of its charm and wit is surely captured in this little chapbook. When Bishop Eusebius Beltran told Dick that the hill needed a name a€?more meaningful to his work,a€? a lesser mortal would have taken no for an answer, and returned to whatever one does on a windswept prairie. This letter was promptly bounced back to the esteemed Bishop Eusebius Beltran (fiction writers, I defy you to create a more dazzling cognomen), who replied on behalf of his Pontiff. Rabe will get a chapter of his own in the first a€?Fifties volume of the Archival History, along with his Old Soldiers of Baker Street (the Old SOBs). I find I reviewed this item myself in Baker Street Miscellanea when it came out in 1990, see here. Katz: Will Ourslera€™s talks at BSI dinners are said to be legendary, although I am not sure why. Harris (a€?The Creeping Man,a€? BSI) described the spirit of the BSIa€™s annual dinners at the Murray Hill Hotel and Cavanagha€™s in the 1930s through the 1960s, before growing numbers brought it to an end by forcing the annual dinner to move to many round tables (instead of close proximity as shown in the 1947 photograph on the websitea€™s The BSI page), in huge banquet rooms in overplush hotels and clubs, ever since.
Colling, a theater and broadcast media friend of Morleya€™s from their Hoboken theater days in the late 1920s.
The intolerable pathos of the cigarette-case on the rocky ledge; the firm clear handwriting of that last stoic message!
And for another twelve pages of his introduction, Elmer Davis expounded upon the exegetical scholarship that was applied, initially by excited young readers like himself in 1903-04, to the Adventures and Memoirs stories as well in light of the revelations of the Return stories in Colliera€™s Weekly. Smith was born in 1894, like McLauchlin, hence nine years old when the Return stories began to appear in Colliera€™s. I shall look into Edgara€™s correspondent at the time, Vincent Starrett, but I know that in his autobiography Born in a Bookshop he related being captivated by the historical novels of A. Sveum championed the Baker Street Irregulars party line that Ronald Knox created Sherlockian scholarship, and Christopher Morley brought it to America and spread the gospel. Knox, so I foolishly challenged him to come to Minnesota and, using Oxford Union rules, debate the Motion that Ronald Knox founded Sherlockian Scholarship. I thought everyone knew that Sherlockian Higher Criticism and calling Holmes the Master was due to Knoxa€™s religious influence. Living in Shropshire, he was able to devote his time to translating the Vulgate Bible into English, a project that took nine years.
Since then, the thing has become a hobby among a select set of jesters here and in America.
Knox wrote to an editor who asked for a review, a€?I cana€™t bear books about Sherlock Holmes.
We werena€™t around in 1911, nor in the early a€?30s when the scholarship took off and the BSI and Sherlock Holmes Society were founded. It was as you say a rather juvenile talk, with its Monsieur Piff-Pouffs and Herr Bilgemanns. Others had done so a decade earlier, Arthur Bartlett Maurice in The Bookman in America and Frank Sidgwick in The Cambridge Review in England, in January 1902 as Hound of the Baskervilles was appearing serially. Someone else did, and was in the thoughts of the BSIa€™s and Sherlock Holmes Societya€™s scholars and founders in 1934.
Morley was inflicting examinations in the Canon upon his brothers Felix and Frank long before 1911, and forming, in turn-of-the-century Baltimore, a Sherlock Holmes club with other youngsters. By the time Morley arrived in Oxford in 1910 at age 20, having discovered girls, booze, and ambition, his boyhood Sherlock Holmes enthusiasm had gone dormant a€” and by his own admission it was still dormant when he came home in 1913 to begin his career as a writer. Not by Knox, but an unnamed printer he met in New York; and what rekindled it was an impromptu trivia game of the kind Morley had often played as a boy with brothers and chums. Doctor Watson, published by Faber & Faber in early 1931, had tremendous impact upon devotees on both sides of the ocean. Watson: A Chronology of Their Adventures also gave Roberts first place among students of the Canon, while referring to Knox but once. There was little religious terminology in Knoxa€™s paper, which satirized German scholarship, not religious rites. What Morley identified specifically as the BSIa€™s inspirations were William Gillettea€™s Farewell Tour of 1928-32, Robertsa€™ Doctor Watson, Starretta€™s Private Life, and Davisa€™s Roberts-besotted review of Starrett in the Saturday Review. Knoxa€™s talk cracked up Oxford lads compelled to read nineteenth-century biblical criticism, but in our scholarship and movement, Knox is only a latter-day saint: no evidence of having been in Morleya€™s mind when his zest for Holmesiana was revived in 1926, nor when he turned his luncheon club into a Baker Street club, nor when he founded the BSI.
Our scholarshipa€™s starting point is Frank Sidgwicka€™s examination of Watsonian chronology in 1902, and our movement was triggered by S. In that year the editor of the Cambridge Review invited me to review the omnibus edition of the short stories of Sherlock Holmes together with R. If there is anything pleasant in criticism, it is finding out what we arena€™t meant to find out. Sveum quoting an article of mine from the Baker Street Journal at me, but that was written in 1992, when my BSI history researches were still young.
Our Wiggins recently re-asserted the faith in an encyclical letter of sorts to Irregulars, though strangely it did not arrive in my in-box.
He was mainly concerned with pointing out discrepancies a€” and very serious ones a€” in the dates of the a€?Hound of the Baskervillesa€?; and since that time, critics have faithfully followed his method, have concentrated their attention on questions of chronology, of text, of the minutiae of the literary technique.
His Chicago Tribune column was written not for us, but for the masses, a€?the great unobservant public, who can hardly tell a weaver by his tooth or a compositor by his left thumb.a€? He knew better. We are Sherlockians and Irregulars, and should adhere to what Christopher Morley called a€?the metal actuality of Baker Street doctrine.a€? Like Sherlock Holmes, we do not take things on faith. Parliament and the Savoy Hotel were blown up and the Minister of Traffic was hanged from a lamp-post. Morleya€™s column in the Baker Street Journala€™s debut issue would have been a new opportunity to say he heard Father Knox give his talk at Oxford in 1911, or cite its supposed foundation of our scholarship, or the making of BSI. Of course this is not a declaration of Knoxa€™s a€?supposed foundation of our scholarship, or the making of BSI,a€? as you say. Robertsa€™s pamphlet Doctor Watson (1931) -- a€?a delightful bit of serio-spoofa€? -- stating that a€?his essay, together with that of Father Ronald Knox in Studies in Satire [sic], is a necessary addition to the Holmes-Watson codex.a€? (Saturday Review of Literature, March 7, 1931, p. I have to wonder why Morley put these references to Knoxa€™s paper in Stanley Hopkinsa€™ mouth, not his own. Today, the hard cider industry is exploding, but only as global temperatures and the threats climate change rise with profits. Rather, El Nino can become extremely dangerous in the way that it interacts with other factors, such as seasonal monsoons and periodic dry seasons.
What scientists do know for a fact, however, is that El Nino conditions (circulation pattern changes and warmer ocean temperatures) drastically increase the probability of extreme weather in certain regions. At the moment, drought conditions persist in Central America, the Caribbean, southern Africa, Western Pacific, Indonesia, and Philippines. In the Gran Chaco region – which spans parts of Bolivia, Paraguay, and Argentina – above-average rainfall is anticipated to continue from November 2015 to May 2016.
More than 12,000 cases of cholera have been reported in Tanzania as a result of unusually heavy rains. The western world – left largely unaffected by El Nino – may have the biggest role of all to play. This is because a government that is responsive to its citizens will do everything in its power to ensure that its people are fed; after all, a famine-ridden population is not likely to be politically forgiving.
It isn’t that the world doesn’t produce enough food for everyone; it’s that the world food system does a terrible job of distributing the food grown in an efficient and equitable manner. If we move away from industrialized farming, will we actually create a more sustainable agricultural system? Local agriculture, while less economically efficient than industrial-scale agriculture, enjoys lower transportation costs than large-scale farming, and has a much stronger positive effect on local economies.
Small-scale local agriculture makes sense in high-income locations (such as New York), where consumers can afford the relatively more expensive food, and in undeveloped nations, where there is no industrial agriculture and other economic opportunities are limited.
Small-scale local agriculture has its place, and its better aspects should be emulated wherever possible in the industrial system. Recognized by UNESCO as a World Heritage city, Venice treasures an infinite amount of culture and history and the city’s architectural masterpieces are simply extraordinary, not to forget the iconic gondolas strolling around the canals and the magnificent Piazza San Marco with its Basilica. But there is also the other side of Venice, the one exposing the high maintenance costs associated with the city being built over water: the cleaning of the canals, replacing construction materials disintegrating due to continuous exposure to the water, coping with the number of visitors per year, and of course the high tides. High water typically affects the lowest parts of the town, such as Piazza San Marco, for usually 3 to 4 hours with exceptionally high tides (when the water-line is equal to or more than 140 centimeters) occurring once every 3 years. However, as the sea levels rise due to climate change, Venice is under serious threat from being submerged by the Adriatic Sea. MOSE is an acronym for Experimental Electromechanical Module (in English), and its name in Italian alludes to the story of Moses parting the Red Sea.
