December 10, the day before Berniea€™s arrest, was the day of our office Christmas party, at the Rosa Mexicano restaurant on First Avenue.
Soon she was completing marathons, and before too long she was flying around the globe to participate in the some of the world's best-known sporting events. This year, 150 Chinese - 106 men and 44 women - registered for the April 24 London Marathon, a race that attracts 38,000 runners annually and is one of the six top marathons in the world.
That's a 417 percent increase from the 29 Chinese entrants - 22 men and seven women - last year, organizers say.
His company, which specializes in organizing training camps and tours, is among a number of enterprises serving the growing legion of Chinese runners.
Last year, just three Chinese people took part in the Jerusalem Marathon, including two who were local residents, according to Du. More than 700 Chinese also entered the Berlin Marathon, one of the top international events, in September, he adds.
The Chinese presence at international marathons also is a point of pride as an emerging China makes its mark in many global spheres. That presence also means people from other nations have greater exposure to, and camaraderie with, sophisticated and health-conscious Chinese people. As for first impressions, "running is much better than (going abroad to) have a baby or purchase goods", says Wang Xiaogang, 40, a Beijing running coach and freelance journalist, who has frequently taken part in overseas marathons. Xie says she had one such positive experience after crossing the finish line at the Boston Marathon on a cold, rainy day in April last year. One of the most compelling stories at the April 18 Boston Marathon this year was that of Lauren Woods, the 34-year-old Boston police officer who was running the marathon in memory of Lu Lingzi, a 23-year-old Chinese student who was one of three people killed in the 2013 bombings at the marathon finish line. Woods was one of those who tended to Lu, a marathon fan and spectator at the event, as she lay dying. The new Chinese marathoners who can afford to go globe-trotting are mostly within the social status and age groups that have led China's modernization and economic rise in recent decades. Chinese runners at this year's London Marathon included 30 from the mainland led by Tian Tongsheng, 63, one of the founders of Runnar, a company that organizes trips and assists marathoners. Tian certainly breaks the traditional mold of aging in China, where the retirement age for men is 60.
The first group, which may have advanced academic degrees, comprises some 65 to 70 percent of runners registered with his company. The second group, which makes up 30 to 35 percent, is also well-off, but many of them did not go to college, he says. Ninety percent of those who run outside China were born in the 1960s and '70s, putting them between the ages of 37 and 56, he adds. Oliver Wang, who is also CEO of Beijing-based Palace Travel and its US branch, which has runners as clients, too, describes the situation as part of a trend that started earlier in the West, in which the wealthy middle-aged started spending lots of money on fancy bicycles, for example, instead of on sports cars.
Du says one of the reasons for the explosion in travel is that people who have run the relatively new marathons in China are looking for a taste of better-run races abroad, as well as higher athletic levels. But in addition to that, what could be cooler than posting a selfie as you cross the finish line in Paris, Boston or Berlin, or wrapped yourself in the national flag like an Olympian? Li Xibei, 30, an information technology worker from Central China who lives in New York City, raised funds to provide cleaner air for families in his homeland by running the North Pole Marathon this month.
Using Crowdrise, a crowdfunding website, he raised $6,030 - 18 percent more than his target sum - for the Blue Sky Lab campaign run by Friends of Nature, one of the oldest environmental NGOs in China. Li and a female compatriot, Fan Beibei, were among about 50 runners from 20 countries who braved temperatures as low as -40 C to complete the 42-km event, which was postponed several times due to cracks in the ice.
Li is also one of a small but growing group of Chinese who have completed marathons on every continent, including Antarctica. Yet despite the current enthusiasm, the Chinese have shown themselves to be somewhat fickle in terms of their motivation for traveling abroad.
First, China's rising prosperity and its people's concern for health and fitness are unlikely to fade.
Third, and perhaps most important, are the young runners who aspire to take on international marathons.
The running bug bit Zhang Yiming, 20, a junior at Renmin University of China's School of International Relations in Beijing, in December 2014.
She runs 8 kilometers two to three times a week, which she says helps her deal with stress and keep calm. Zhang says she plans to run two international marathons a year, with New York, Boston and Munich at the top of her wish list.
Now, Ji Xiaoxiang and Yang Mohan, both 33 and graduates of Tongji University's Urban Planning School in Shanghai, have made that journey to the village. The boutique hostel Da Le Zhi Ye, which is minimalist and comfortable, is located in Deqing county in Zhejiang province.
After spending several years designing urban developments, they say they were left disenchanted, as many projects did not become a reality.
They eventually ended up in Biwu, a village in Deqing county in the eastern province of Zhejiang. The men rented the old house and spent their savings transforming it into a boutique hostel, Da Le Zhi Ye, the name of which comes from an ancient book, The Classic of Mountains and Rivers. Ji had never lived in the countryside before but now prides himself on successfully integrating with the local community. The hostel features huge windows, which let in copious amounts of natural light, and a small cafe that serves a decent Americano. There is a serenity that permeates the place that can't be found in a metropolis, and when night falls only the sounds of a nearby stream can be heard.
Yang and Ji are among a small group of urban elites who have done the opposite of young people from the villages, who still think the only measure of success is to own an apartment and have a decent job in cities like Shanghai and Beijing.
Ask any of the 274 million migrant workers in China about his or her reason for seeking work in the big cities and the most likely reason will be that farming, with its harsh conditions and meager income, is simply not worth it.
In recent years, however, some people - mostly young and well-educated - have been going against the grain, heading from major cities to relatively remote regions, such as Deqing, to pursue their dreams. Statistics from the Deqing government show the county has generated thousands of job opportunities in the transportation and retail sectors since it opened to tourism about eight years ago.
Yu Wei, a Shanghai interior designer, and his wife decided to build their dream home in Deqing's Moganshan Mountains. Wang Zehao quit his job as a software engineer in Ningbo on the east coast and returned to his hometown in Deqing about four years ago. Marathon running, which in China includes many health-conscious, well-educated participants, is an important source of sportswear sales.
Chinese sportswear brand Li-Ning - among the companies reinvigorated by China's passion for running and other sports - snapped three years of annual losses to swing back into profit in 2015, according to a recent Channel NewsAsia report. Nike's China earnings rose 43 percent in the quarter ending in February, with footwear growing fastest at 33 percent, the company reported. German sportswear maker Adidas Group was No 2 with a 16 percent share in 2015, up from 15 percent in 2014.
Chinese brand Anta China Co Ltd also recorded strong growth to 9.9 percent, up from 9 percent in 2014, making it the third-largest player in the nation's sportswear industry. Performance footwear, perhaps the most important equipment in marathons, is predicted to continue as sales leader, Euromonitor says. The study found that 70 percent of those surveyed said they are more likely to buy the products of companies that sponsor races. When he arrived, on April 11, he says he discovered his fellow guests at the hotel were almost entirely Chinese.
The next day, he rose at 6 am and took a shuttle bus to the 60,000-seat Kim Il-sung Stadium to join more than 500 international runners at the starting line. The route through downtown Pyongyang passes some major landmarks, including Kim Il-sung University and the city's Arch of Triumph.
He says there were no security checks at the starting line or portable toilets, and that the rules for runners' attire were unusual.
In the end, Hu finished outside 3 hours 52 minutes, almost 16 minutes slower than his personal best but eight ahead of the event's closing mark, a relatively tough task for many amateur runners. Hu, who works for a media company in Beijing, says his lasting impression is of the local spectators. When political scientist Fang Ning decided to compete in a marathon during a sabbatical six years ago, most Chinese still considered the sport a novel concept, with its challenges of endurance and mental stamina. But the director of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences' Institute of Political Science - the country's leading think tank - isn't taking part only to sharpen his perseverance and experience, but also for the joy of reaching milestones. He says he sees something more in the large numbers of Chinese participating both in the races staged by many cities in China and those who travel to Boston, London and other global cities to run. Fang was among a group of Chinese scholars in London to introduce English-language versions of their books about understanding China, covering topics such as political and economic systems, social welfare, energy and the environment. Fang says the people's increasing passion to challenge their limits is just part of the process, which he predicts will speed up when China reaches its goal of doubling its per capita income to about $12,000 by 2020. Fang says the growth of what he calls "individual choices" to satisfy the demands of the people will serve to maintain social stability.
When the 42-year-old set a goal of running marathons on all seven continents in two years, he started out with one of the most challenging around. The founder and chairman of Hudongbaike, one of China's largest internet companies, took on the Antarctic Ice Marathon last year. Pan, one of a limited number of Chinese to run a marathon in Antarctica, says the race - and long-distance running in general - holds many analogies and lessons pertinent to life. To become one of the 55 people from 22 countries who participated in the 11th Antarctic Ice Marathon in November, Pan had to make a 43-hour trip of nearly 25,000 kilometers from Beijing to Dallas, then to Santiago and Punta Arenas in Chile, and then to Union Glacier on the 80th parallel south, a common jumping-off point for polar trips. Pan says he recalls Ngan warning them that, with temperatures reaching as low as -30 C, they had to guard against heat loss. Still, everyone completed their race, which included 47 runners in the full 42.195 km marathon and eight in the half-marathon. Pan says it even helps him in his business, which was launched in 2005 and includes the world's largest Chinese encyclopedia.
He says another benefit to running marathons is the people he meets, all of whom are driven.
He says it's true that Chinese participation in international marathons is evidence of the country's economic progress, with the number of wealthy and middle-class Chinese rising quickly. However, Pan says he sees running as a personal journey, pure and simple, that has helped him comprehend things he had not understood before. With the running craze growing among health-conscious urban Chinese, fitness experts and trainers are warning amateurs to prepare before they strap on their running shoes to avoid health problems. Runners hit by sudden illness, and even death, during long-distance events continue to make the news periodically, raising concerns over participants skipping necessary training and health examinations. Despite growth of the sport, awareness of many Chinese amateurs lags about the imperative of using healthy running techniques while building up gradually to longer distances. Wang says any runner who plans to participate in a full marathon, which is just over 42 kilometers, needs to build up endurance and stamina on a weekly basis, following strict exercise and diet routines to improve distance and pace gradually. Huang Tao, a sports therapist from Peking University Third Hospital, says unprepared runners are more likely to be hit by problems resulting from cardiovascular disease and joint injuries when they increase their pace and intensity. Meanwhile, competitive running requires proper training in good technique, including how to land with each step, how to bend the knees and how to keep your body straight, which runners should learn from professional trainers, says Sun Yingjie, a retired world champion long-distance runner.
China and Russia sent strong signals to the United States on Friday, urging it not to deploy a new anti-missile system in the Republic of Korea. The US and ROK began talks on possible deployment of the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense system after the Democratic People's Republic of Korea conducted its fourth nuclear test in January.
However, China firmly opposes the move, with analysts saying the system could be used to monitor Beijing's missile launches as far inland as Xi'an in the northwest of the country. Lavrov said countries involved "shouldn't use Pyongyang's acts as a pretext to increase their military presence on the Korean Peninsula. Wang said the possible deployment only "adds fuel to the fire of an already tense situation and even possibly wrecks the regional strategic balance".
Last week, Sung Kim, the US special representative for DPRK policy, said China and Russia do not need to be concerned about THAAD.
He made the comments after "productive discussions" in Beijing with Wu Dawei, China's special representative on Korean peninsula affairs. Zuo Xiying, an international studies specialist at Renmin University of China's National Academy of Development and Strategy, denounced Kim's comments. Zuo said THAAD is called a "defense system" but its capacity passes way beyond the need to safeguard against missile threats from Pyongyang and its radar could be used to collect surveillance data far inland in both China and Russia.
Lavrov also said on Friday that one of his most important tasks is to prepare for Russian President Vladimir Putin's visit to Beijing in June. ForeignMinisterWang Yi (right) points the way to Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov after a news conference at the Foreign Ministry in Beijing on Friday.
Three years ago, when Liu Jingjing posted on Sina Weibo, China's version of Twitter, a white cartoon image of a chubby figure with a tuft of grass on its head, it is unlikely she imagined just how popular it would become.
Liu, 21, a second-year student at an art college in Shanxi province, works for a Beijing company, 12 Buildings, as a part-time cartoonist. WeChat users have used Liu's previous series of emoticons of the same cartoon image with different facial expressions and body gestures more than 5 billion times in four months. Most of the cartoonists who design emoji are not paid for their use, but many hope that the financial rewards will begin to flow after their works gain exposure and they can start selling them to individual users in other forms such as books and to companies that use their cartoon images for marketing. Those who are passionate about emoji range from professional artists to part-time designers to amateur doodlers, all riding a wave of popularity that has washed over China's social networks and instant messaging platforms for several years. WeChat's department responsible for emoji says it has the works of 3,000 artists on file, and emoticons are now so commonly used that even the less popular ones can become widely known very quickly. The way in which 12 Buildings' cartoonists work is similar to that practiced in Japan's cartoon industry.