The construction work began in 2003 with building and completing the 23,000 tonne concrete foundations and putting them into the lagoon. Italy’s Green Party said that 453,000 meters cubed of the lagoon bed will be cleaned out and replaced with 8 million tons of brick and 700,000 tons of concrete, which would threaten the ecology of the lagoon, one of the Mediterranean’s most important wetlands. The environmentalists tried to address this with the Consorzio Venezia Nuova but a press release from their spokesperson Francesca De Pol, did not address the environmental assessment and consequences from the MOSE project and only referred that the city has endured high sea levels and this will not last for that long; therefore, the MOSE project was the right solution to this problem. Projects such as MOSE, with a strong impact in the short and long terms must embed sustainable strategies that address challenges and provide solutions that bring about economic, social and environmental benefits. However, the construction of the MOSE project is a demonstration of the unavoidable changes that societies will have to make to adapt to a changed climate and the consequences associated with one. Decision makers use this information to understand trends, evaluate needs, and create sustainable development policies and programs in the best interest of all populations. The World Health Organization recently stated that El Nino currently “threatens at least 60 million people in high-risk developing countries.” So what exactly is El Nino and how is it so dangerous? Warmer waters are coupled with changes in the easterly trade winds over the region: during El Nino, the surface winds across the entire tropical Pacific are weaker than usual. In simplified terms, the Hadley Circulation is responsible for transporting air from the equator towards the North and South poles. However, even as El Nino weakens, it can remain powerful enough to continue disrupting weather patterns in South America, Africa, and Asia. In the third and last installation, I will discuss how climate change will affect El Nino in the future.
Many policies work by increasing the price of fossil fuels to reflect the cost that society bears as a result of climate change. A paper published in the Review of Environmental Economics and Policy this year summarizes the current research on the Green Paradox. If a climate policy [equivalent to a tax that rises with the interest rate] is announced in advance, fossil fuel suppliers will shift their extraction forward in time.
But, if we consider the possibility that extracting more and more oil, for example, may become increasingly expensive, then suppliers will be less likely to shift production forward in time in response to a climate change policy. When emissions can move spatially, things get complicated, to say the least, and whether suppliers extract more fuel now could depend on factors such as the price elasticity of fuel demand (how much demand for fuel changes when its price changes) and the difference in carbon prices between countries.
And the Green Paradox could be difficult to capture, even if it was occurring, due to factors such as spatial carbon leakage. One important contribution of the idea is that it emphasizes the supply side of fossil fuel markets. But now many — in part as a result of the withering propaganda attacks on climate science financed by the Kochs, Exxon, and others of their ilk — do not understand this. In turn, changes in these key beliefs are predictive of increased support for public action. Those resistant to action on climate change have long understood this — no wonder that they attack “97%” and trot out their pet anti-climate science talking head(s).
Further to the (and the redder the school district, I would suspect), the more likely “controversy” and “both sides” will make its appearance in the science curriculum.
Most notably, ‘green field’ coal mining is now to be treated like projects using child labor and those that endanger world heritage sites. We recognize that the policies and practices we adopt today will shape not only our lives but also those of future generations. However, this report is just more evidence that makes it clear that even Wall Street is taking the threat of climate change seriously. For instance, Royal Dutch Shell recently announced plans to cut 10,000 jobs including staff and contractor positions in 2015-2016. On the other, the oil crisis has deeper and more complex entanglements at national and international levels. The 2014 report released by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states that global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels have increased by 90% since 1970. The international attention that the climate change agenda received before and during COP21 put the oil and gas industry in the spotlight, in particular, attention was brought to the large national subsidies that it receives. However, in 2015 there was a decrease by $39 billion USD mainly impacted by the drop in oil prices.
During COP21, the New Zealand Primer, Minister John Key, presented the Fossil Fuel Subsidy Reform to Christiana Figueres, the UNFCCC Executive Secretary.
It would also release financial resources that could be allocated to social topics like education, health, infrastructure, air pollution reduction programs, and would also provide fair competition grounds for investments in renewable energy sources. For instance, the Philippines have increased its expenditure in health care programs, and India has removed subsidies to diesel and diverted them to irrigation programs and microfinance of solar energy technologies. Indeed, this will not be easily accomplished and patience must be exercised while global leaders pushed by society’s consciousness, debate the long-term implications of cutting subsidies down.
However, there is still debate on the feasibility of soil carbon sequestration in aiding in the mitigation of climate change, as it will require international commitment reflected in national level policies.
Soil carbon is the building block of Soil Organic Matter (SOM), which increases soil quality and better provides essential ecosystem services.
However, many projects are showing that implementing certain sustainable land management practices can combat desertification. To simplify this, it can be broken into two steps; input of organic matter and minimal disturbance of the soil.
Most have an understanding that this will benefit plants, but do not realize the specific functions it plays. Inputs of organic material typically involve plant residue left from previous crops or manure and compost applied directly to the field.
It typically takes multiple years to see significant increases in SOM and the associated benefits. While there is potential for some climate change mitigation through soil carbon sequestration, policy makers need to be aware of the implications of soil organic carbon in providing other essential ecosystem services through increased SOM. Furthermore, as the CSA concept is taking center stage in agricultural development discussions, recognizing the co-benefits in promoting practices that protect and increase SOM is essential to ensure that CSA moves towards more sustainable food systems in a more dynamic future climate.
Many practitioners in environmental protection and agricultural development have begun working to determine the next steps forward.
The French Government has proposed a program, 4 pour 1000 (or 4 per 1000), that focuses on increasing soil carbon as both a way to sequester carbon—a greenhouse gas—and increase the resiliency of the world’s farming systems. While carbon prices could help to incentive farmers in this regard, most carbon markets have had artificially low prices. The GCF is intended to be a funding mechanism whereby developing countries can access the capital to implement countrywide greenhouse gas emissions reduction programs as well as begin to adapt their country to the negative impacts of climate change. While there have been innovative approaches making more efficient and mobile technology available to analyze soil samples in farmers fields in developing countries (ICRAF Spectral Lab, Soil Cares), availability for rural farmers remains an issue. The new 4 pour 1000 program has a lot of potential if implemented carefully, and can bring many more benefits beyond soil carbon sequestration. In this conversation with host Aroop Mukharji, Bordoff discusses the different between energy independence and energy isolation, the refugee crisis, climate change in political discourse, and his most energy inefficient habits.
During the Clinton Administration, Bordoff served as an advisor to the Deputy Secretary of the U.S. This four-part blog series documents the paradigm shift currently under way in the region, where the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Jamaica present moving case studies on the momentum that is building to realize the Caribbean’s untapped sustainable energy potential. The country’s National Energy Policy, adopted in 2009, is vaunted as a model for lawmakers region-wide. Jamaica’s current matrix of renewable power plants comprises only 7.8 percent of total installed generation capacity. The country currently sources 95 percent of its electricity use from petroleum-based power plants. Its subsequent development was influenced by Karakhanid, Ghaznavid, and (especially) Iranian Seljuk art. Usually lessons are 2 hours based and by the end of 2 hours, you will be able to finish one item like a tile, plate or a figure. Seljuk mosques, medreses (theological academies), tombs, and palaces were lavishly decorated with exquisite tiles. The resulting design is then covered with a transparent glaze of a different color and then the piece is fired. Sarre came across a type of polychrome pottery that erroneously became known as 'Miletus ware'. Raby has proposed calling them the 'Tugrakes spiral style' instead.5 The motifs of tiny leaves and flowers on spirals are executed in shades of cobalt blue, turquoise, and black. The forerunner of the style is said to be a lamp in the Dome of the Rock that is dated 1549 and bears the signature 'Musli'. These ceramics have an extensive palette and are generally decorated with naturalistic flowers.
Countless examples of mosques and tombs not only in Istanbul but all over the empire were adorned with the products of the Iznik potters' skill.These underglaze-decorated ceramics and tiles were decorated with a rich palette of shades of cobalt blue, turquoise, green, black, brown, and the famous 'coral' or tomato red, the last of which appears in a slight relief resembling sealing-wax. The tiles on the Tomb of Sultan Mehmed Resad V in Eyup (Istanbul, 1918) for example were made at the manufactory of Hafiz Emin Usta, which was then operating in Kutahya.
Fairly good-quality wares continued to be produced up until the beginning of the 19th century. Its subsequent development was influenced by Karakhanid, Ghaznavid, and (especially) Iranian Seljuk art. Figural art is especially rich in tiles as well as stone and stucco reliefs of the Seljuk period, adorning both secular and religious reliefs monuments. A prolific music and theater critic in Los Angeles area newspapers and magazines, he died in May, seated at his keyboard writing a review when the fatal heart attack came. Ia€™m sure Tom said he had it and did not want to pass it on to the BSI, and even more sure it wasna€™t a a€?blanka€? book: why was it called the Grillparzer Book if it was blank? He received the Two-Shilling Award in 1983 for the immense help he gave Julian Wolff with the BSJ over many years, and was its actual publisher a number of years when he ran Fordham University Press. Based on the description of the bartending, it was a case of if you can remember it you weren't there. This Irregulara€™s shtick (excuse me, a€?papera€?) included, and ended with, igniting a bit of flash paper that erupted and fell from his hand onto the tablecloth, thus landing in Drakea€™s immediate proximity. I recall one bartender as being just this side of falling-down drunk.A Many BSIs were only too happy to get a fresh one when the old ice cubes had dwindled or the mixer had lost its fizz, or some combination thereof, and I recall the vast array of partially consumed drinks sitting all over the place. A His dreadful son Adrian swore that his father never owned or used one, but in fact Conan Doyle mentions having one in letters written from South Norwood, though it appears his sister Connie, living there at the time, used it mostly to prepare replies to correspondence hea€™d received.
But Bigelow had only been invested in 1959, hadna€™t known Smith long or well, was outside the mainstream of the BSI, and looking for a reason to explain his receiving an investiture someone else still in the ranks had. Leslie Marshall (a€?A Scandal in Bohemiaa€?), who returned to the fold after many yearsa€™ absence. Stix, Jr.), by Bill Jenkins a€” to end a€” the reports of the Scion Societies, followed by the usual informal discussions. And then your old fellow saddle-tramp Lenore Carroll touched on the same thing in a€?Exploring a€?The Country of the Saintsa€™: Arthur Conan Doyle as Western Writera€? in BSM 51 (Autumn 1987). In stating here the insoluble problem which will always frustrate biographers of Nero Wolfe I confine myself, as a member of the American Historical Association in good standing, to examining the source documents according to the approved methods of historical research.
Baring-Gould, already the author of Sherlock Holmes of Baker Street and editor of The Annotated Sherlock Holmes, made the idea a foundation-stone of another book, Nero Wolfe of West 35th Street.
My experience of Hugoa€™s Companions is limited, and nil in the case of The Maiwand Jezails and Speckled Band, but none of them have changed their policies.
Even the wave of newcomers from the television series starring Jeremy Brett that debuted in 1984 was a long time ago now. Leavitta€™s expostulations to the contrary in his 1961 BSJ two-parter a€?The Origins of 221B Worship.a€? When Edgar W. So I presume Woollcott had been invited to the January a€™40 dinner at the Murray Hill Hotel too. But none have reached so high a pinnacle as the naming and ascent of Holmes Peak, which rises majestically 262 feet above the prairie floor, and from whose wind-swept summit practically all of Osage County, Oklahoma, can be seen. At one time we had passes for the ski lift, but I have seem to have misplaced them (as Dick seemed to have misplaced the lift). Dick showed this document to John Bennett Shaw, who was an active member of the Knights of Columbus and other arms of the Church. Smitha€™s death, he also edited the Baker Street Journal for many years, influenced the BSI weekenda€™s shape with his Saturday cocktail party (first in his home for those he invited, then at the Grolier Club when numbers grew too great, and after that it was Katie bar the door); and then, Julian also handed out more investitures than anyone else before or since.
Ia€™m sure Tom said he had it and did not want to pass it on to the BSI, and even more sure it wasna€™t a a€?blanka€? book:A  why was it called the Grillparzer Book if it was blank? To keep the spirit alive, we have this department for occasional items of Irregular controversy. 15), plus the signatures in surviving copies of 221B: Studies in Sherlock Holmes, edited by Vincent Starrett, that were distributed to the attendees that evening as the first collection of BSI Writings about the Writings. CBS News broadcast, according to Basil Davenport in a letter to his mother several days later thata€™s in his papers at Yalea€™s Beinecke Library. Warren) Force and Warren Jones, are presumably in the photograph since their signatures are in surviving copies of 221B from that night, but they cannot be even tentatively identified at this time. 20 against the wall behind Steele and Morley has sometimes been taken to be a Murray Hill Hotel waiter. I know of no explicit statement by him about reading the stories at that time in that magazine, but ita€™s hard to doubt it when we read, in his very first letter to Vincent Starrett, dated October 15, 1936 (found in its entirety on pp.
Conan Doyle before he was by Sherlock Holmes; and being born in 1886, he had reached a somewhat less impressionable age than had Morley, Davis, Smith, and McLauchlin in 1903. Hill Barton,a€? BSI) at the 2010 Sherlock Holmes Collections weekend at the University of Minnesotaa€™s Andersen Library. Your humble Irregular historian endeavored to demonstrate that this is a myth a€” myth of long standing, but myth nonetheless. 2 (July 1912), 111-32, and was included in Edgar Smitha€™s 1958 The Incunabular Sherlock Holmes and James Edward Holroyda€™s 1967 Seventeen Steps to 221B. The lecture was a mock-serious inquiry into inconsistencies in the Sherlock Holmes stories, and a satire on Biblical Higher Criticism.
Ronald Arbuthnott Knox was an English theologian, priest and crime writer born February 17, 188, 122 years ago. The Waugh biography was controversial by implying that Cardinal Bourne, Archbishop of Westminster, did not use Knoxa€™s talents wisely. The rule of the game is that it must be played as solemnly as a county cricket match at Lorda€™s: the slightest touch of extravagance or burlesque ruins the atmosphere. What you think you remember is what others have told you a€” and odds are, they werena€™t around then either.
Sveum in mentioning where it appeared over the decades glossed over the fact that it didna€™t appear anywhere Holmes devotees could read it until 1928 in England and 1930 in America, when it was included in Knoxa€™s Essays in Satire. But when I started researching the BSIa€™s history, reading dozens of essays and hundreds of letters by our founding fathers, slowly it dawned upon me that they werena€™t talking about Ronald Knox.
The evangelistic Morley had all the makings of a cult leader from the start, without Knox to inspire him. On the sole occasion he referred to it as having been given at Oxford while he was there, in 1944 in Sherlock Holmes and Dr.
Leavitta€™s indispensable a€?Origin of 221B Worship,a€? a first-hand account of our origins, tells how competitive examination in the Canon at those lunches in the late a€™20s and early a€™30s gave birth to the BSI. Another that October was Vincent Starretta€™s Private Life of Sherlock Holmes a€” a rapturous tribute barely mentioning Knox. Roberts in A Note on the Watson Problem, and the foundation for what was to follow may be said by that action to have been laid.a€? The importance of that observation by a student, contributor, and editor of Holmesian scholarship like Edgar W.
It not only entranced, it showed what could be done, prompting further effort by others a€” not least Christopher Morley. Only much later was Knox grafted onto our movement retroactively, assigned a place he had not occupied in the 1920s and a€™30s.
As I said in my opening statement, I was raised in the Knox faith myself; it was only considerably later that I realized how little there is to it.
But a kind Irregular forwarded it to me, and in it I saw quoted the same two authorities on behalf of the Knox myth. Knoxa€™s paper did not set the tone for all subsequent students of the Canon, certainly not for Starrett himself whose 1933 Private Life of Sherlock Holmes did not echo the Knox tone in the slightest, which is why we still read it when we dona€™t bother to read Knox. However, he faces one basic problem in trying to prove that the Knox essay was the basis for Sherlockian scholarship. It opens thus:a€?a€? a€?All the Knoxes loved jokes and spoofs, as Penelope Fitzgerald shows in her wonderful joint biography of them, The Knox Brothers, just republished. The piece in question is not, actually, a trial version of the classic biography; it is, rather, a gentle but well-merited attack on the atrocious Holmesian scholarship of that other a€?incunable,a€™ Monsignor (then Father) Knox. Smith did not bother to reprint Knoxa€™s paper, then or later, nor has any other editor since. But ita€™s an enthusiastic evaluation of Knoxa€™s essay and certainly more than a call for attention to any student of the Corpus Watsonicum.
What are the results of climate change on the apple and cider business and food production in general? An unseasonably warm winter and a less stormy summer – which is what much of North America can thank El Nino for – may seem unambiguously appealing. These are weather patterns that people all around the world depend on for their livelihood and existence. Meanwhile, flooding conditions persist in Peru, Ecuador, Paraguay, the southern Horn of Africa, eastern equatorial Africa, China and the central Pacific. At least 170,000 people have already been displaced due to intense flooding, and that number is expected to rise. The Horn of Africa has experienced its worst drought in 30 years, and Ethiopia has especially struggled. An emerging scientific consensus now claims that climate change increases the frequency of extreme El Nino events. Luckily, we currently live in a world in which we produce enough food for every man, woman, and child on Earth to eat 2,800 calories of food per day — more than enough to provide an adequate diet for all. By producing huge amounts of food in a cost-effective manner, we helped make famine a distant memory in many parts of the world. The expanded use of pesticide and fertilizer use has resulted in harmful runoff and polluted waterways. Just as importantly, will we still be able to produce enough food for 2,800 calories per person per day?