He created a human-like white cat that behaves in a mean but comic way and after turning it into an emoji, it has received wide recognition.
To express crying there is a while cat that can laugh even as it sheds tears, cries as it lies in a pool of tears, cries while clapping its hands and cries as it covers its face with its paws. The emoji of his white cat has attracted many instant messaging app users in less than a year. Each of his series of white cat emojis has been targeted at different users, he says, for the romantically inclined, for those on diets and for those wanting to extend thanks to anyone giving them money in digital red envelopes.
Those who use his emoticons predominantly range from those in their teens to the middle-aged.
Shi Donglin, originator of Freezing Gal, a cartoon image she created in college, says using emojis helps bring light relief at embarrassing moments during communication. Her cartoon figure, with dark skin and a ponytail, is based on her experience in college, she says, and is popular among college students. Unlike traditional cartoonists who generally have to create an image first, then sell comic stories to magazines or publishing houses and finally go online to win wider acceptance, Shi went straight to Weibo and was surprised at how much attention it gained in such a short time that she turned it into an emoji for messaging apps such as QQ and WeChat, thus giving it much wider currency. Apart from continuing to produce more emojis based on Freezing Gal, she has started to draw picture books to build on the character's image. Three million copies of Xu's picture books featuring Ali, which he created in high school, have been sold since 2009.
His emoji of the red fox was one of the first cartoon images launched on QQ in 2012 and WeChat in 2015. Wang of 12 Buildings says that although it is hard in an era of short attention spans to give longevity to cartoon characters, Internet exposure creates chances for young cartoonists to work with big brands that earlier would never have employed domestic cartoonists to design images for them.
The chubby white creature with a tuft of grass on its head has been drafted to work with the US multinational consumer goods company Procter & Gamble, and Freezing Gal is now being used in advertising the Chinese smartphone brand Xiaomi, popular with students. The United States is not qualified to make "carping comments on China" as it has not signed on to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the Foreign Ministry said on Friday. The comment came as top diplomats from China and Russia urged countries outside the South China Sea region not to stir up tension there. On Thursday, US Deputy Secretary of State Antony Blinken told a House of Representatives hearing that China "can't have it both ways," by being a party to the convention but rejecting its provisions, including "the binding nature of any arbitration decision", Reuters reported. Blinken was challenging China's rejection of arbitration by a tribunal at the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague, which was set up in 2014 following a unilateral request by the Philippines.
Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Hua Chunying told a regular news conference on Friday that the US has not signed on to the convention.
Instead, Washington had introduced its so-called Freedom of Navigation Program in 1979 ahead of the convention's introduction in 1982, Hua said. Hua also said that it is "a secret known to all" that the US subscribes to international law when it is favorable, and ignores the law when it is not. She said more than 30 countries, in addition to China, have filed declarations in accordance with the convention to exclude disputes about maritime delimitation from compulsory arbitration and other compulsory dispute settlement procedures. Ruan Zongze, vice-president of the China Institute of International Studies, said that behind the current maritime tension lies the "zero-sum thinking" and US alignment with allies that seek greater engagement in the South China Sea issue. Meanwhile, China and Russia have "achieved important consensus on the South China Sea issue", according to a release by the Chinese Foreign Ministry on Friday. They agreed that the disputes in the South China Sea "should be peacefully resolved on the basis of historical facts and international law, and through consultation and negotiation by countries directly concerned", the release said.
The novel, based on the county annals of Chen's hometown White Deer Plain in Shaanxi, tells of historical changes to the land over 50 years from the end of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911).
Since it was first published, it has set a record as a contemporary literary work, with about 2 million copies sold in China, according to People's Literature Publishing House.
In 2010, the novel was adapted into a film of the same name directed by Wang Quan'an and starring Zhang Fengyi, Zhang Yuqi and Duan Yihong.
The book was also listed in a must-read selection by the Ministry of Education for university students. In 1979, Chen became a member of the Chinese Writers Association and served as the association's vice-chairman between 2001 and 2006. Feng Jicai, another highly accomplished writer, said in a message of condolence: "Chen scaled the highest peak of Chinese contemporary literature. Chen Xiaoming, professor of Chinese language and literature at Peking University, describes White Deer Plain as "integrated, broad, simple, solid and vigorous", regarding it as "a masterpiece that closely combines Chinese cultural tradition and the features of regional culture in northeastern China". Chang Zhenjia, 72, an editor at People's Literature Publishing House for more than 30 years, read the first edition of White Deer Plain and published the first review of the novel.
Xu Han has published three picture books since 2009 about Ali, a little red fox wearing shorts. The red fox has millions of fans in China, mostly female, apparently drawn by the warm, fairytale-like stories of Ali and his animal friends.
Xu's fourth book, Carrousel Garden, was published in March, and he says a full-feature movie starring Ali will be released next year. The path to fame of Xu with his red fox is one typical for a successful cartoonist in China: from picture book to short film to emoticons and emoji online or via instant messaging apps to a Taobao shop and physical shops across the country that sell Ali-the-fox merchandise, and finally to the big screen. It is common for cartoonists to produce characters that become widely known quickly online, but many fizzle out within a year or two. In 2009, Xu set up Beijing Dream Castle Culture Company with a partner and published the picture book Ali's Dream Castle.
It was not until Ali became the first emoji of cartoon images on WeChat last year that his popularity began to cover all age groups, Xu says. During the Spring Festival in February, downloads of emoticons of the red fox celebrating the traditional festival topped the list of emojis sent by users to wish their friends or relatives a happy New Year. In making a film, telling a good story is the big challenge, he says, which takes Xu to a story of his own: how his red fox came about. In the picture book that came out in March he recounts tales of Ali confronting characters from Western fairy tales such as the Little Prince, Pinocchio and the Ugly Duckling. China has never had an established cartoonist or cartoon image that has been recognised outside the country, and Xu says he hopes Ali will go some way to rectifying that. But the animation and cartoon industry in China lags behind its counterparts in the West and in Japan, which has produced many comic books that have influenced countless Chinese cartoonists and aficionados of comics, he says. Even if many Chinese cartoonists can gain exposure for their works through the internet and the mobile web, he says, building up an image for a cartoon character is difficult.
Carlson Hotels has 1,400 properties under operation and development in 115 countries and territories. Company officials declined to provide terms of the deal that was announced on Wednesday, but Bloomberg News, citing unnamed sources, reported it could be worth $2 billion. The family-owned Carlson Hotel Group said HNA's tourism and hospitality arm, HNA Tourism Group, is also acquiring its 51.3 percent majority stake in the Rezidor Hotel Group AB, Carlson's Brussels-based master licensee for Europe, the Middle East and Africa, and may begin a takeover offer for all of Rezidor, the companies said.
Carlson, founded by Curt Nelson in 1938, said it chose HNA Tourism over other suitors because the breadth of HNA's operations and its Asia ties made it the best fit.
Berg will remain as chief of the company, which will keep its headquarters in the Minneapolis suburb of Minnetonka. HNA Hospitality Group chairman and CEO Bai Haibo said in a statement the acquisition aimed to "establish our presence in the US market and expand our footprint in hospitality internationally".
In 2015, HNA acquired a 15 percent stake in the Red Lion Hotels Corp, an owner of mid-scale and full-service US hotels, for an undisclosed sum.
Chinese tourists spent $215 billion outside of the Chinese mainland in 2015, according to the World Travel & Tourism Council, 53 percent increase over the $140 billion in 2014. The HNA-Carlson deal comes weeks after Anbang Insurance Group Co bid $14 billion for US-based Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide Inc, but it walked away from the deal, enabling Marriott International Inc to go ahead with a takeover. In February, HNA also was a bidder for London City Airport, but lost to a group led by Ontario Teachers' Pension Plan Board.
Pollsters GlobeScan questioned more than 20,000 people in 18 countries and found that for the first time in 15 years of tracking more than half (51 percent) see themselves more as citizens of the world than of their own country, with 43 percent identifying nationally. The trend is driven by strong rises in emerging economies over the past year, the survey found, including China (71 percent, up 14 points from 2015), India (67 percent up 13 points), Peru (70 percent, up 27 points) and Nigeria (73 percent, up 13 points).
By contrast, the trend in the wealthier nations appears to have been heading the other way since the financial crash of 2008, dropping to below 40 percent on average in 2011 and climbing to 42 percent this year. In the US, 43 percent of respondents saw themselves more as a global citizen rather than a US citizen. Without defining a "global citizen", "we measured how far people consider themselves integrated into world society", Lionel Bellier, the associate director of Globescan who authored the report, told The Christian Science Monitor. One of the challenges of polling attitudes on identity is that the very term "global citizenship" is a difficult concept to define, and the pollsters left it up to those taking part to interpret it for themselves.
President Xi Jinping, speaking on the South China Sea issue on Thursday, said China upholds the peaceful resolution of disputes through friendly consultation and negotiation with the countries directly involved.
The president said that for some time developments in the South China Sea have attracted extensive attention. China "unswervingly safeguards its own sovereignty and relevant rights and interests in the South China Sea," the president said. Xi made the remarks in Beijing as he addressed the fifth foreign ministers' meeting of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia. Observers said Xi's remarks come at a time when the US is worsening the situation in the South China Sea by boosting its military presence there, and after the US and the Philippines embarked on joint military drills recently. Su Xiaohui, a researcher of international strategies at the China Institute of International Studies, said Xi's remarks on the South China Sea illustrate two of China's key strategic goals - championing State sovereignty and safeguarding regional stability.
Xi is also sending a message that "China does not accept any attempt to ruin the big picture", and such attempts include the international arbitration sought unilaterally by the Philippines against China, Su said. The "countries outside the region" mentioned by Xi include the US, which is partly responsible for tension in the South China Sea, Su added.
Zhang Junshe, a senior researcher at the PLA Naval Military Studies Research Institute, said that the US has recently "grouped" with countries such as the Philippines to "muddy the waters" by staging joint military drills in the South China Sea. In Singapore on Thursday, China and countries in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations agreed to "properly control and manage differences", according to a Foreign Ministry release. The consensus was made as Vice-Minister of Foreign Affairs Liu Zhenmin and Singapore's Permanent Secretary for Foreign Affairs Chee Wee Kiong co-chaired the 22nd China-ASEAN Senior Officials' Consultation. This year marks the 25th anniversary of the launch of dialogue relations between China and ASEAN.
All parties agreed that China and ASEAN countries should use the anniversary as an opportunity to "strengthen strategic communication, deepen mutually beneficial cooperation, and properly control and manage differences", the release said.
China will never allow the Korean Peninsula to have war or chaos, because it will be no good for anyone.
As a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, China implements the relevant council resolutions in an all-out and integral manner. China proactively participates in the Istanbul Process on Afghanistan, supports the country's peaceful reconstruction, and supports the inclusive political resolution process under the guideline of "led by Afghan people, owned by Afghan people". China stands for and will continue to help promote a peaceful settlement of the Syrian issue and the Palestine-Israel issue through political negotiation. China has played a constructive role in reaching the comprehensive agreement on the Iran nuclear issue and will continue to press ahead with the implementation through joint efforts with all sides. President Xi Jinping greets delegates at the opening ceremony of the fifth meeting of foreign ministers of the Conference on Interaction and ConfidenceBuilding Measures in Asia at the Diaoyutai State Guesthouse in Beijing on Thursday. The 54-point law, passed at the bimonthly session of the top legislature, clarifies the registration process, operational rules and liabilities of overseas NGOs, as well as measures for their operations in China.
The law, which takes effect on Jan 1, requires all overseas NGOs operating in China to be registered and regulated by central or provincial-level police authorities, a stipulation that has caused concern among some NGOs over whether their operations and activities will face restrictions. The law also removes the restriction limiting each NGO to a single office on the mainland, but the number and locations must be approved by regulatory authorities. Guo Linmao, a member of the commission, said the rights of NGOs will be fully protected, but those that break China's laws will be punished accordingly. Behavior that damages China's territorial integrity, regime and people's interests is defined as harming state interests, he said. The new law gives police the authority to talk with representatives of overseas NGOs and ask them not to conduct such activities, or even blacklist or deport them.
A 12-person delegation from Suning Commerce Group, one of China's largest privately owned retailers, visited Inter Milan last Friday and Saturday.