The UN World Food Programme and the Food Agriculture Organization are attempting to take advantage of these factors in their food assistance and development aid, buying food from local vendors to deliver to disaster or hunger-stricken regions in order to both alleviate food-related suffering and assist in local economic development. However, in most of the developed world, agriculture is already industrialized and other economic opportunities abound.
However, we shouldn’t lose sight of the fact that industrial agriculture has given us much more than polluted waterways and monoculture fields as far as the eye can see. Throughout its history, Venice has experienced high water, dating back to November 1927 and most recently in November 2012. Besides rising sea levels, the city also risks sinking because of the extraction of ground water and methane gas within the surroundings of the Venetian Lagoon.
The objective of the project is to protect the Venetian Lagoon from being submerged by the Adriatic Sea and to protect Venice from being flooded.
If there is no risk of flooding, the barriers will be filled with water and lowered into the seabed. Meanwhile, anodes protecting the gates from corrosion will release more than 10 tons of toxic zinc per year. It is tough to find an equilibrium but with climate change altering the natural state of our ecosystems, there is no question that integrating sustainability is a must-go and must-do. The project also exposes an undeniable truth: that climate change is real and it seems to be catching up sooner than we thought. And it was not just New York – The Washington Post claimed that this was America’s year without a winter.
Under neutral conditions, surface winds blow east to west across the basin, piling up the warm water near Indonesia. Whereas the Walker Circulation moves air in a vertical loop that remains at the equator (in a so-called “zonal flow,” which just means that it follows a line of latitude), the Hadley Circulation transports air in a “meridional flow,” or along a longitudinal line. El Nino is often (but not always) followed by La Nina the following year, which is the opposite weather event in that the easterly trade winds near the equator get even stronger – instead of weaker – than they usually are. Teleconnections are statistically significant correlations between weather events and geographic areas of the Earth.
The worst case scenario is usually thought of as an expensive policy that has zero effect on the global stock of gases, such as a tax that induces businesses to displace all the emissions they are “getting rid of” to other, untaxed regions. As famously theorized by economist Harold Hotelling in 1931, owners of nonrenewable resources will extract them when it is profitable to do so, compared to making other investments.
The authors walk through the theoretical models on the topic as well as the tiny bit of empirical evidence about whether the Green Paradox has occurred so far.
This will also occur if a surprise climate policy is implemented and it is equivalent to a tax that rises faster than the rate of interest.
When we plug in the fact that oil, natural gas, and coal all contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, we can have less hope: suppliers might substitute to using “dirtier” fuels before the cleaner ones. But with several types of fossil fuels out there emitting different amounts of carbon per unit of energy produced, the Green Paradox might be plausible. Many carbon policies are targeted at the demand side—taxing, putting a cap on, or otherwise regulating emissions from the use of fossil fuels. In short, we find that perceived scientific agreement is an important gateway belief, ultimately influencing public responses to climate change. Therefore, we have designed policies that ensure environmental and human rights impacts are identified early, carefully evaluated and managed responsibly. Meanwhile, the UK oil company British Petroleum – which at the end of 2014 had 84,500 employees worldwide – made public their plans to lay off 7,000 employees; of which 4,000 will be reduced in its upstream business in 2016 and 3,000 jobs will be cut in 2017 from its downstream segment.
This Reform is a coalition of approximately 40 governments, businesses and influential organizations calling for accelerating actions to phase out fossil fuel subsidies. Further challenges also arise in land tenure issues of smallholder farmers in developing counties, as increasing soil organic carbon takes investment and time. Increased SOM simultaneously increases water infiltration into a soil, water storage potential within a soil, and the ability of the soil to hold and supply plant nutrients over time.
Desertification is the transformation of once fertile land into desert through a combination of drought and unsustainable land management practices.
However, to ensure that the SOM stays in the soil, it is essential that the soil is only minimally disturbed, as any disturbance to the soil can increase soil microbial respiration and the breakdown and loss of SOM. In developing countries, smallholder farmers typically have difficulty in establishing land tenure rights. While at first this may sound eerily similar to the REDD and REDD+ programs, it is important to note REDD and REDD+ programs do not focus on soil carbon sequestration—though this is the largest terrestrial sink in the world—and typically do not extend to active grass and agricultural lands. As mentioned in my previous article, Beyond Soil Carbon Sequestration, this increase in SOC comes with many more benefits beyond carbon sequestration. These low prices have not facilitated innovation or adoption of mitigating practices in many sectors.
The GCF represents a possible pathway to facilitate equitable and effective payments to farmers involved in soil carbon sequestration activities through the 4 pour 1000 program.
So as 4 pour 1000 project is implemented, governments and organizations must budget for an effective, efficient, and affordable method to evaluate the soil carbon sequestration throughout long periods of time. Bordoff’s research and policy interests lie at the intersection of economics, energy, environment, and national security. The policy lays out aggressive targets for a 30 percent renewable energy share and a 50 percent reduction in energy intensity by 2030. New research suggests that, by further developing its diverse renewable resource endowment of solar, wind, hydro, and biomass, the country can comfortably meet 40 percent of its total anticipated electricity demand by 2027. Because Jamaica lacks domestic petroleum resources, it depends entirely on imports, resulting in significant economic and environmental costs for the country.
With the Seljuks' victory over the Byzantines at Malazgirt in 1071, the art followed them into Anatolia and embarked upon a new period of strong development fostered by the Anatolian Seljuk sultanate.There is a widely held but quite erroneous belief that figurative painting, is not found in Islamic art due to prohibition by the Koran. Examples of such tile-clad structures can still be seen in the Seljuks' capital city of Konya as well as in the cities of Sivas, Tokat, Beysehir, Kayseri, Erzurum, Malatya, and Alanya.The most frequently-encountered type of architectural decoration during the Anatolian Seljuk period involved the use of glazed brick in which glazed (and also unglazed) bricks were arranged to produce a variety of patterns, mostly on the facades of buildings. In the slip technique, the design is painted onto a red-paste surface using diluted white slip to produce a slightly molded effect. We now know, as a result of recent excavations, that these wares were actually made in Iznik. In this object we find a new palette of colors incorporating, in addition to the traditional cobalt blue and turquoise, eggplant violet and a cumin green. Many examples of Kutahya ceramics from this period are to be found in museum and private collections in Turkey.The difficult straits into which the Iznik industry had fallen in the 18th century inspired some in Istanbul to establish a reliable source of tiles that was closer to home and easier to control.
In addition, efforts are also being made in private workshops and educational institutions in Iznik, Istanbul, and Bursa to keep the art of traditional Turkish tiles and ceramics alive and develop it so that it can address the demands of modern-day life.Felt Making Workshops in Istanbul,Traditional Turkish Felt Making,Felt is a non-woven cloth that is produced by matting, condensing and pressing woollen fibres. With the Seljuks' victory over the Byzantines at Malazgirt in 1071, the art followed them into Anatolia and embarked upon a new period of strong development fostered by the Anatolian Seljuk sultanate. The subjects included nobility as well as servants, hunters and hunting animals, trees, birds, sphinxes, lions, sirens, dragons and double-headed eagles. The BSJa€™s circulation wasna€™t the deep dark secret that it is today, but it will take further research to uncover just when those a€?reproduction issuesa€? were produced.
George went on to be Astor Curator of Printed Books and Bindings at the Pierpont Morgan Library, later Director of Special Collections at the New York Public Library. Nor must we omit to mention those elegant keepsakes that we received through the courtesy of several Irregulars. Instead he agitated the Irregulars that night with his soon notorious talk a€?Watson Was a Womana€? (which included an acrostic in which titles of Watsona€™s tales spelled out the name Irene Watson).
I construct only one hypothesis and I make no test of that one, leaving it for other scholars to test and apply as they may see fit. And Nicholas Meyer (a€?A Fine Morocco Case,a€? BSI) made use of the idea as well in his novels. Anderson, a valued contributor to Baker Street Miscellanea when he was was a professor of English at Texas A&M and Denison Universities, is now president of St. In fact Starrett proceeded to Christ Cellaa€™s by hansom cab that evening with Woollcott, from the lattera€™s apartment (known as a€?Wita€™s Enda€?) at 450 East 52nd Street.
Smith started organizing the 1940 revival dinner, Morley dug up an old invitation list for Smitha€™s use, and Woollcott was on it. He concludes by describing the Preservation Societya€™s elaborate future plans for Holmes Peak, including such juicy things-to-come as the Scenic Highway to the top, the Holmes Cenotaph (a design contest will be announced soon), the Doyle Ski Basin, and Holmesworld amusement park. John told Dick the good Bishop had expressed himself harshly as a Bishop was allowed to, and still stay on the side of the angels.
It would be interesting to learn more about his Whoa€™s Who, his role in the Voices of Baker Street, the formation of the Mrs.
Army directly into the BSI at the beginning of the a€?50s, and by 1955 had the investiture of a€?Colonel Warburtona€™s Madness,a€? which also tells us Edgar W. Many of his Irregulars are gone today, like him, but lots of them made tremendous contributions to the BSI that are felt to this day. When I first attended the BSI annual dinner in 1973, he had been a fixture there many years, and I found it was a tradition for him to give one of the talks each year -- and for his talk to be totally unintelligible.
George Fletcher and I had a drink at the bar afterward but they wouldna€™t let us pay.A They put everything on Juliana€™s membership account. But since hea€™s the only person in the photograph young enough to have been Peter Williams, who from the 1920 U.S. But I shall investigate and report, and would be happy for any other examples readers of this may send me.


Ronald Knox in his 1918 autobiography A Spiritual Aeneid writes that part of a dona€™s function is to read papers to undergraduate societies.
Certainly you know a great deal more about it than I do,a€? and he continued for four pages to discuss the criticism in detail. The sixth and last child of an Anglican Bishop, he attended Eton College and took a first in Classics at Balliol College, Oxford, in 1905. He wrote the introduction to The Best Detective Stories 1928-1929, and in it he codified the rules of the gamea€”and Golden Age mysteries were considered games, different than our game. They were brilliant, came from middle-class families, were educated at Oxford, were temporary schoolmasters, wrote satire, and enjoyed the company of the British Catholic aristocracy. XIV, Detective Stories, the rules that he first wrote in 1924 were reprinted with commentary. Watson: The Chronology of Their Adventures and Thomas Blakeneya€™s Sherlock Holmes: Fact or Fiction?
And after that, only a few times at infrequent intervals, the last 26 years ago, and never in the Baker Street Journal or Sherlock Holmes Journal. Knoxa€™s paper, in fact, is only the seventh in the anthologya€™s chronologically ordered contents. And the decisive factor was another development of which Starrett and Morley were keenly aware, and led to Englanda€™s society as well: a 1931 monograph riveting Holmes devotees as Knoxa€™s paper had not.
Bella€™s anthology Baker Street Studies, said: a€?It is true that as far back as 1912 a young priest named Ronald Knox had contributed an article to the Oxford Blue Book in which a tongue-in-cheek probing of some esoterica in the Saga was tentatively undertakena€? a€” words lending little support to the idea that Knox was our scholarshipa€™s fountainhead. It was in Morleya€™s hands quickly, and he praised it lavishly in the Saturday Review of March 7, 1931. But in 1966 he was writing about events nearly forty years earlier; he was now seventy-nine years old and in the last year of his life. In the early 1930s, Starrett paid very little attention to Knox, as wea€™ve seen a€” but great attention to S. As boys, for example, they wrote a letter to Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, denouncing inconsistencies in the Sherlock Holmes stories and including five dried orange pips, in allusion to the threatening letter in The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes.
Robertsa€™ Note on the Watson Problem as a a€?gentle but well-merited attack on the atrocious Holmesian scholarship of that other a€?incunablea€™, Monsignor (then Father) Knox.a€? BSJ (OS), vol. Roberts as the two a€?incunablesa€? (whatever that meant,) of your modern Baker Street studies, but I dona€™t think you knew that Mr.
Perhaps Steve Rothman, reading this, will rush to do so in the so-called Year of Ronald Knox coming in 2011, in hopes Ia€™ll stop pointing out this embarrassing fact.
Perhaps one clue is found in the remark a€?I have a sad feeling that many of your members only read their own stuffa€? -- for by that time Morley was very tired of the BSI, in fact declaring that there would be no more BSI dinners (a draconian position from which Edgar Smith dislodged him only with great difficulty).
Never before, to my knowledge, had Morley mentioned Knox anywhere, let alone describe his 1911 paper.
In this interview with host Aroop Mukharji, David Dolginow, co-founder of Shacksbury Cider in Shoreham, Vermont, explores the cider industry’s deep-seeded history and looks towards the future of industries dependent on both climate and innovation for success. One poor harvest can result in thousands of farmers struggling to make ends meet; but in some developing nations where small-scale farming provides nearly 100% of the local diet, one poor harvest can result in millions of hungry people searching for food.
According to the WHO report on El Nino, both droughts and floods may trigger food insecurity and cause significant population displacement. In Paraguay alone, at least 16,000 families have been displaced from low-lying areas in makeshift shelters without adequate infrastructure or services.
El Nino has triggered drought in large parts of Ethiopia while simultaneously causing flooding in other areas – the combined effect has resulted in 80% of the country’s crops failing. The increase in irrigation has drained water tables, and extractive farming practices have left depleted and unproductive soils. This approach has great promise in the developing world, where the agricultural sector has not yet industrialized and other economic opportunities are limited.
More importantly, it is this industrialization that has enabled us to produce those 2,800 calories for every man, woman, and child on earth. Moving completely away from it might salve our environmental conscience, but it would come at a high price. During the last century Venice has sunk by 11 inches and according to Yehuda Bock, a research geodesist with Scripps, “Venice appears to be continuing to subside at a rate of about 2mm a year”.
The movable gates lay at the bottom of each inlet channel supported by 38m long steel and concrete foundations, which measure 500mm in diameter and 20m in length.
Additionally, when the gates close they will trap industrial and agricultural pollution, and the city’s untreated sewage.
However, during El Nino, when these winds are much weaker, the warm water slides back east. Rising air corresponds to storms and rainfall, while sinking air creates a stable, dry clime.
So the Walker effects follow an east-west orientation, while the Hadley effects follow a north-south orientation. Cool water from deeper in the ocean rises up in the eastern Pacific, inhibiting rising air movement and rainfall in the eastern Pacific. So scientists can guess at what weather impacts a particular region of the world can expect. Similarly, they will leave their resources in the ground when other investments are better deals. This causes the price that suppliers receive to fall, and suppliers will make less of a profit than they otherwise would. Even a surprise climate policy that rises at the rate of interest may lead to more emissions sooner as suppliers might not really be a surprised at all, given the importance that climate change has taken in political debate.
If extraction depends on building new oil rigs, however, these decisions can be delayed for years.
This is because clean fuels would be more valuable in the future when the climate policy is anticipated to begin. All this modeling is great, but, since we are getting mixed results, should we really be worried about this? Such policies not only promote positive environmental stewardship, but also highlight business opportunities to support investments in renewable energy, energy efficiency, sustainable water management, sustainable forestry and sustainable supply chains. Due to this issue, smallholder farmers are often hesitant to invest the resources necessary to increase SOM as they are unsure they will still have access to the land when the returns would be realized. Additionally, projects should also ensure that the incentives are equitable for both large and small farmers worldwide.
He is a frequent commentator on TV and radio, including NPR, Bloomberg, CNBC and BBC, has appeared on the Colbert Report, and has published in the New York Times, Wall Street Journal, Financial Times and other leading news outlets.
He was also a consultant with McKinsey & Company, one of the leading global strategy consultancies. Efforts to meet these ambitious targets have benefited from a robust enabling environment of tax exemptions and incentives. Religious rulings issued only in the ninth century discouraged the representation of any living beings capable of movement but they were not rigidly enforced until the fifteenth century. We also have the Tile owen to finish the process.Group lessons for High Schools and Universities can be provided all year long.
Turquoise was the most frequently-used color for glaze although cobalt blue, eggplant violet, and sometimes black were also popular.
There are rare examples with traces of gilding.A third technique in which the Anatolian Seljuks were skilled was that of mosaic tile. The surface is then given a coating of transparent glaze colored blue, green, or light or dark brown and then fired. The styles, designs, decorations, and techniques of these ceramics are quite distinct from Seljuk traditions. During this period, naturalistic such as tulips, roses, pomegranates and hyacinths begin to enrich the repertoire of stylized plant motifs and arabesques.
Although the traditional designs of stylized plant motifs, arabesques, and Chinese clouds appear in the compositions, there is a shift towards a more naturalistic style in which tulips, carnations, hyacinths, roses, spring blossoms, lilies, cypress trees, and clusters of grapes and vine leaves appear. Ibrahim Pasa, a grand vizier during the reign of Ahmed III (1703-1730), had a tile-making factory set up at Tekfur Sarayi in Istanbul. Designs consist of underglaze spots, simply-drawn ships, flowers, fish, birds, and buildings that are applied free-hand.
While some types of felt are very soft, some are tough enough to form construction materials.