AC Milan said it had received several expressions of interest in acquiring a stake, including some from Chinese groups. However, China's richest man, Jack Ma, the Alibaba founder, dismissed reports that he is to buy AC Milan.
Faulkner said the purpose of Suning's visit was to discuss a potential strategic partnership between the club and Suning Commerce Group. The Chinese group owns Jiangsu Suning soccer club, and Faulkner said it is also interested in Inter Milan's academy structure and training center.
Faulkner said Inter has been in talks with three or four potential investors, but "the discussions with Suning are probably at the most advanced stage, as they came to visit us in Milan".
Simon Chadwick, a professor of sports enterprise at Salford Business School in Manchester, UK, said, "As China pursues its sports industry vision and its football goals, it is highly likely that we will see more European club acquisitions.
Strong Chinese interest in European soccer stems in part from the ambition heralded by President Xi Jinping to raise the quality of the sport in China.
The most prominent acquisitions to date are the purchase of a 13 percent stake in the company that owns Manchester City, worth $400 million, by China Media Capital and CITIC Capital, and 20 percent of the shares in Spanish club Atletico Madrid bought by Chinese billionaire Wang Jianlin's Dalian Wanda. In the age of podcasts and streaming services, you might think pirate radio is low on the list of concerns of US federal lawmakers and broadcasters.
They are increasingly worried about its presence in some cities, as unlicensed broadcasters commandeer frequencies to play anything from Trinidadian dance music to Haitian call-in shows.
They also complain that the Federal Communications Commission can't keep up with the pirates, who can block listeners from favorite programs or emergency alerts for missing children and severe weather.
Last year, nearly three dozen congressional members from the New York City area urged the commission to do more about what they called the "unprecedented growth of pirate radio operations".
The National Association of Black Owned Broadcasters made a similar appeal, saying that pirates undermine licensed minority stations while ignoring consumer protection laws that guard against indecency and false advertising.
The New York State Broadcasters Association estimates that 100 pirates operate in the New York City area alone, carrying programs in languages from Hebrew to Gaelic to Spanish. Commission chairman Tom Wheeler cited a stagnant budget and the smallest staff in 30 years. Around this time next month I can imagine myself at Silversands beach in my adopted island of Jamaica, sinking a few cold Red Stripe beers, nibbling on jerk chicken and pork and watching my boys pretend they can swim. Then, after reassuring myself the likelihood of them drowning is down to low, single figures percentage-wise, I will look back on my time in China and wonder was that really seven years, and how did I survive with a Chinese vocabulary of about nine words?
Being the archetypal creature of habit, I narrowed its parameters to fit my comfort zone, which basically meant the only places I went to outside a two kilometer radius of my apartment were Lido (an extremely easy word to tell a cabbie) and Sanlitun (the place every taxi driver assumes a foreigner is going anyway). Of course, I went to the Great Wall which was, well, a very long wall, Tian'anmen Square, the Summer Palace, the Winter Palace and the Not-Quite-Summer-Not-Quite-Winter Palace but, basically, I'm not really into touristy things.
When no Chinese language meets limited English it becomes a Marcel Marceau mime show for the ages, but it's fun and the point gets across - more often than not. I have made Chinese friends, new expat pals and hope to keep in touch with them even if I am literally on the other side of the world.
I won't miss the smog, the brutally cold winters, standing behind women at ATMs for hours, the ridiculous amount of paperwork at banks nor men walking around in summer with their shirts rolled up over their bellies.
The president made the remarks in a speech at the opening ceremony of the fifth meeting of foreign ministers of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia, which was held in Beijing.
The CICA, established in 1992, describes itself as "a multinational forum for enhancing cooperation toward promoting peace, security and stability in Asia". During the fourth summit of the CICA held in Shanghai in 2014, Xi proposed the Asian security concept, which calls for equal participation among countries on regional security affairs and equal responsibility for upholding security.
While pursuing national interests and development and safeguarding national security, the countries involved should consider other countries' concerns, promote joint development and respect others' security needs, Xi said.
The president also encouraged the building of what he has called an Asian community of common destiny, boosting communication among different cultures, resolving disputes peacefully through dialogue and negotiation, and seeking to establish a security framework with regional characteristics. During the meeting, Foreign Minister Wang Yi said that in the next two years, China, as CICA chairmanship country, will work with forum members to boost mutual trust, implement practical cooperation, promote capacity building and uphold inclusiveness and tolerance.
The security of Asia should be jointly maintained by the member countries, and the development of Asia should also be jointly promoted by the members, he said. Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov said that Asia is facing many security threats, including activities of the Islamic State group in Syria and Afghanistan, and he called for establishing an anti-terrorism alliance to safeguard security.
According to China's Foreign Ministry, more than 40 delegations from CICA member countries, observer countries and international organizations attended the meeting. The 12th Beijing-Tokyo Forum will be held in the Japanese capital in late September, the China International Publishing Group has announced. Twelve members of the forum's executive committee, including Zhao Qizheng, former chairman of the Foreign Affairs Committee of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, and Yasushi Akashi, former UN undersecretary-general, met in Beijing on Thursday and exchanged views on topics for discussion.
Since its founding in 2005, the forum, jointly organized by China International Publishing Group and Japanese non-profit think tank The Genron NPO, has become a nongovernmental platform for high-level dialogue between China and Japan.
It was decided that more young intellectuals should be invited to offer their opinions at the forum, and efforts should be increased to offer advice and suggestions for bilateral cooperation, especially regarding the two economies. Kazakh Foreign Minister Erlan Idrissov told his Chinese counterpart Wang Yi that Kazakhstan fully understands and respects China's stance on the South China Sea and believes that related disputes should be resolved through negotiations by countries directly concerned. Soon she was completing marathons, and before too long she was flying around the globe to participate in some of the world's best-known sporting events.
His company, which specializes in organizing running training camps and tours, is among a number of enterprises serving the growing legion of Chinese runners.
As for first impressions, "running is much better than (going abroad to) purchase goods", says Wang Xiaogang, 40, a Beijing running coach and freelance journalist, who has frequently taken part in overseas marathons. Oliver Wang, who is also CEO of Beijing-based Palace Travel and its US branch, which has runners as clients, too, describes the situation as part of a trend that started earlier in the West, in which the wealthy middle-aged started spending lots of money on fancy bicycles, for example, instead on sports cars. Du, of ZX-Tour Co, says one of the reasons for the explosion in travel is that people who have run the relatively new marathons in China are looking for a taste of better-run races abroad, as well as higher athletic levels. But in addition to that, what could be cooler than posting a selfie as you cross the finish line in Paris, Boston or Berlin, or wrap yourself in the national flag like an Olympian?
Li Xibei, 30, an information technology worker from Central China who lives in New York City, raised funds to provide cleaner air to families in his homeland by running the North Pole Marathon this month.
Despite the current enthusiasm, the Chinese have shown themselves to be somewhat fickle in terms of their motivation for traveling abroad. At a historical study meeting of the ancient land and sea Silk Roads, the president told Communist Party of China Central Committee members, "The Belt and Road Initiative, though initiated by China, is not only about China. Xi proposed the initiative in 2013, envisioning a trade and infrastructure network that would connect Asia with Europe and Africa along the ancient land and sea routes. Analysts say the initiative covers at least 4.4 billion people in more than 60 countries, or 63 percent of the global population. Xi stressed the function of the market in promoting the initiative as well as the government's role in overall coordination. He said that Chinese companies must be law-abiding and responsible entities in foreign countries while pursuing economic returns. Li Guoqiang, deputy director of the Institute of Chinese Borderland Studies at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, told China Daily that the purpose of the study was to learn from the experiences and mistakes of the ancient Silk Road and to open leaders' minds to innovative ways to implement the initiative.
The president stressed that China cannot seek short-term successes and quick profits when promoting this initiative, said Li, who delivered a speech at the group study. What interested the president most was to take good consideration of relations between interests, enterprises and local and central governments, Li said. Zha Xiaogang, a researcher at the Shanghai Institutes for International Studies, said taking care of other countries' interests as well as China's is crucial now that an increasing number of foreign countries have decided to cooperate in the initiative because they have come to understand China's visions and policies. Zha said that Xi wants to balance the interests on three-levels: between China and the host country, between the different interest groups in the host country, and between China and other investors in the host country. Only by taking good care of all these interests can we make the initiative profitable and sustainable, Zha said. Despite some setbacks in the past few years, Sino-Japanese relations are improving, though they are still fragile, the premier said. He also said Japan should appropriately manage sensitive elements that can substantially affect bilateral relations, and create a positive atmosphere to resume bilateral dialogues and the trilateral leaders' meeting of China, South Korea and Japan.
Kishida said Japan is willing to show mutual respect, strengthen political trust and manage disputes. Kishida is making his first official visit to China, from Friday to Sunday, since becoming foreign minister more than three years ago. Earlier on Saturday, Foreign Minister Wang Yi held talks with Kishida, before the visitor met with State Councilor Yang Jiechi and the premier in the afternoon.
Gao Hong, director of the Institute of Japanese Studies at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, said Japan's actions are the key to improving bilateral relations, as the country has created issues that hamper China's fundamental interests and has broken its promises for cooperation instead of confrontation, especially in maritime rights. Some of these monographs may be thought of as an anthology of maps, which, like all anthologies, reflects the taste and predilection of the collector.
Cartography, like architecture, has attributes of both a scientific and an artistic pursuit, a dichotomy that is certainly not satisfactorily reconciled in all presentations. The significance of maps - and much of their meaning in the past - derives from the fact that people make them to tell other people about the places or space they have experienced.
It is assumed that cartography, like art, pre-dates writing; like pictures, map symbols are apt to be more universally understood than verbal or written ones.
As previously mentioned, many early maps, especially those prior to the advent of mass production printing techniques, are known only through descriptions or references in the literature (having either perished or disappeared). Many libraries and collections were not in the habit of preserving maps that they considered a€?obsoletea€? and simply discarded them. A series of maps of one region, arranged in chronological order, can show vividly how it was discovered, explored by travelers and described in detail; this may be seen in facsimile atlases like those of America (K.
As mediators between an inner mental world and an outer physical world, maps are fundamental tools helping the human mind make sense of its universe at various scales. The history of cartography represents more than a technical and practical history of the artifacts. The only evidence we have for the mapmaking inclinations and talents of the inhabitants of Europe and adjacent parts of the Middle East and North Africa during the prehistoric period is the markings and designs on relatively indestructible materials. Although some questions will always remain unanswered, there can be no doubt that prehistoric rock and mobiliary art as a whole constitutes a major testimony of early mana€™s expression of himself and his world view. Despite the richness of civilization in ancient Babylonia and the recovery of whole archives and libraries, a mere handful of Babylonian maps have so far been found.
Egypt, which exercised so strong an influence on the ancient civilizations of southeast Europe and the Near East, has left us no more numerous cartographic documents than her neighbor Babylonia. In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extant Egyptian achievement is represented by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (see monograph #102) .
In so far as cartography was concerned, perhaps the greatest extent that Egyptian achievement is represented is by the Turin Papyrus, collected by Bernardino Drovetti before 1824 (#102). It has often been remarked that the Greek contribution to cartography lay in the speculative and theoretical realms rather than in the practical realm, and nowhere is this truer than in the Archaic and Classical Period.
To the Arab countries belongs chief credit for keeping alive an interest in astronomical studies during the so-called Christian middle ages, and we find them interested in globe construction, that is, in celestial globe construction; so far as we have knowledge, it seems doubtful that they undertook the construction of terrestrial globes. Among the Christian peoples of Europe in this same period there was not wanting an interest in both geography and astronomy. Above the convex surface of the earth (ki-a) spread the sky (ana), itself divided into two regions - the highest heaven or firmament, which, with the fixed stars immovably attached to it, revolved, as round an axis or pivot, around an immensely high mountain, which joined it to the earth as a pillar, and was situated somewhere in the far North-East, some say North, and the lower heaven, where the planets - a sort of resplendent animals, seven in number, of beneficent nature - wandered forever on their appointed path. Now, it is remarkable that the Greeks, adopting the earlier Chaldean ideas concerning the sphericity of the earth, believed also in the circumfluent ocean; but they appear to have removed its position from latitudes encircling the Arctic regions to a latitude in close proximity to the equator.
Notwithstanding this encroachment of the external ocean - encroachment which may have obliterated indications of a certain northern portion of Australia, and which certainly filled those regions with the great earth - surrounding river Okeanos - the traditions relating to the existence of an island, of immense extent, beyond the known world, were kept up, for they pervade the writings of many of the authors of antiquity.