Financially, I showed a profit on the evening of $22, which I have posted against past deficits without a qualm. He is a leading member of the Grolier Club today as a rare books & manuscripts authority, and a bibliophile whose exhibitions there and elsewhere are glowingly reviewed in the New York Times. The bar tab at The PlayersA was a main incentive for finding accommodations at the Regency. The one from Lew Feldman(see Inventory)was most magnificent, and Fred Dannay generously supplied each of us with the Feb. Ia€™m a member of the latter, and also of Chicagoa€™s Hounds of the Baskerville (sic), but while both have only male members, one sees many women at the Houndsa€™ sole annual gathering every autumn, and not only spouses but others invited on their own merits -- including you this year, or so I hear, Dahlinger. Smitha€™s minutes list 35 attendees, and 35 are in the photograph, but Morley told Vincent Starrett that 36 had attended.
Census was 27 or 28 years old in January 1940, it may be him; if so, since he came in black tie his father likely did too, making no.
Steve Doyle will soon publish the entire letter in a book by Notre Dame Professor Michael Crowe titled Ronald Knox and Sherlock Holmes: The Origin of Sherlockian Studies. By 1910 he was a Fellow at Trinity College, ordained an Anglican priest in 1912, and became a Roman Catholic in 1917. Knox helped Waugh by proofreading Brideshead Revisited and asked him to be his literary executor in 1950. Smith remarked in 1958 that Knoxa€™s death was a€?mourned by all who look to him as the originator of the Sherlockian critique.a€? So the notion that Knox was the genesis was afoot fifty years ago a€” though Smith, we shall see, felt otherwise.
Elmer Davis, reviewing Starretta€™s Private Life in December 1933, discussed Roberts almost more than he did Starretta€™s book, without once mentioning Knox. Messages from absent friends were read that night, from Blakeney, Starrett, Morley, and Desmond MacCarthy, but not from Knox.
Smith in Baker Street Inventory has a€?Studies in the Literaturea€? as a€?The first essay in the order of higher criticism.a€? It was not Knoxa€™s intention to start a game or a cult. By the time Smith wrote his introduction for The Incunabular Sherlock Holmes in 1958, he had done his homework too, and learned differently. Later, Ronald Knox expanded the joke into an essay called a€?Studies in the Literature of Sherlock Holmes,a€™ a parody of Biblical scholarship in which he pretended to detect, from careful study of the text, that some of the stories must be fictitious inventions by a drunken Watson.
I thought it would be interesting to quote here this Knox-Roberts Sherlockian Connection so dear to Morley. David discusses some of these innovations, and explains how food and beverage industries like his can draw upon history and local resources for answers to building a business model rooted in sustainability. The fact remains that the lives of at least 60 million people elsewhere are currently endangered.
Extremely hot and dry conditions may result in heat waves and wildfires, thus exacerbating respiratory diseases and heat stress. Meanwhile, in southern Brazil, 12 cities have already been flooded, with 8,000 people evacuated. An estimated 1.4 million children and 700,000 pregnant or breastfeeding women face malnutrition in 2016. The growing awareness of these problems has led to strident calls for the curtailment or elimination of industrial farming, and a shift to smaller, more organic or environmentally friendly agricultural system. In many ways splitting large industrial farms into smaller local-scale farms is actually less efficient, both economically and environmentally. The environmental side effects are huge and in many cases appalling, but the alternative might be even worse.
There’s space for both in our world, and we should make every effort to ensure that we find the balance point.
Under normal circumstances, a large area of rising air resides over the warm waters of the western tropical Pacific. When El Nino brings excess heating to the tropical Pacific upper atmosphere, the Hadley Circulation becomes stronger, and the air flow towards the poles becomes more vigorous. Intuition would imply that La Nina and El Nino have inverse effects on countries, but that does not mean that these two events cancel out to produce a net-zero change. Yet as we have seen with this year’s El Nino, which was supposed to bring heavy rainfall to the western Pacific, ENSO is faithfully unfaithful to its history. That means that the rate of extraction and the price of the resource is determined by the prevailing interest rate. If suppliers expect a policy to start sometime in the future, they may shift some of their extraction to before the policy goes into force to make up for the drop in profits they are anticipating. Attention to environmental and social (E&S) issues helps us to better manage risk, attract and retain critical talent, develop expertise and provide clients with suggested solutions to pressing sustainability issues in their businesses. Prior to joining the White House, Bordoff was the Policy Director of the Hamilton Project, an economic policy initiative housed at the Brookings Institution. Bordoff graduated with honors from Harvard Law School, where he was treasurer and an editor of the Harvard Law Review, and clerked on the U.S. As a result, Jamaica boasts over 72 megawatts (MW) of installed renewable energy capacity from hydro, solar, and wind power plants. Figural art is especially rich in tiles as well as stone and stucco reliefs of the Seljuk period, adorning both secular and religious reliefs monuments. This was also employed in interiors, especially in mihrab niches, the interiors of domes, transitions to domes, vaults, and walls. During the firing, the areas decorated with slip assume a lighter shade of the glaze color, which appears darker in the ground. They are decorated with motifs executed in tones of blue, turquoise, and violet under a colorless or colored glaze. These changes in the Iznik potters' production habits are attributed to attempts to imitate the 15th-century Ming porcelains that were reaching the Ottoman court in various ways. Compositions are relaxed and free, offering greater scope for experimentation with new and richer arrangements. The output unfortunately was incomparably inferior to that of Iznik: designs were poor copies of Iznik originals, glazes had a blue cast and were flawed, and colors were dull and lifeless. Felt can be of any colour, and made into any shape or size.Many cultures have legends as to the origins of feltmaking.
It has however been a very useful investment to me, for Connie often does as many as six or seven letters a day for me with it, and very well indeed she does them.
A Ia€™d be particularly interested if one of its members in the 1920s was Stanley Morison, because it was Morleya€™s chance meeting with him in New York in 1926, that revived Morleya€™s long-dormant boyhood enthusiasm for Sherlock Holmes. Bigelow was scrambling to apologizeA for casting doubt on Lee Offorda€™s investiture (as a€?The Old Russian Woman,a€? 1958) genuineness or validity. Roberts did, of course, in his 1929 essay A Note on the Watson Problem, but I am far from home and without my copy to consult, to see if he had something to say about it.
Taking place simultaneously with the Copper Beechesa€™ spring and autumn dinners every year is a dinner for wives called The Bitches of the Beeches -- started long ago by my late mother-in-law Jeanne Jewell, the idea being to get their drunk husbands home alive.
Bill was an unforgettable personality with a zany streak of humor, and added something long-lasting to the BSI weekend in January with Mrs.
It not only had profound effects upon our scholarshipa€™s trajectory, it brought huge numbers of new adherents into the fold (including me). Ia€™m not sure a€?legendarya€? is the word, but once youa€™d heard him, you didna€™t forget it; they were incoherent, phantasmagoric, even delusional, but delivered in a sort of bravura style that held your attention.
At least two in the photograph are not in Smitha€™s minutesa€™ list, but in surviving copies of 221B: Studies in Sherlock Holmes signed that night by dinner attendees, William C. Paul for theological societies and one on Sherlock Holmes for secular societies, but found the Sherlock Holmes paper would do for both since it was interpreted as a religious tract. Enthusiasm: A Chapter in the History of Religion (1950) by Ronald Knox was dedicated to Evelyn Waugh.
Barton, the senior censor, confirming the a€?Hierarchya€™s displeasurea€? because it violated the unwritten law that bishops are not criticized in any public way. The Detection Club also put out three serial novels, with each member writing a chapter full of clues and passing it on; Ronald Knox contributed to all three. Who stood out instead as source and strawman for canonical scholarship was Cambridgea€™s S. Morley, for his 1933 collection of essays Internal Revenue, added to In Memoriama€™s 1930 text a lengthy discussion of Robertsa€™ Doctor Watson; Knox went unmentioned once again. Attendees discussed the impetus behind their new club: of mention of Knox there was none, nor in connection with the BSI whose recent founding was discussed.
But his methodology is what endures.A Those that followed who played the game so well must admit that Knox was the unintended founder.
Finally, one comes away from the Knox paper not really learning new or insightful about Holmes.
Conan Doyle was delighted by the spoof and wrote to Ronald Knox to thank him.a€?a€? a€?Nowadays wea€™re rather more sensitive. Robertsa€™ own trial version of the same, his A Note on the Watson Problem1 of which only 100 copies were printed at the University Press, Camb., in 1929. Warmer temperatures can also spread vector-borne disease to highland areas that have not been exposed to these diseases before.
By the end of the year, more than eight million people are expected to need food assistance. This is largely because small farms can’t make use of the economies of scale industrial farms employ, meaning that a single industrial farm may use less fertilizer and pesticide per unit of output than an equivalent number of smaller organic farms.
If we fragment our agricultural system into a large number of smaller farms, can we still produce 2,800 calories per person per day? Only by doing this will we ensure that future food issues are, as Sen pointed out, governance issues rather than problems of outright scarcity. When that warm water slides eastward, the accompanying rising air (and its sinking counterpart) move eastward as well.
Rather, because both events tend to bring about anomalous weather patterns, their effects vary greatly, and no nation can assume it will lose from El Nino and gain from La Nina or vice versa.
California expected to benefit from a big rainfall, but instead saw an elongation of its current drought situation.
Policy makers could employ the same economically efficient tools to keep fuels in the ground as they do to restraining emissions, such as taxes, cap-and-trade systems, and subsidies. Examples in which the motifs have black contours are also known, as are pieces with black decorations under a turquoise glaze.
Tile manufacturing at Tekfur Sarayi lasted thirty years or so and the enterprise was generally regarded as a failure. The most common forms are dishes, plates, and jars.During the 19th century, quality dropped off sharply. Smith died in September 1960, and apparently posed an administrative burden without financial reward for his sons.
I remember sitting there my first time wondering what the hell, because I didna€™t understand what was going on, but for others it was clearly an expected item on the bill of fare. He took the Sherlock Holmes stories as a form of literary art and divided them into eleven characteristic divisions with Greek names. And with the BSI launched in 1934, Knox might not have existed to tell from what Morley wrote that year.
But: a€?A genial note of welcome was struck by placing in front of each member a copy of Mr. The meticulous Rodger Prescott comes nearer the point, but does not deliver the knockout blow. Or so it would seem from the first programme, called a€?Panic in the Streets,a€™ in a new series, The History of Fear (Radio 4, Monday), presented by the feminist historian, Joanna Bourke. On the other hand, flooding can damage or close health facilities, which restricts access to healthcare and aggravates disease outbreaks.
But food scarcity is not the only concern in Ethiopia – the limited availability of safe water means that people are allocating their water to drinking and cooking, while neglecting personal hygiene. This means that growing the same amount of food on multiple smaller farms may in turn be more environmentally harmful than using one enormous farm.
Or will we be sentencing some portion of the population to starvation in the name of environmental sustainability?
In doing so, we ensure that we are arguing over how to distribute food, rather than watching famine sweep the forgotten corners of the world.
The entire loop is shifted over, thus producing abnormal weather patterns around the world.
For example, El Nino tends to produce an elongated jet stream that extends to North America, bringing an above-average supply of storms across the southern part of the United States. This can mean that the same amount of greenhouse gases that would have been emitted without the policy is just emitted sooner.
Of course, we don’t just use fossil fuels for energy generation, the main source of greenhouse gas emissions. Different styles of calligraphy adorn the tile friezes on monuments; on utensils we find images of ships, 'rock-and-wave' motifs, triple-spots, animal figures, and fish-scale patterns.
Nevertheless some of its output was used in buildings in Istanbul such as the Hekimoglu Ali Pasa Mosque (1734), the Yeni Valide Mosque (Uskudar, 1708), the Cezeri Kasim Pasa Mosque (Eyup, a restoration done in 1726 of a mosque originally built in 1515), and Kandilli Mosque (1751). Forms from this period consist of jars, ewers, jugs, vases, flower-pots, and candle-holders as well as animal and human figurines.
The story of Saint Clement and Saint Christopher relates that while fleeing from persecution, the men packed their sandals with wool to prevent blisters. These were delivered by Alfred Drake, whose address revealed him to be a real Sherlockian scholar; Thomas L. Someone just the other day mentioned Bill referring, in a 1982 recording on Voices of Baker Street, to that yeara€™s Breakfast as the twenty-ninth, which means the first one would have been in 1954. Not only for the number and the jubilant spirit he brought to the process, but also for the displacement of the BSIa€™s previous center of gravity in the Northeast. Ia€™m not sure that everyone enjoyed it, but Julian Wolff always seemed to: in part with a ringmastera€™s satisfaction that the old boy had pulled it off once again, I think, and maybe also with a connoisseura€™s appreciation of a performer living up to or even exceeding the year before. Knox invented a controversy about authenticity of the stories with comments by imaginary German scholars.
We must rely instead on what they and others wrote about Knoxa€™s paper around the time it appeared back then a€” to the extent that they wrote about it at all, which wea€™ve seen was very little. While it is true that Sidgwick and others wrote important papers, papers with real content, before Knox, it was Morley who put it all together. Flooding can also destroy sanitation infrastructure, thus promoting diarrheal diseases and the spread of pathogens.
However, this may be offset by the lower transportation requirements that smaller farms enjoy due to their proximity to end markets.
This jet stream usually flows from west to east over the North Pacific during winter months, thus allowing the continental U.S.
In the near term, more greenhouse gas is emitted today than would have otherwise been emitted. He also holds an MLitt degree from Oxford University, where he studied as a Marshall Scholar, and a BA magna cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa from Brown University.
The pieces were arranged glazed-side down after which a whitish mortar was poured over them. A feature of most 'Miletus' ware is that the interiors are given a coating of slip but part of the exteriors and the bases are not. There is also a proliferation in vessel forms of which deep and footed bowls, vases, ewers, dishes, lamps, candle-holders, and mugs are but a few.Around the middle of the 17th century, the quality of the Iznik potteries began to feel the impact of the economic distress and political upheavals from which the Ottoman Empire had begun to suffer.
There is also a hearth, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, whose tiles were made at Tekfur Saray. Only a single-color glaze was used in these ceramics and there are instances in which black, white, blue, red, yellow, or gilded designs were applied over the glaze.10 Ceramic manufacturing at Canakkale was still being carried out as late as the middle of the 20th century. At the end of their journey, the movement and sweat had turned the wool into felt socks.Feltmaking is still practised by nomadic peoples in Central Asia and northern parts of East Asia, where rugs, tents and clothing are regularly made. Clarke, founder of The Five Orange Pips, and Carl Anderson of The Sons of the Copper Beeches. And for a few years, I had much the same reaction: a€?Here goes Will Oursler again, leta€™s see how wild it is this time, howa€™s he manage it year after year?a€? (This on the assumption that it was contrived. Ronald Knox lived first at Lady Actona€™s Aldenham in Shropshire from 1933 to 1947, and at the Manor House, Mells, Somerset, from 1947 until his death in 1957, the country home of Katharine Asquith. Between his work in Saturday Review and his founding of the BSI, this truly was the basis of the long-term study of the Canon, both institutionally and in print. The number of cases reported is expected to rise as more people become food-insecure and are thus at higher risk of contracting disease. Still, supply-side policies are usually not even on the policy table, and perhaps they’re worth considering. Designs tend to be plant motifs and geometrical arrangements but animal figures are also encountered. The decorations include stylized foliage, arabesques, and Chinese clouds alone or in skillfully-executed compositions.Iznik blue-and-whites can be classified in a number of subgroups on the basis of their motifs and styles.
Some of these are traditional items, such as the classic yurt, while others are designed for the tourist market, such as decorated slippers. Smith, Edgar Smitha€™s stepson whoa€™d taken over the printing of the OS BSJ, and found it very hard to get paid by the failing Ben Abramson. I just figured that there was no way to define membership clearly for all those folks, and avoided doing so. Indeed, in one respect he was better than ever; for here in Colliera€™s appeared, for the first time in print, what has become the classic, final and unalterable portrait of Sherlock Holmes.
Mosaic-tile compositions are generally geometrical but floral motifs and Kufic or Thuluth calligraphy are also found. The contours of the designs are picked out with a mixture of beeswax or vegetable fat and manganese oxide.
One group, with motifs consisting of stylized lobed leaves with curling tips is attributed to a 'Baba Nakkas', a chief designer at the Ottoman court studios in the 15th century, and is therefore known as the Baba Nakkas style .4 Cobalt blue in various tones is the principal color. In the Western world, felt is widely used as a medium for expression in textile art as well as design, where it has significance as an ecological textile.Traditional Turkish Felt Workshop by Mehmet Girgic Mehmet girgic is a master Craftmen in Felt Making in Istanbul and we make our workshops in his Studio by himself or his assistants. His final contribution to Sherlockian literature was a€?The Apocryphal Sherlock Holmes: The Adventure of the First Class Carriage,a€? a pastiche that appeared in The Strand Magazine in 1947. Roberts a€“- and even his fellow Cantabrigian Frank Sidgwick, who first tackled Watsonian chronology in 1902.