In a fragment of the works of Theopompus, preserved by Aelian, is the account of a conversation between Silenus and Midas, King of Phrygia, in which the former says that Europe, Asia, and Africa were lands surrounded by the sea; but that beyond this known world was another island, of immense extent, of which he gives a description. Theopompus declareth that Midas, the Phrygian, and Selenus were knit in familiaritie and acquaintance. The side of the boat curves inwards, so that when reversed the figure of it would be like an orange with a slice taken off the top, and then set on its flat side. Comparing these early notions, as to the shape and extent of the habitable world, with the later ideas which limited the habitable portion of the globe to the equatorial regions, we may surmise how it came to pass that islands--to say nothing of continents which could not be represented for want of space - belonging to the southern hemisphere were set down as belonging to the northern hemisphere.


We have no positive proof of this having been done at a very early period, as the earlier globes and maps have all disappeared; but we may safely conjecture as much, judging from copies that have been handed down. Early maps of the world, as distinguished from globes, take us back to a somewhat more remote period; they all bear most of the disproportions of the Ptolemaic geography, for none belonging to the pre-Ptolemaic period are known to exist.
We have seen that, according to the earliest geographical notions, the habitable world was represented as having the shape of an inverted round boat, with a broad river or ocean flowing all round its rim, beyond which opened out the Abyss or bottomless pit, which was beneath the habitable crust. The description is sufficiently clear, and there is no mistaking its general sense, the only point that needs elucidation being that which refers to the position of the earth or globe as viewed by the spectator.
Our modern notions and our way of looking at a terrestrial globe or map with the north at the top, would lead us to conclude that the abyss or bottomless pit of the inverted Chaldean boat, the Hades and Tartaros of the Greek conception, should be situated to the south, somewhere in the Antarctic regions.
The internal evidence of the Poems points to a northern as well as a southern location for the entrance to the infernal regions. Another probable source of information: The Phoinikes of Homer are the same Phoenicians who as pilots of King Solomona€™s fleets brought gold and silver, ivory, apes and peacocks from Asia beyond the Ganges and the East Indian islands. European mariners and geographers of the Homeric period considered the bearing of land and sea only in connection with the rising and setting of the sun and with the four winds Boreas, Euros, Notos, and Sephuros. These mariners and geographers adopted the plan - an arbitrary one - of considering the earth as having the north above and the south below, and, after globes or maps had been constructed with the north at the top, and this method had been handed down to us, we took for granted that it had obtained universally and in all times.
Such has not been the case, for the earliest navigators, the Phoenicians, the Arabs, the Chinese, and perhaps all Asiatic nations, considered the south to be above and the north below. It is strange that some historians, in pointing out so cleverly that the Chaldean conception was more in accordance with the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe than had been suspected, fails, at the same time, to notice that Homer in his brain-map reversed the Chaldean terrestrial globe and placed the north at the top. During the middle ages, we shall see a reversion take place, and the terrestrial paradise and heavenly paradise placed according to the earlier Chaldean notions; and on maps of this epoch, encircling the known world from the North Pole to the equator, flows the antic Ocean, which in days of yore encircled the infernal regions.
At a later period, during which planispheric maps, showing one hemisphere of the world, may have been constructed, the circumfluent ocean must have encircled the world as represented by the geographical exponents of the time being; albeit in a totally different way than expressed in the Shumiro-Accadian records. It follows from all this that, as mariners did actually traverse those regions and penetrate south of the equator, the islands they visited most, such as Java, its eastern prolongation of islands, Sumbawa, etc., were believed to be in the northern hemisphere, and were consequently placed there by geographers, as the earliest maps of the various editions of Ptolemya€™s Geography bear witness. These mistakes were the result doubtless of an erroneous interpretation of information received; and the most likely period during which cognizance of these islands was obtained was when Alexandria was the center of the Eastern and Western commerce of the world.
But to return to the earlier Pre-Ptolemaic period and to form an idea of the chances of information which the traffic carried on in the Indian Ocean may have offered to the Greeks and Romans, here is what Antonio Galvano, Governor of Ternate says in 1555, quoting Strabo and Pliny (Strabo, lib.
Now as the above articles of commerce, mentioned by Strabo and Pliny, after leaving their original ports in Asia and Austral-Asia, were conveyed from one island to another, any information, when sought for, concerning the location of the islands from which the spices came, must necessarily have been of a very unreliable character, for the different islands at which any stay was made were invariably confounded with those from which the spices originally came. From these facts, and many others, such as the positions given to the Mountain of the East or North-East of the Shumiro-Accads, the Mountain of the South, or Southwest, of Homer, and the Infernal Regions, we may conclude that the North Pole of the Ancients was situated somewhere in the neighborhood of the Sea of Okhotsk. It is in the Classical Period of Greek cartography that we can start to trace a continuous tradition of theoretical concepts about the size and shape of the earth. Likewise, it should be emphasized that the vast majority of our knowledge about Greek cartography in this early period is known primarily only from second- or third-hand accounts. There is no complete break between the development of cartography in Classical and in Hellenistic Greece. In spite of these speculations, however, Greek cartography might have remained largely the province of philosophy had it not been for a vigorous and parallel growth of empirical knowledge. That such a change should occur is due both to political and military factors and to cultural developments within Greek society as a whole. The librarians not only brought together existing texts, they corrected them for publication, listed them in descriptive catalogs, and tried to keep them up to date. The other great factor underlying the increasing realism of maps of the inhabited world in the Hellenistic Period was the expansion of the Greek world through conquest and discovery, with a consequent acquisition of new geographical knowledge.
Among the contemporaries of Alexander was Pytheas, a navigator and astronomer from Massalia [Marseilles], who as a private citizen embarked upon an exploration of the oceanic coasts of Western Europe.
As exemplified by the journeys of Alexander and Pytheas, the combination of theoretical knowledge with direct observation and the fruits of extensive travel gradually provided new data for the compilation of world maps. The importance of the Hellenistic Period in the history of ancient world cartography, however, has been clearly established. In the history of geographical (or terrestrial) mapping, the great practical step forward during this period was to locate the inhabited world exactly on the terrestrial globe. Thus it was at various scales of mapping, from the purely local to the representation of the cosmos, that the Greeks of the Hellenistic Period enhanced and then disseminated a knowledge of maps.
The Roman Republic offers a good case for continuing to treat the Greek contribution to mapping as a separate strand in the history of classical cartography. The remarkable influence of Ptolemy on the development of European, Arabic, and ultimately world cartography can hardly be denied. Notwithstanding his immense importance in the study of the history of cartography, Ptolemy remains in many respects a complicated figure to assess.
Still the culmination of Greek cartographic thought is seen in the work of Claudius Ptolemy, who worked within the framework of the early Roman Empire. When we turn to Roman cartography, it has been shown that by the end of the Augustan era many of its essential characteristics were already in existence.
In the course of the early empire large-scale maps were harnessed to a number of clearly defined aspects of everyday life. Maps in the period of the decline of the empire and its sequel in the Byzantine civilization were of course greatly influenced by Christianity. Continuity between the classical period and succeeding ages was interrupted, and there was disruption of the old way of life with its technological achievements, which also involved mapmaking. The Byzantine Empire, though providing essential links in the chain, remains something of an enigma for the history of the long-term transmission of cartographic knowledge from the ancient to the modern world. It may be necessary to emphasize that the ancient Greek maps shown in this volume are a€?reconstructionsa€? by modern scholars based upon the textual descriptions of the general outline of the geographical systems formed by each of the successive Greek writers so far as it is possible to extract these from their writings alone.
China is Asiaa€™s oldest civilization, and the center from which cultural disciplines spread to the rest of the continent. An ancient wooden map discovered by Chinese archaeologists in northwest China's Gansu Province has been confirmed as the country's oldest one at an age of more than 2,200.
The map of Guixian was unearthed from tombs of the Qin Kingdom at Fangmatan in Tianshui City of Gansu Province in 1986 and was listed as a national treasure in 1994.
Unlike modern maps, place names on these maps were written within big or small square frames, while the names of rivers, roads, major mountains, water systems and forested areas were marked directly with Chinese characters. Whoever sets out to write on the history of geography in China faces a quandary, however, for while it is indispensable to give the reader some appreciation of the immense mass of literature which Chinese scholars have produced on the subject, it is necessary to avoid the tedium of listing names of authors and books, some of which indeed have long been lost.
As for the ideas about the shape of the earth current in ancient Chinese thought, the prevailing belief was that the heavens were round and the earth square.
The following attempts to compare rather carefully the parallel march of scientific geography in the West and in China.
She took dictation from him, handled his correspondence, even typed his last will and testament, and was inside the bunker in Berlin the day he shot and killed himself. The former real estate company owner from Shanghai hiked, climbed mountains and played badminton, and her friends did, too. The young graduate student in mathematics and statistics was to have received her degree from Boston University last year.
He was one of the over-60s runners to finish the World Marathon Majors - Tokyo, Boston, London, Berlin, Chicago and New York. They include entrepreneurs and those from smaller cities who have worked hard to pull themselves up by their bootstraps but are now concerned about their health.
In 2014, the Chinese Athletics Association registered 51 marathon events and 900,000 runners nationwide. The program purchases materials and teaches students from low-income families in Beijing to assemble do-it-yourself air filters. Armed guards stood watch during the race to protect runners from the threat of polar bears. Determined to find a new challenge, they traveled extensively in search of something that aligned with their skills.
Minimalist but comfortable, it also has a terrace where guests can relax and admire the starry skies.
The income gap is the predominant factor that influences millions of farmers, especially young people, to abandon their hoes and head to greener pastures in the cities, with many of them ending up on construction sites and assembly lines. He believes the slow village life can be made more colorful and energetic to attract a greater number of visitors from the city, which would in turn provide business for villagers.
With a retail value share of 21 percent in 2015, Nike (China) Inc retains the leading position in sportswear.
Adidas recorded 18 percent growth in sales in China last year, driven by the "performance and style" products, its annual report says.
Survey data shows that core runners spend an average of 4,594 yuan, far more than 2,333 yuan of potential runners.
The package cost about 5,000 yuan ($770; 680 euros) and included a roundtrip to Pyongyang on Air Koryo, hotel accommodation and entry to the marathon. Photography was allowed during the race, according to Hu, but people were told to show "respect" to portraits and statues of state leaders. For example, entrants were told beforehand not to use compression wear under their suits because "it is adverse to the tastes of the Korean people", although he says that the dress code was not strictly enforced.
He says they were much more active and enthusiastic than he expected, in particular the women and children inside the stadium and along the marathon route. It has helped him better understand China's dramatic social changes, which have been propelled by rising economic clout over the past few decades. The scholar wears sports shoes and a casual jacket as he prepares to take a long walk along the River Thames after speaking with China Daily in central London.
In his case, he says running has made him sleep better, so he doesn't have to stay in bed as long. As the Chinese people become better off, according to Fang, more and more people will participate in cultural activities and performances, which China's leadership has said should receive more attention. China's political, economic and social systems are helping empower people with such "freedom of choice".
The race is billed as the only event held inside the Antarctic Circle on the continent's mainland. During the trip, Patrick Ngan, a runner from Hong Kong who had been in the North Pole Marathon, briefed them on the conditions they may encounter. Among the worst-case scenarios, they could end up with frostbitten toes or even get lost and lose consciousness. Flags were placed every few meters to keep them on track, crews that included doctors patrolled the racecourse, and radar was used to detect cracks in the ice.
He couldn't find his way in all the bright whiteness around, and I was quite worried when we ran out of each other's sight," Pan says. But running longer distances in races like marathons isn't for everyone," says Wang, who is also a freelance writer for multiple running and health magazines.
During the Yangling International Marathon in Shaanxi province on April 10, an amateur runner surnamed Lu fell to the ground suddenly while approaching the finish line and died at a hospital of a heart attack.
They have to do health checks before taking part in races, while monitoring their body's reactions throughout the course using tech gadgets or consulting medical support crews," Huang says. It's time for everybody to learn how to run the right way," says Sun, who operates her own running club. It is "a complete defense system" to protect the US and ROK "against missile threats from Pyongyang".
Lavrov discussed the visit with President Xi Jinping and Wang during their meeting on Thursday and Xi told him that China hopes for new agreements with Russia during the visit. So popular in fact that millions of people use it each day, making it one of the most popular emojis on China's instant messaging services. A recent series of 16 emoticons Liu has designed for the social instant messaging app WeChat, based on that chubby character with grass on its head, was unveiled on March 12 and was downloaded by 4 million users that day.
It means that almost half the Chinese population are using Liu's emoticons while messaging their friends. It seems that designing emoji of cartoon images has become a must-do for some cartoonists who want to gain wide public recognition in China. All were born in the Internet era, so, Wang says, "they're very sensitive to new things online.
The cartoonist designs the image and others help manage it, so they can update stories or bring new series of emojis online very quickly.
Zhong Wei, 32, a full-time cartoonist in Shenyang, Liaoning province, draws cartoon images and since 2014 has published two picture books. Before the cat was created, he drew cartoon images of a human-like bear, a man with a chicken head and a little boy for a children's book. Three series of the cat emojis have been downloaded a total of about 200 million times since they were launched in August, and Zhong now has about 500,000 followers on Weibo. The obsession of Chinese with emoji has its roots in the kawaii (cute) and otaku (those who are social outcasts because of their obsession with something, often comics) cultures of Japan, he says. The problem Xu talks of worries many other cartoonists, especially those who are looking to make a name for themselves by creating cartoon emojis. He was 73 and his masterpieces included White Deer Plain, which won him China's top literature prize.
He started writing prose in 1965 and completed White Deer Plain in 1992, for which he won the Mao Dun Literature Prize in 1997, one of the most prestigious literature prizes in China.
Three million copies have been sold, and in many online bookshops the books are the bestseller in its category. From then on, he kept drawing short stories that he passed on to adults who appreciated fairy tales. It operates seven brands of hotels across the Americas, Europe, Middle East, Africa, Asia and the Pacific, ranging from middle market to upper mid-scale and luxury.
As hundreds of millions of Chinese tourists come to the Americas and Europe, we think there's an opportunity that they can help in securing reservations for those folks, arranging flights on their airline, providing tours and staying in the Carlson-branded hotels," Carlson Hospitality Group CEO David Berg said in an interview with the Star-Tribune of Minneapolis.
The number of Chinese tourists traveling internationally has more than doubled to 120 million people over the last five years, according to data from the China National Tourist Office and the tourism council. In that same month, HNA bought airport luggage handler Swissport International Ltd for $2.81 billion. We are, after all, witnessing the biggest movements of people since the World War II, the report said. It is also because the world as a whole is becoming more prosperous, and air travel is becoming more affordable to the rising middle classes. China hopes all the parties involved exercise restraint, avoid provocation and put the nuclear issue back on a track of dialogue and negotiations at an early date.
Chinese media have estimated there are more than 6,000, and most are engaged in environmental protection, education and poverty relief efforts.
For example, the earlier draft required exchanges between Chinese and foreign colleges, hospitals, and science and engineering research institutes, but the adopted version exempts this.
If they are found to have broken China's Criminal Law, they are also subject to criminal punishment.
The club's chief spokesman Robert Faulkner said the delegation was headed by Suning Chairman Zhang Jindong.
This includes potential capital investment from the retail group and opportunities for the club in China. Most broadcast to immigrant communities that pirate radio defenders say are underserved by licensed stations. He said fines and seizures are not enough, because pirates often refuse to pay and quickly replace transmitters and inexpensive antennas.
I've lived the expat journo life for about a quarter of a century now but have never stayed in a city as massively large as the nation's capital. It has 26 member countries, including China, Russia, India, Iran, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, Turkey and Thailand and 12 observer countries, including the United States and Japan. Parallel sessions will be held to discuss diplomacy, trade and the two countries' economies, security and media. The former real estate company owner from Shanghai hiked, climbed mountains and played badminton, and her friends did, too.]]> Forget shopping. He has finished the World Marathon Majors - Tokyo, Boston, London, Berlin, Chicago and New York. Healthy and stable ties between China and Japan are in the interest of both countries and people, and they contribute to regional and global stability and prosperity, Li told Kishida on Saturday. China is willing to increase the political trust with the neighbor and promote their bilateral relations back to a normal track of development, he said. He said Japan will expand cooperation with China in various fields to accumulate positive factors that could boost relations. He is the first Japanese foreign minister to visit China since Shinzo Abe was reelected as Japanese prime minister in 2012. It may also be likened to a book of reproductions of works of art, in the sense that the illustrations, even with the accompanying commentary, cannot really do justice to the originals. A knowledge of maps and their contents is not automatic - it has to be learned; and it is important for educated people to know about maps even though they may not be called upon to make them. Some maps are successful in their display of material but are scientifically barren, while in others an important message may be obscured because of the poverty of presentation. Maps constitute a specialized graphic language, an instrument of communication that has influenced behavioral characteristics and the social life of humanity throughout history. Maps produced by contemporary primitive peoples have been likened to so-called prehistoric maps. In earlier times these maps were considered to be ephemeral material, like newspapers and pamphlets, and large wall-maps received particularly careless treatment because they were difficult to store. When, in 1918, a mosaic floor was discovered in the ancient TransJordanian church of Madaba showing a map of Palestine, Syria and part of Egypt, a whole series of reproductions and treatises was published on the geography of Palestine at that time. Kretschner, 1892), Japan (P.Teleki, 1909), Madagascar (Gravier, 1896), Albania (Nopcsa, 1916), Spitzbergen (Wieder, 1919), the northwest of America (Wagner, 1937), and others.
Indeed, much of its universal appeal is that the simpler types of map can be read and interpreted with only a little training.
Crone remarked that a€?a map can be considered from several aspects, as a scientific report, a historical document, a research tool, and an object of art. It may also be viewed as an aspect of the history of human thought, so that while the study of the techniques that influence the medium of that thought is important, it also considers the social significance of cartographic innovation and the way maps have impinged on the many other facets of human history they touch. It is reasonable to expect some evidence in this art of the societya€™s spatial consciousness. There is, for example, clear evidence in the prehistoric art of Europe that maps - permanent graphic images epitomizing the spatial distribution of objects and events - were being made as early as the Upper Paleolithic.
In Mesopotamia the invention by the Sumerians of cuneiform writing in the fourth millennium B.C.
In the former field, among other things, they attained a remarkably close approximation for a?s2, namely 1.414213. The courses of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers offered major routes to and from the north, and the northwest, and the Persian Gulf allowed contact by sea along the coasts of Arabia and east to India. Within this span of some three thousand years, the main achievements in Greek cartography took place from about the sixth century B.C.
Stevenson, it is not easy to fix, with anything like a satisfactory measure of certainty, the beginning of globe construction; very naturally it was not until a spherical theory concerning the heavens and the earth had been accepted, and for this we are led back quite to Aristotle and beyond, back indeed to the Pythagoreans if not yet farther. We are now learning that those centuries were not entirely barren of a certain interest in sciences other than theological. It has now been ascertained and demonstrated beyond doubt that the earliest ideas concerning the laws of the universe and the shape of the earth were, in many respects, more correct and clearer than those of a subsequent period. Ragozin, says the Shumiro-Accads had formed a very elaborate and clever idea of what they supposed the world to be like; they imagined it to have the shape of an inverted round boat or bowl, the thickness of which would represent the mixture of land and water (ki-a) which we call the crust of the earth, while the hollow beneath this inhabitable crust was fancied as a bottomless pit or abyss (ge), in which dwelt many powers. The account of this conversation, which is too lengthy here to give in full, was written three centuries and a half before the Christian era.
Of the familiaritie of Midas, the Phrigian, and Selenus, and of certaine circumstances which he incredibly reported. This Selenus was the sonne of a nymphe inferiour to the gods in condition and degree, but superiour to men concerning mortalytie and death. The Chaldean conception, thus rudely described, shows a yet nearer approximation to the true doctrine concerning the form of the globe, when we bear in mind that this actually is in shape a flattened sphere, with the vertical diameter the shorter one. A curious example of the difficulties that early cartographers of the circumfluent ocean period had to contend with, and of the sans faA§on method of dealing with them, occurs in the celebrated Fra Mauro mappamundi (Book III, #249), which is one of the last in which the external ocean is still retained. The influence of the Ptolemaic astronomical and geographical system was very great, and lasted for over thirteen hundred years. There are reasons to believe however, apart from the evidence we gather in the Poems, that these abyssal regions were supposed or believed to be situated around the North Pole.
Homer, The Outward Geography Eastwards: a€?The outer geography eastwards, or wonderland, has for its exterior boundary the great river Okeanos, a noble conception, in everlasting flux and reflux, roundabout the territory given to living man. The Phoenician reports referred to came most likely therefore, not so much from the north, as from these regions which, tradition tells us (Fra Mauroa€™s mappamundi #249), were situated propinqua ale tenebre. These winds covered the arcs intervening between our four cardinal points of the compass, which points were not located exactly as with us; but the north leaning to the east, the east to the south, the south to the west and the west to the north (see Beatusa€™ Turin map, Book II, #207). The reason for this is plausible, for whereas the northern seaman regulated his navigation by the North Star, the Asiatic sailor turned to southern constellations for his guidance. This is all the more strange when we take into consideration that, in the light of his context, the fact is apparent and of great importance as coinciding with other European views concerning the location of the north on terrestrial globes and maps. The Chaldeans placed their heaven in the east or northeast; Homer placed his heaven in the south or southwest. In this ocean we find also EA the Exalted Fish, but, deprived of his ancient grandeur and divinity, he is no doubt considered nothing more than a merman at the period when acquaintance is renewed with him on the SchA¶ner-Frankfort gores of Asiatic origin bearing the date 1515 (Book IV, #328).
The divergence was probably owing in a great measure to the inability of representing graphically the perspective appearance of the globe on a plane; but may be also traceable to an erroneous interpretation of the original idea, caused by the reversion of the cardinal points of the compass.
According to this division other continents south of the equator were supposed to exist and habited, some said, but not to be approached by those inhabiting the northern hemisphere on account of the presumed impossibility of traversing the equatorial regions, the heat of which was believed to be too intense.
We shall see, when dealing with Ptolemy's map of the world, some of the results of this confusion. Thomas, after the dispersion of the Apostles, preached the Gospel to the Parthians and Persians; then went to India, where he gave up his life for Jesus Christ. That he corroborates Homera€™s views as to the sphericity of the earth by describing Cratesa€™ terrestrial globe (Geographica; Book ii. That he accentuates Homera€™s views concerning the black races that lived some in the west (the African race) others in the east (the Australian race).
That he shows the four cardinal points of the compass to have been situated somewhat differently than with us, for he says (Book 1, c. That he appears to be perpetuating an ancient tradition when he supposes the existence of a vast continent or antichthonos in the southern hemisphere to counterbalance the weight of the northern continents. The relativeness of these positions appears to have been maintained on some mediaeval maps.
To appreciate how this period laid the foundations for the developments of the ensuing Hellenistic Period, it is necessary to draw on a wide range of Greek writings containing references to maps. We have no original texts of Anaximander, Pythagoras, or Eratosthenes - all pillars of the development of Greek cartographic thought. In contrast to many periods in the ancient and medieval world and despite the fragmentary artifacts, we are able to reconstruct throughout the Greek period, and indeed into the Roman, a continuum in cartographic thought and practice.
Indeed, one of the salient trends in the history of the Hellenistic Period of cartography was the growing tendency to relate theories and mathematical models to newly acquired facts about the world - especially those gathered in the course of Greek exploration or embodied in direct observations such as those recorded by Eratosthenes in his scientific measurement of the circumference of the earth.
With respect to the latter, we can see how Greek cartography started to be influenced by a new infrastructure for learning that had a profound effect on the growth of formalized knowledge in general. Thus Alexandria became a clearing-house for cartographic and geographical knowledge; it was a center where this could be codified and evaluated and where, we may assume, new maps as well as texts could be produced in parallel with the growth of empirical knowledge. In his treatise On the Ocean, Pytheas relates his journey and provides geographical and astronomical information about the countries that he observed.
While we can assume a priori that such a linkage was crucial to the development of Hellenistic cartography, again there is no hard evidence, as in so many other aspects of its history, that allows us to reconstruct the technical processes and physical qualities of the maps themselves.
Its outstanding characteristic was the fruitful marriage of theoretical and empirical knowledge.
Eratosthenes was apparently the first to accomplish this, and his map was the earliest scientific attempt to give the different parts of the world represented on a plane surface approximately their true proportions.
By so improving the mimesis or imitation of the world, founded on sound theoretical premises, they made other intellectual advances possible and helped to extend the Greek vision far beyond the Aegean. While there was a considerable blending and interdependence of Greek and Roman concepts and skills, the fundamental distinction between the often theoretical nature of the Greek contribution and the increasingly practical uses for maps devised by the Romans forms a familiar but satisfactory division for their respective cartographic influences.