So you may imagine the thrilling excitementa€”in 1903, wasna€™t it?a€”when The Return began printing in Colliera€™s. During the firing, the wax or fat burns away producing contours of red or black that also prevent the differently-colored glazes from running into one another.The cuerda seca technique permits extremely complex and detailed designs to be applied to ceramic surfaces. One, a composition of thick motifs radiating around a central motif, is identical to the grooved designs on metal bath-bowls.2,The late 15th and early 16th century marks the beginning of a new period in Ottoman tile and ceramic-making. It already had the annual dinner and the Gillette Luncheon when he joined the growing throng in the early a€™50s, and he added Mrs. In addition to plant motifs, examples decorated with calligraphy and (less commonly) geometric patterns that are a continuation of Seljuk traditions are to be found. During this period the Iznik manufactories apparently turned their attentions more and more to the demands of customers who were less finicky than the Istanbul court and its circles. Weber was director of advertising at Scribnera€™s, and a mystery reviewer (a€?Judge Lyncha€?) for the Saturday Review of Literature. A rich and subtle palette of colors was available with colors such as turquoise, cobalt blue, lilac, yellow, black, and pistachio. Designs prepared by artists who were employed in the studios of the Ottoman court were sent to Iznik to be executed in wares ordered for use at the palace. There is even evidence, in the form of written complaints, that orders placed by the court in Istanbul were being delayed.8 By the 18th century, the ceramic industry in Iznik had died out completely and Kutahya replaced it as the leading center in western Anatolia.
In the lesson you will make the whole stages of a Felt making process and by the evening, you will be able to finish 1 item like a hat, bag, shoe, a scarf or a design that you choose.. He had attended the 1936 BSI dinner, and would be at the 1941, a€™42, a€™43, a€™46 and a€™47 dinners as well, and the 1944 Trilogy Dinner.
The only place in Anatolia were tiles of this type have been found is Alaeddin Kiosk in Konya.
The court's patronage stimulated and supported the development of an artistically and technically advanced ceramic industry in Iznik. Indeed, Kutahya had been in operation as a secondary center along with Iznik since the 14th century 9 but its production always paled in Iznik's brilliance. The palette of colors that this technique offers is much greater and one finds shades of violet, blue, turquoise, green, red, brown, black, and white as well as gilding. Fine examples of cuerda seca tiles are to be found at the Bursa Green Mosque (1419-1420) and Tomb (1421-1422) the Mosque of Murad II (Edirne, 1436), the Tiled Kiosk (Istanbul), and the Tomb of Prince Mehmed (Istanbul, 1548).
But where production at Iznik was discontinued, Kutahya plodded on.For a while, the Kutahya potters produced inferior copies of Iznik blue-and-whites but they also began producing ceramics whose forms, colors, and techniques are quite distinct. Some colors were applied under the glaze and then fired; others were applied over the glaze which then received a secondary opaque white, transparent, or turquoise glaze and was fired again. Among them are a group of Christian liturgical utensils and tiles with religious themes that were made by Armenian potters for their churches. The designs of minai tiles are lively and reminiscent of miniatures with themes taken from palace and court life.In underglaze tiles, the designs are painted onto the surface, which is then glazed before the tile is fired. 18th-century Kutahya ceramics are made with a white paste and are usually decorated with underglaze-applied designs in yellow, red, green, cobalt blue, turquoise, black, and violet. Betul is our professional Artist that is graduated from Mimar Sinan University department of fine Arts in Istanbul.
She is professional in Ottoman Calligraphy - Tile Design & Turkish Motives - Ottoman Paper Marbling. Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name.
Forms, which can be elegant, include thin-walled small cups, saucers, bowls, ewers, pitchers, flasks, incense-burners, lemon-squeezers, and ornamental eggs.
The patterns are the result of color floated on either plain water or a viscous solution known as size, and then carefully transferred to a sheet of paper (or other surfaces such as fabric). Fine examples of these tiles have been discovered at the excavations of the Kubadabad Palace in Beysehir, where the tiles are decorated with plant motifs as well as with figures of human beings and animals.The luster technique first appeared in Abbasid Iraq. This decorative material has been used to cover a variety of surfaces for several centuries.
Later developed to a high level by the Fatimids in Egypt, it was successfully employed by the Iranian Seljuks. It is often employed as a writing surface fo calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery.
Part of its appeal is that each print is a unique monoprint.Need a break from the hustle and bustle of tourist life in Istanbul?
The tiles discovered at the excavations of the palace are now on display at the Karatay Medrese Museum in Konya.
Luster tiles are decorated in an overglaze technique in which the design is painted with lusterA?a mixture of metallic oxides incorporating silver and copperA?onto a previously glazed and fired surface.
Ottoman - Turkish Calligraphy, also known as Arabic calligraphy, is the art of writing, and by extension, of bookmaking. The tiles are then given a second firing at a lower temperature producing a range of lustrous, mostly brownish and yellowish tones. Seljuk palace luster tiles are decorated with plant motifs as well as with human and animal figures.Anatolian Seljuks sometimes used square, rectangular, hexagonal, and triangular tiles to cover interior walls. Its origin might ultimately hark back to China, where a document from the T'ang dynasty (618-907) mentions a process of coloring paper on water with five hues. These tiles are plain, with turquoise, violet, or cobalt blue being the chief colors applied in the underglaze technique.
Sometimes the traces of overglaze gilding are to be found; however because the gilding was fired at a low temperature (or not fired at all), it was not durable and has mostly disappeared.
By carefully laying the paper over the bath, the floating picture on top of it is readily transferred to the paper; thus, each ebru is a one of a kind print.
To obtain beautiful ebru results, one needs to have a light hand, refined taste, and an open mind to the unexpected patterns forming on the water. Patience and a good knowledge of traditional culture are characteristic of ebru masters.After the 1550's, booklovers in Europe prized ebru, which came to be known as ‘Turkish papers’. Many specimens in their collections and in the several album amicorum books are visible today in various museums.
Also, early texts dealing with ebru, such as “Discourse on decorating paper in the Turkish manner”, published in 1664 by Athanasius Kircher in Rome, helped to disseminate the knowledge of this kind of marbling art. There is agreement amongst scholars that the so-called Turkish Papers played a colourful influence on the book arts in Europe.MATERIALS USED IN CLASSICAL TURKISH MARBLING Gum tragacath – Dye – Paintbrush – Basin – Water – Paper - Gall Gum Tragacant is obtained from trunk of a thorny plant growing naturally in Anatolian, Persian and Turkestan mountians and called “gaven”. The sap coming out of scratches made on the branches dries up later and solidifies in bone white colored pieces . Turkish is a very rich country in respect of such natural dyes.Any kind of earth may be first translated into mud then filtered and crushed to from a dye.
In older times rainwater was favorite but because of acide rain in our times it is no longer advisable. Paper: The ideal paper is the one handmade and having a high absorbtion capacity and acid-free. In order to increasethe absorbtion capaticy and to fix the dye on it(more durable) and alumina solution may be applied on the paper surface. For instance when blue yellow are simultaneously applied and mixed up as much as possible never green comes out.3. MARBLING APPLIED TO PAPER PATTERNS,Marbling is similar to cooking; it is impossible to give the exact recipe.
The density of the gummed water and the relationships between the water and the dye, the dye and the tensioning agent (gall), the quantity of gall in the dye are all very important.
Now if this basic pattern is handled by parellel lines made by a thin pencil or chip moved back and forth you obtain “the back-and-forth”. When a convolute line is applied from the outer circumference towards the centre you obtain a “nightingale nest”.
In the event small colorfull dots are spotted on the back-and-forth or shawl design you get the “sprinkled marbling”.
If, instead, you apply larger dots (which means with higher rate of gall contents) you obtain the “prophyry marble” which resemble most to marble.,Nonetheless above patterns may be divesified by selecting one of the above as a basis and making concentric drops of different colors. Mehmet Efendi (the orator of Saint Sophia, deceased in 1973) first formed flower and other patterns, wich were subsequenly called the “Orator pattern” (Hatip ebrusu). The paper is then careflly lifted off the basin without stripping too much the gum off the surface. This infinity of colors and shapes quickly formed makes the marbling amazing at and fascinates the spectator (if any).
Hikmet BARUTCUGIL,Mimar Sinan University paper marbling, fabric marbling, faux marbling, parrys graining and marbling, marbling paint, contemporary create design fabric marbling paper technique traditional, Turkish Marbling - Ebru Lessons in Istanbul.Turkish Paper marbling is a method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name. It is often employed as a writing surface for calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery. Come take an art class with the remarkable Turkish artist Bahar !LEARN the secrets of creating the rich patterns of handmade marble paper .
CONTEMPORARY create design fabric marbling paper technique designs on paper, glass or on silk fabrics .Our teacher that is shown in our pictures is Ms. Contemporary artists in the Islamic world draw on the heritage of calligraphy to use calligraphic inscriptions or abstractions in their work.LEARN the secrets of creating the rich patterns of handmade marble paper . EXPERIENCE the sensuous flow of Ottoman Calligraphy,CONTEMPORARY create designs with Turkish patternts on tiles,Our teacher that is shown in the pictures are Mrs.



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