The profound difference between the Roman and the Greek mind is illustrated with peculiar clarity in their maps.
Through both the Mathematical Syntaxis (a treatise on mathematics and astronomy in thirteen books, also called the Almagest and the Geography (in eight books), it can be said that Ptolemy tended to dominate both astronomy and geography, and hence their cartographic manifestations, for over fourteen centuries.
A modern analysis of Ptolemaic scholarship offers nothing to revise the long-held consensus that he is a key figure in the long term development of scientific mapping. In its most obvious aspect, the exaggerated size of Jerusalem on the Madaba mosaic map (# 121) was no doubt an attempt to make the Holy City not only dominant but also more accurately depicted in this difficult medium. In both Western Europe and Byzantium relatively little that was new in cartography developed during the Dark Ages and early Middle Ages, although monks were assiduously copying out and preserving the written work of many past centuries available to them. Researcher He said that the map, drawn in black on four pine wood plates of almost the same size, had clear and complete graphics depicting the administrative division, a general picture of local geography and the economic situation in Guixian County in the Warring States era. Only a few examples can be given, but it should be understood, even when it is not expressly said, that they must often stand simply as representative of a whole class of works. It may be said at the outset that both in East and West there seem to have been two separate traditions, one which we may call a€?scientific, or quantitative, cartographya€™, and one which we may call a€?religious, or symbolic, cosmographya€™.
Yet despite their close proximity, Junge later claimed that she had rarely heard Hitler utter the word a€?Jewa€? and had learned about the Holocaust only after her boss was dead and the war was over. Business couldna€™t have been better, and we all felt so fortunate to have secure jobs in light of the depressing economy. At the same time, expanding prosperity has meant Chinese runners have gone from being rare at international marathons to having a noticeable presence. People from different countries did the same, and we stood close to each other to keep warm.
Prior to this year's London event, he had completed 73 marathons, including 16 last year, half of which were international races. That mushroomed to 134 marathons and 1.5 million runners last year, according to Wang Dawei, vice-president of the CAA, which now has a marathon department. She ran her first half-marathon in April 2015 and has been participating in races around China since then. However, this sometimes causes problems, like people not respecting contractual agreements," he says. Runners wore special suits, with layers to keep them warm but not too sweaty, eye protection and nonskid boots.
Eight similar deaths during long-distance running events have been reported in China over the past two years. For example, one story tells of Ali's father bidding him farewell as he embarks on a journey. In 2012, HNA purchased the 165-room Cassa Hotel in midtown Manhattan from Assa Properties for $130 million.
Buying a club contributes to a diversified business portfolio, something that aligns with the conglomeration of some Chinese entertainment businesses," he said. Heck, you could put Jamaica, the third-largest island in the Caribbean, inside Beijing and it would still rattle around and not touch the sides. I will miss lazy walks through parks and watching people doing tai chi, cracking whips or merely playing with their kids or grandkids.
Well-off, fitness-focused Chinese are now more interested in snapping sweaty selfies at international marathons, report Matt Prichard, Yan Dongjie and Yu Yilei in Beijing and Wang Mingjie in London. Before this year's London event, he had completed 73 marathons, including 16 last year, half of which were international races. They have often served as memory banks for spatial data and as mnemonics in societies without the printed word and can speak across the barriers of ordinary language, constituting a common language used by men of different races and tongues to express the relationship of their society to a geographic environment.
Certain carvings on bone and petroglyphs have been identified as prehistoric route maps, although according to a strict definition, they might not qualify as a€?mapsa€?.
In the present work, reconstruction of maps no longer extant are used in place of originals or assumed originals.
Since the maps were missing, he drew them himself from indications in the ancient text, and when the work was finished, he commemorated this too in verse.
The map answered many hitherto insoluble or disputed questions, for example the question as to where the Virgin Mary met the mother of John Baptist.
A series of maps of a coastal region (for example, that of Holland or Friesland) or of river estuaries (the Po, Mississippi, Volga, or lower Yellow River) gives information on the rate of changes in outline and their causes. Maps represent an excellent mirror of culture and civilizationa€?, but they are also more than a mere reflection: maps in their own right enter the historical process by means of reciprocally structured relationships. But when it comes to drawing up the balance sheet of evidence for prehistoric maps, we must admit that the evidence is tenuous and certainly inconclusive. The same evidence shows, too, that the quintessentially cartographic concept of representation in plan was already in use in that period. Our divisions into 60 and 360 for minutes, seconds and degrees are a direct inheritance from the Babylonians, who thought in these terms. The Pharaohs organized military campaigns, trade missions, and even purely geographical expeditions to explore various countries. From earliest times much of the area covered by the annual Nile floods had, upon their retreat, to be re-surveyed in order to establish the exact boundaries of properties.
We find allusions to celestial globes in the days of Eudoxus and Archimedes, to terrestrial globes in the days of Crates and Hipparchus. In Justiniana€™s day, or near it, one Leontius Mechanicus busied himself in Constantinople with globe construction, and we have left to us his brief descriptive reference to his work.
But above all these, higher in rank and greater in power, is the Spirit (Zi) of heaven (ana), ZI-ANA, or, as often, simply ANA--Heaven. On this map of the world the islands of the Malay Archipelago follow the shores of Asia from Malacca to Japan.
Even the Arabs, who, after the fall of the Roman Empire, developed the geographical knowledge of the world during the first period of the middle ages, adopted many of its errors. Volcanoes were supposed to be the entrances to the infernal regions, and towards the southeast the whole region beyond the river Okeanos of Homer, from Java to Sumbawa and the Sea of Banda, was sufficiently studded with mighty peaks to warrant the idea they may have originated. Many cartographers of the renascence, whose charts indeed we cannot read unless we reverse them, must have followed Asiatic cartographical methods, and this perhaps through copying local charts obtained in the countries visited by them. Taprobana was the Greek corruption of the Tamravarna of Arabian, or even perhaps Phoenician, nomenclature; our modern Sumatra. Geographical science was on the eve of reaching its apogee with the Greeks, were it was doomed to retrograde with the decline of the Roman Empire. John III, King of Portugal, ordered his remains to be sought for in a little ruined chapel that was over his tomb, outside Meliapur or Maliapor. In some cases the authors of these texts are not normally thought of in the context of geographic or cartographic science, but nevertheless they reflect a widespread and often critical interest in such questions.
In particular, there are relatively few surviving artifacts in the form of graphic representations that may be considered maps. Despite a continuing lack of surviving maps and original texts throughout the period - which continues to limit our understanding of the changing form and content of cartography - it can be shown that, by the perioda€™s end, a markedly different cartographic image of the inhabited world had emerged. Of particular importance for the history of the map was the growth of Alexandria as a major center of learning, far surpassing in this respect the Macedonian court at Pella. Later geographers used the accounts of Alexandera€™s journeys extensively to make maps of Asia and to fill in the outline of the inhabited world. Not even the improved maps that resulted from these processes have survived, and the literary references to their existence (enabling a partial reconstruction of their content) can even in their entirety refer only to a tiny fraction of the number of maps once made and once in circulation.
It has been demonstrated beyond doubt that the geometric study of the sphere, as expressed in theorems and physical models, had important practical applications and that its principles underlay the development both of mathematical geography and of scientific cartography as applied to celestial and terrestrial phenomena.
On his map, moreover, one could have distinguished the geometric shapes of the countries, and one could have used the map as a tool to estimate the distances between places. To Rome, Hellenistic Greece left a seminal cartographic heritage - one that, in the first instance at least, was barely challenged in the intellectual centers of Roman society. Certainly the political expansion of Rome, whose domination was rapidly extending over the Mediterranean, did not lead to an eclipse of Greek influence.
Such knowledge, relating to both terrestrial and celestial mapping, had been transmitted through a succession of well-defined master-pupil relationships, and the preservation of texts and three-dimensional models had been aided by the growth of libraries. The Romans were indifferent to mathematical geography, with its system of latitudes and longitudes, its astronomical measurements, and its problem of projections. Yet Ptolemy, as much through the accidental survival and transmission of his texts when so many others perished as through his comprehensive approach to mapping, does nevertheless stride like a colossus over the cartographic knowledge of the later Greco-Roman world and the Renaissance.
Pilgrims from distant lands obviously needed itineraries like that starting at Bordeaux, giving fairly simple instructions. When we come to consider the mapping of small areas in medieval western Europe, it will be shown that the Saint Gall monastery map is very reminiscent of the best Roman large-scale plans. Some maps, along with other illustrations, were transmitted by this process, but too few have survived to indicate the overall level of cartographic awareness in Byzantine society. Eighty-two places are marked with their respective names, locations of rivers, mountains and forested areas on the map.
Experts said that graphics, symbols, scales, locations, longitude and latitude are key elements of a map. Thus in the Ta Tai Li Chi, Tseng Shen, replying to the questions of Shanchu Li, admits that it was very hard to see how, on the orthodox view, the four comers of the earth could be properly covered. She suffered enormous guilt, she said, over having once actually liked a€?the greatest criminal ever to have lived.a€?Madoffa€™s victims speak out.
After all, Bernie Madoff had never had a down year.That day, however, turned out to be quite unusual. It's why we get together," says the entrepreneur, who quit running a real estate company to start Save U Sports Development Co, which helps clients with equipment and advice. I ATTENDED WALLACE, RIVERSIDE, AND WILSON ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS.AS WELL, GAVITT AND EDISON MIDDLE SCHOOLS. This implies that throughout history maps have been more than just the sum of technical processes or the craftsmanship in their production and more than just a static image of their content frozen in time.
The reconstructions of such maps appear in the correct chronology of the originals, irrespective of the date of the reconstruction.
After the fall of Byzantium in 1453, its conqueror, the Turkish Sultan Mohammed II, found in the library that he inherited from the Byzantine rulers a manuscript of Ptolemya€™s Geographia, which lacked the world-map, and he commissioned Georgios Aminutzes, a philosopher in his entourage, to draw up a world map based on Ptolemya€™s text. Comparison of travelersa€™ maps from various periods show the development and change of routes or road-building and allows us to draw conclusions of every kind about the development or decay of farms, villages and towns. They were artistic treasure-houses, being often decorated with fine miniatures portraying life and customs in distant lands, various types of ships, coats-of-arms, portraits of rulers, and so on. The development of the map, whether it occurred in one place or at a number of independent hearths, was clearly a conceptual advance - an important increment to the technology of the intellect - that in some respects may be compared to the emergence of literacy or numeracy. The historian of cartography, looking for maps in the art of prehistoric Europe and its adjacent regions, is in exactly the same position as any other scholar seeking to interpret the content, functions, and meanings of that art. Moreover, there is sufficient evidence for the use of cartographic signs from at least the post-Paleolithic period. They are impressed on small clay tablets like those generally used by the Babylonians for cuneiform inscriptions of documents, a medium which must have limited the cartographera€™s scope.
The survey was carried out, mostly in squares, by professional surveyors with knotted ropes.
We find that the Greek geographer Strabo gives us quite a definite word concerning their value and their construction, and that Ptolemy is so definite in his references to them as to lead to a belief that globes were by no means uncommon instruments in his day, and that they were regarded of much value in the study of geography and astronomy, particularly of the latter science. With stress laid, during the many centuries succeeding, upon matters pertaining to the religious life, there naturally was less concern than there had been in the humanistic days of classical antiquity as to whether the earth is spherical in form, or flat like a circular disc, nor was it thought to matter much as to the form of the heavens. Hyde Clarke has more than once pointed out in The Legend of the Atlantis of Plato, Royal Historical Society 1886, etc., that Australia must have been known in the most remote antiquity of the early history of civilization, at a time when the intercourse with America was still maintained. Between the lower heaven and the surface of the earth is the atmospheric region, the realm of IM or MERMER, the Wind, where he drives the clouds, rouses the storms, and whence he pours down the rain, which is stored in the great reservoir of Ana, in the heavenly ocean. Then in a northeasterly direction Homera€™s great river Okeanos would flow along the shores of the Sandwich group, where the volcanic peak of Mt. Aristotlea€™s writings, for example, provide a summary of the theoretical knowledge that underlay the construction of world maps by the end of the Greek Classical Period. Our cartographic knowledge must, therefore, be gleaned largely from literary descriptions, often couched in poetic language and difficult to interpret. The ambition of Eratosthenes to draw a general map of the oikumene based on new discoveries was also partly inspired by Alexandera€™s exploration. In this case too, the generalizations drawn herein by various authorities (ancient and modern scholars, historians, geographers, and cartographers) are founded upon the chance survival of references made to maps by individual authors. Yet this evidence should not be interpreted to suggest that the Greek contribution to cartography in the early Roman world was merely a passive recital of the substance of earlier advances.
If land survey did play such an important part, then these plans, being based on centuriation requirements and therefore square or rectangular, may have influenced the shape of smaller-scale maps. This is perhaps more remarkable in that his work was primarily instructional and theoretical, and it remains debatable if he bequeathed a set of images that could be automatically copied by an uninterrupted succession of manuscript illuminators. While almost certainly fewer maps were made than in the Greco-Roman Period, nevertheless the key concepts of mapping that had been developed in the classical world were preserved in the Byzantine Empire. What is more surprising is that the map marks the location of Wei Shui, now known as the Weihe River, and many canyons in the area. The map of Guixian County has all these elements except longitude and latitude, according to historians.
Above, Irwin and Steven Salbe, longtime investors with Madoff, in their Fort Lauderdale restaurant.


For one thing, I realized that Bernie hadna€™t scheduled a single phone call or meeting for the entire day, which was a first for him.
I GRADUATED FROM HAMMOND HIGH SCHOOL, IN THE CLASS OF 1981, AND FURTHER ATTENDED INDIANA UNIVERSITY (AT BLOOMINGTON) FROM AUGUST 1981 THRU DECEMBER 1984. Indeed, any history of maps is compounded by a complex series of interactions, involving their intent, their use and their purpose, as well as the process of their making.
All reconstructions are, to a greater or lesser degree, the product of the compiler and the technology of his times.
He knew it would be out of date, but that is precisely what he wanted - an ancient map; to perpetuate it, he also had a carpet woven from the drawing. Inferences have to be made about states of mind separated from the present not only by millennia but also - where ethnography is called into service to help illuminate the prehistoric evidence - by the geographical distance and different cultural contexts of other continents. Two of the basic map styles of the historical period, the picture map (perspective view) and the plan (ichnographic view), also have their prehistoric counterparts. However, the measurement of circular and triangular plots was envisaged: advice on this, and plans, are given in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus of ca.
From Ptolemaic Egypt there is a rough rectangular plan of surveyed land accompanying the text of the Lille Papyrus I, now in Paris; also two from the estate of Apollonius, minister of Ptolemy II. There is, however, but one example known, which has come down to us from that ancient day, this a celestial globe, briefly described as the Farnese globe. Yet there was no century, not even in those ages we happily are learning to call no longer a€?darka€?, that geography and astronomy were not studied and taught, and globes celestial as well as armillary spheres, if not terrestrial globes, were constructed.
Here however he makes his hero confess that he is wholly out of his bearings, and cannot well say where the sun is to set or to rise (Od.
Although these views were continued and developed to a certain extent by their successors, Strabo and Ptolemy, through the Roman period, and more or less entertained during the Middle Ages, they became obscured as time rolled on. The bones of the holy apostle were found, with some relics that were placed in a rich vase.
Again, if we consider the Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans as devoid of the American Continent, and the Atlantic Ocean as stretching to the shores of Asia, as Strabo did, the parallel of Iberia (Spain) would have taken Columbusa€™ ships to the north of Japan--i.e.
At the time when Alexander the Great set off to conquer and explore Asia and when Pytheas of Massalia was exploring northern Europe, therefore, the sum of geographic and cartographic knowledge in the Greek world was already considerable and was demonstrated in a variety of graphic and three-dimensional representations of the heavens and the earth. In addition, many other ancient texts alluding to maps are further distorted by being written centuries after the period they record; they too must be viewed with caution because they are similarly interpretative as well as descriptive.
Eudoxus had already formulated the geocentric hypothesis in mathematical models; and he had also translated his concepts into celestial globes that may be regarded as anticipating the sphairopoiia [mechanical spheres].
And it was at Alexandria that this Ptolemy, son of Ptolemy I Soter, a companion of Alexander, had founded the library, soon to become famous through the Mediterranean world. It seems, though, that having left Massalia, Pytheas put into Gades [Cadiz], then followed the coasts of Iberia [Spain] and France to Brittany, crossing to Cornwall and sailing north along the west coast of England and Scotland to the Orkney Islands.
On the contrary, a principal characteristic of the new age was the extent to which it was openly critical of earlier attempts at mapping. Disregarding the elaborate projections of the Greeks, they reverted to the old disk map of the Ionian geographers as being better adapted to their purposes. This shape was also one which suited the Roman habit of placing a large map on a wall of a temple or colonnade. 90-168), Greek and Roman influences in cartography had been fused to a considerable extent into one tradition. The Almagest, although translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, appears to have had little direct influence on the development of cartography. Ptolemya€™s principal legacy was thus to cartographic method, and both the Almagest and the Geography may be regarded as among the most influential works in cartographic history.
However, the maps of Marinus and Ptolemy, one of the latter containing thousands of place-names, were at least partly known to Arabic geographers of the ninth to the 10th century. The most accomplished Byzantine map to survive, the mosaic at Madaba (#121), is clearly closer to the classical tradition than to maps of any subsequent period. He Shuangquan, a research fellow with the Gansu Provincial Archaeological Research Institute, has made an in-depth study of the map and confirmed its drawing time to be 239 B.C.
Then I noticed that Ruth Madoff, Berniea€™s wife and partner of nearly 50 years, seemed to be trying to sneak past my desk.
UPON LEAVING COLLEGE, I RELOCATED TO OKLAHOMA CITY, OKLAHOMA WHERE I WORKED FOR HERTZ DATA CENTER CORPORATION AND LIBERTY NATIONAL. Therefore, reconstructions are used here only to illustrate the general geographic concepts of the period in which the lost original map was made.
It was said that as the Archangel Gabriel appeared to Zacharias in the holy of holies, Zacharias must have been High Priest and have lived in Jerusalem; John the Baptist would then have been born in Jerusalem. I have not been able to find any such evidence or artifacts of map making that originated in the South America or Australia. This is described in an inscription in the Temple of Der-el-Bahri where the ship used for this journey is delineated, but there is no map.
It is of marble, and is thought by some to date from the time of Eudoxus, that is, three hundred years before the Christian era. The Venerable Bede, Pope Sylvester I, the Emperor Frederick II, and King Alfonso of Castile, not to name many others of perhaps lesser significance, displayed an interest in globes and making. See the sketch below of an inverted Chaldean boat transformed into a terrestrial globe, which will give an idea of the possible appearance of early globes. Indeed, wherever we look round the margin of the circumfluent ocean for an appropriate entrance to Hades and Tartaros, we find it, whether in Japan, Iceland, the Azores, or Cape Verde Islands. Terrestrial maps and celestial globes were widely used as instruments of teaching and research. Despite what may appear to be reasonable continuity of some aspects of cartographic thought and practice, in this particular era scholars must extrapolate over large gaps to arrive at their conclusions. By the beginning of the Hellenistic Period there had been developed not only the various celestial globes, but also systems of concentric spheres, together with maps of the inhabited world that fostered a scientific curiosity about fundamental cartographic questions. The library not only accumulated the greatest collection of books available anywhere in the Hellenistic Period but, together with the museum, likewise founded by Ptolemy II, also constituted a meeting place for the scholars of three continents.
From there, some authors believe, he made an Arctic voyage to Thule [probably Iceland] after which he penetrated the Baltic. Intellectual life moved to more energetic centers such as Pergamum, Rhodes, and above all Rome, but this promoted the diffusion and development of Greek knowledge about maps rather than its extinction. The main texts, whether surviving or whether lost and known only through later writers, were strongly revisionist in their line of argument, so that the historian of cartography has to isolate the substantial challenge to earlier theories and frequently their reformulation of new maps. There is a case, accordingly, for treating them as a history of one already unified stream of thought and practice.
With translation of the text of the Geography into Latin in the early 15th century, however, the influence of Ptolemy was to structure European cartography directly for over a century.
It would be wrong to over emphasize, as so much of the topographical literature has tended to do, a catalog of Ptolemya€™s a€?errorsa€?: what is vital for the cartographic historian is that his texts were the carriers of the idea of celestial and terrestrial mapping long after the factual content of the coordinates had been made obsolete through new discoveries and exploration. Similarly, in the towns, although only the Forma Urbis Romae is known to us in detail, large-scale maps were recognized as practical tools recording the lines of public utilities such as aqueducts, displaying the size and shape of imperial and religious buildings, and indicating the layout of streets and private property.
But the transmission of Ptolemya€™s Geography to the West came about first through reconstruction by Byzantine scholars and only second through its translation into Latin (1406) and its diffusion in Florence and elsewhere.
But as the dichotomy increased between the use of Greek in the East and Latin in the West, the particular role of Byzantine scholars in perpetuating Greek texts of cartographic interest becomes clearer. Forested areas marked on the map also tallies with the distribution of various plants and the natural environment in the area today.
Photograph by Stephen Wilkes.In writing about Bernard Madoff for Vanity Faira€™s April issue, I frequently heard his victims refer to him as another Hitler, who decimated his largely Jewish clientele by stealing their money in the biggest Ponzi scheme in history. Ordinarily, she would let me know when she was in the office, in case anybody was looking for her. Mark leaned over and whispered, a€?Wea€™re going Christmas shopping.a€?I knew something was wrong, but I thought it was a problem in the family. IN THE SPRING OF 1990, I RELOCATED TO BIRMINGHAM, ALABAMA WHERE I WAS GAINFULLY EMPLOYED WITH UNITED PARCEL SERVICE, AT&T CORPORATION, AND THE UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE.
No one person or area of study is capable of embracing the whole field; and cartographers, like workers in other activities, have become more and more specialized with the advantages and disadvantages which this inevitably brings. Nevertheless, reconstructions of maps which are known to have existed, and which have been made a long time after the missing originals, can be of great interest and utility to scholars. It has been shown how these could have appealed to the imagination not only of an educated minority, for whom they sometimes became the subject of careful scholarly commentary, but also of a wider Greek public that was already learning to think about the world in a physical and social sense through the medium of maps. The relative smallness of the inhabited world, for example, later to be proved by Eratosthenes, had already been dimly envisaged.
The confirmation of the sources of tin (in the ancient Cassiterides or Tin Islands) and amber (in the Baltic) was of primary interest to him, together with new trade routes for these commodities.
Indeed, we can see how the conditions of Roman expansion positively favored the growth and applications of cartography in both a theoretical and a practical sense. The context shows that he must be talking about a map, since he makes the philosopher among his group start with Eratosthenesa€™ division of the world into North and South. Here, however, though such a unity existed, the discussion is focused primarily on the cartographic contributions of Ptolemy, writing in Greek within the institutions of Roman society. In the history of the transmission of cartographic ideas it is indeed his work, straddling the European Middle Ages, that provides the strongest link in the chain between the knowledge of mapping in the ancient and early modem worlds.
Finally, the interpretation of modem scholars has progressively come down on the side of the opinion that Ptolemy or a contemporary probably did make at least some of the maps so clearly specified in his texts. Some types of Roman maps had come to possess standard formats as well as regular scales and established conventions for depicting ground detail. In the case of the sea charts of the Mediterranean, it is still unresolved whether the earliest portolan [nautical] charts of the 13th century had a classical antecedent. Byzantine institutions, particularly as they developed in Constantinople, facilitated the flow of cartographic knowledge both to and from Western Europe and to the Arab world and beyond. BEFORE CONTRACTING HIV IN 1987 (AT JUST 24-YEARS OF AGE), MY LIFE WAS TOTALLY DIFFERENT AND NOT NECESSARILY IN A GOOD WAY. The possibilities include those for which specific information is available to the compiler and those that are described or merely referred to in the literature. Some saw in the a€?hill countrya€™ Hebron, a place that had for a long time been a leading Levitical city, while others held that Juda was the Levitical city concerned.
The fact that King Sargon of Akkad was making military expeditions westwards from about 2,330 B.C.
The whole northern region, of sea as he supposed it, from west to east, was known to him only by Phoenician reports. If a literal interpretation was followed, the cartographic image of the inhabited world, like that of the universe as a whole, was often misleading; it could create confusion or it could help establish and perpetuate false ideas. It had been the subject of comment by Plato, while Aristotle had quoted a figure for the circumference of the earth from a€?the mathematiciansa€? at 400,000 stades; he does not explain how he arrived at this figure, which may have been Eudoxusa€™ estimate. It would appear from what is known about Pytheasa€™ journeys and interests that he may have undertaken his voyage to the northern seas partly in order to verify what geometry (or experiments with three dimensional models) have taught him.
Not only had the known world been extended considerably through the Roman conquests - so that new empirical knowledge had to be adjusted to existing theories and maps - but Roman society offered a new educational market for the cartographic knowledge codified by the Greeks.
Ptolemy owed much to Roman sources of information and to the extension of geographical knowledge under this growing empire: yet he represents a culmination as well as a final synthesis of the scientific tradition in Greek cartography that has been highlighted in this introduction. Yet it is perhaps in the importance accorded the map as a permanent record of ownership or rights over property, whether held by the state or by individuals, that Roman large-scale mapping most clearly anticipated the modern world.
If they had, one would suppose it to be a map connected with the periploi [sea itineraries]. Our sources point to only a few late glimpses of these transfers, as when Planudes took the lead in Ptolemaic research, for example.
I tried his cell phone several times, but all I got was his voice mail: a€?Hi, youa€™ve reached Bernie Madoff.
I WAS PARALYZED BY FEARS THAT WERE IMBIBED INTO MY SUBCONSCIOUS FROM GROWING UP AS A BLACK KID IN A DARK AMERICA.
Viewed in its development through time, the map is a sensitive indicator of the changing thought of man, and few of these works seem to reflect such an excellent mirror of culture and civilization. Of a different order, but also of interest, are those maps made in comparatively recent times that are designed to illustrate the geographical ideas of a particular person or group in the past but are suggested by no known maps.
Many solutions to this problem were put forward, but it was solved once and for all by the Madaba map, which showed, between Jerusalem and Hebron, a place called Beth Zachari: the house of Zacharias. The paucity of evidence of clearly defined representations of constellations in rock art, which should be easily recognized, seems strange in view of the association of celestial features with religious or cosmological beliefs, though it is understandable if stars were used only for practical matters such as navigation or as the agricultural calendar. The celestial globe had reinforced the belief in a spherical and finite universe such as Aristotle had described; the drawing of a circular horizon, however, from a point of observation, might have perpetuated the idea that the inhabited world was circular, as might also the drawing of a sphere on a flat surface. Aristotle also believed that only the ocean prevented a passage around the world westward from the Straits of Gibraltar to India.
The result was that his observations served not merely to extend geographical knowledge about the places he had visited, but also to lay the foundation for the scientific use of parallels of latitude in the compilation of maps. Many influential Romans both in the Republic and in the early Empire, from emperors downward, were enthusiastic Philhellenes and were patrons of Greek philosophers and scholars. In this respect, Rome had provided a model for the use of maps that was not to be fully exploited in many parts of the world until the 18th and 19th centuries.
But in order to reach an understanding of the historical processes involved in the period, we must examine the broader channels for Christian, humanistic, and scientific ideas rather than a single map, or even the whole corpus of Byzantine cartography. Dona€™t worry, I didna€™t forget you.a€?Every year, on the day of the Christmas party, Ruth and Bernie would have gifts for the women who worked in the office, and Ruth was letting me know that mine was on the way.
INDEED, I HELD CERTAIN TRUTHS THAT WERE IMPOSED UPON ME, OR OTHERWISECATEGORICALLY ASSIGNED, BY VIRTUE OF MYLIFE-STYLE AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR, TO BE SELF-EVIDENT. The maps of early man, which pre-date other forms of written communication, were attempts to depict earth distributions graphically in order to better visualize them; like those of primitive peoples, the earliest maps served specific functional or practical needs.
Excavations on this site revealed the foundations of a little church, with a fragment of a mosaic that contained the name a€?Zachariasa€?. What is certainly different is the place and prominence of maps in prehistoric times as compared with historical times, an aspect associated with much wider issues of the social organization, values, and philosophies of two very different types of cultures, the oral and the literate.
Later we encounter itineraries, referring either to military or to trading expeditions and provide an indication of the extent of Babylonian geographical knowledge at an early date. Another of a land, also in the north, where a man, who could dispense with sleep, might earn double wages, as there was hardly any night. There was, however, evidently no consensus between cartographic theorists, and there seems in particular to have been a gap between the acceptance of the most advanced scientific theories and their translation into map form.
Viewed in this context, some of the essential cartographic impulses of the 15th century Renaissance in Italy are seen to have been already active in late Byzantine society.
PRIDE AND POVERTY WERE MY SOLE INHERITANCE AND, TO BE SURE,MY PRIDE TESTIFIED AGAINST ME.I WAS SURELY VAIN ANDVOID OF CHARACTER AS MY EXISTENCE WAS OVERSHADOWED BY TRAUMA AND PAIN. Maps were also frequently used purely for decoration; they furnished designs for Gobelins tapestries, were engraved on goblets of gold and silver, tables, and jewel-caskets, and used in frescoes, mosaics, etc. They do not go so far as to record distances, but they do mention the number of nights spent at each place, and sometimes include notes or drawings of localities passed through. He probably had the first account from some sailor who had visited the northern latitudes in summer; and the second from one who had done the like in winter.
The influence of these views on Chinese cartography, however, remained slight, for it revolved around the basic plan of a quantitative rectangular grid, taking no account of the curvature of the eartha€™s surface. Like Traudl Junge, Squillari insisted that in all that time she had had no idea what lay beneath her bossa€™s affable, if frequently peculiar, faA§ade, or what transpired on the 17th floor of the Lipstick Buildinga€”two floors below her officea€”where $65 billion in investorsa€™ funds disappeared. They met in Berniea€™s office, with Berniea€™s two sons, Mark and Andy, whom Ia€™ve known since they were teenagers. Or just leave a message and Ia€™ll get back to you.a€?Before I left for the Christmas party, however, I realized that he was using his cell phone. CONSEQUENTLY, I ENGAGED IN BEHAVIORS THATCOULD ONLY BE EXPLAINED IN THE DARK OF NIGHT: RECKLESS DRINKING AND UNPROTECTED SEX WITH MEN. It was not until the 18th century, however, that maps were gradually stripped of their artistic decoration and transformed into plain, specialist sources of information based upon measurement.
As in Greek and Roman inscriptions, some documents record the boundaries of countries or cities.
At the same time Chinese geography was always thoroughly naturalistic, as witness the passage about rivers and mountains from the LA? Shih Chhun Chhiu. I called them a€?the boys.a€? The only reason I took notice of the meeting was because of Peter.
MOREOVER, WHAT I CONSIDEREDRIGHT FOR ME DURING THAT TIME WAS NOT OPEN FORDISCUSSION OR JUSTIFICATION. He seemed relaxed, sitting beside Berniea€™s desk with his legs crossed, and Peter was never relaxed in a meeting with Bernie.
But Bernie and Ruth were there, and you wouldna€™t have thought they had a care in the world.
I was so put off with Bernie for his behavior that day and for not checking in with me all afternoon that I didna€™t even say hello. IN ADAMANT DISREGARD, IF I COULD NOT BE SHOWN A BETTER WAY TO LIVE I DEMANDED TO BE LEFT ALONE: I AM WHAT I AM ! ULTIMATELY, MY MAXIM WOULD PROVE TO BE BLAMEWORTHY FOR I BROKE THAT VOW, NAY, MANY OTHERS WHILE LIVING A DOUBLE LIFE: PROFESSING TO BE ONE THING (STRAIGHT)DURING THE DAY AND ENGAGING IN THE OPPOSITE (GAY) DURING THE NIGHT.
Exposing the truth was the least Eleanor felt compelled to do for the thousands of individuals Madoff had robbed of their money and their future.
When I walked over to drop off some mail, Bernie and his sons stood up, startled, and stared at me. Since the story is all Eleanora€™s, we have cast it in her voice.Just Before the Bomb Went OffBernie staged the whole thing, the way he did everything. I had no idea that Bernie was about to confess to thema€”and had already confessed to Petera€”that he had committed the worst securities fraud in history. TO BE SURE, THERE WERE NO TALK SHOWS OR SUPPORT GROUPS(LIKE THE MANYTHAT ARE IN EXISTENCE TODAY) TO HELPPEOPLE DEAL WITH SUCHMATURE SUBJECT MATERIAL.CULTURALLY AND SOCIALLY, IT WASN'T COMMONPLACE TO AIRONE'S DIRTY LAUNDRY WITHIN THE SECULAR OR RELIGIOUS COMMUNITIES. Madoff Investment Securities occupied three floors in the 34-story Lipstick Building, on Third Avenue in Manhattan. THUS, I WAS RELEGATED TO KEEPING UP APPEARANCES AND PUSHING DOWN SECRETS WHICH WAS THE PROSCRIPTION DU JURE. MY PARENTS DIVORCED WHEN I WAS AROUND FOUR OR FIVE YEARS OLD AND, CONSEQUENTLY, THAT WAS THE DAY WHEN SIN ENTERED MY HOME.
The fedsa€”along with the public and his 13,500 investorsa€”got wind of his scam exactly the way he wanted them to get it.December 11, 2008, the day Bernie chose to get arrested, was the culmination of several very strange months at Bernard L.
NO LONGER DID I HAVE THE EMOTIONAL AND PHYSICAL SECURITY THAT WAS DEVOTED AND COMMITTED UNTO ME BY MY PARENTS.INDEED, THAT WAS THE END OFINNOCENCEFOR ME. Designer Chad Falkenberg shares his tricks for making that what-exactly-do-we-do-with-this space work for you. NO LONGER DID I SEE MY FATHER DURING BEDTIMEAND AGAIN AT THE BREAKFAST TABLE EVERY MORNING; NORWOULD IEVER GET THE CHANCE TO INTERRUPT MY BROTHER'S HOMEWORK SESSIONS WITH MY PARENTS EVERYEVENINGBY INCESSANTLY TRYING TO ARRANGE MEANINGLESS CHARACTERS ONA PIECE OF PAPERDESPERATELY HOPING,JUST ONCE, I WOULD BE TOLD THAT I ACTUALLY COMPOSED A REAL WORD. I WAS NO LONGER A CHILDWITHIN A NUCLEAR FAMILY AND I FOUND MY LIFE TO BE DIFFICULT AND FRUSTRATING. CONSEQUENTLY, MY IDENTITY WITHIN THE STRUCTURE OFOUR BROKEN FAMILYWAS FOREVER CHANGED AND, SUDDENLY, THINGS WENT FROMBAD TO WORSE ECONOMICALLY AND STRUCTURALLY. THERE WERE MANY MORNINGS AND NIGHTS (MORE THAN I WOULD LIKE TO REMEMBER)I HADTO GO TO SCHOOL HUNGRY AND GO TO BED IN THE SAME FASHION.MOM DID THE BEST SHE COULD BUT THERE WAS NO WAY IN HELL SHE COULD SUPPORT THREE GROWING BOYSON HEROWN. I HAD ALWAYSLOOKED FORWARD TO GOING AWAY TOCOLLEGE BUTNOT FOR THERIGHT REASONS; MY PASSIONS HAD THE BETTER OF ME AND I SIMPLY COULD NOT MAKE SENSE OF THEM. For two decades I had sat within shouting distance of him as his number-one assistant while his investment business exploded and he became, as he liked to remind me constantly, a€?one of the most powerful men on Wall Street.a€? Now he started to become somebody I didna€™t know. IN RETROSPECT, I'MCERTAIN I WOULD HAVE FARED MUCH BETTER, ACADEMICALLY, AT AMUCH SMALLER UNIVERSITY HADI TAKEN THE FULL SCHOLARSHIP I WAS OFFERED AT ST.
JOSEPH'S COLLEGE IN RENSSELAER, INDIANA UPON GRADUATING HIGH SCHOOL.I CAN VIVIDLY REMEMBER DREAMING THROUGHOUT MY ADOLESCENCE FOR THE OPPORTUNITY TO ATTEND INDIANA UNIVERSITY AT BLOOMINGTON. Instead of stopping at my desk to review the day ahead, he would rush straight past me, distracted, without even saying hello. FurnitureVote for Your Favourite Classic ChairWhich classic should be crowned the ultimate chair? I had always been able to get his attention from my desk with just a wave, but now he never even looked up. House of the WeekBuy a Chateau From a Wine Label!And not just any Chateau—the historic Villa Antinori just outside of Florence.
MY DUBIOUS PLAN WAS TO, FOR THE FIRST TIME IN MY LIFE, LIVE MY OWN LIFE BY DOINGWHATEVER AND BECOMING WHOMEVER I CHOSE, WITHOUT FEAR OF RETRIBUTION.
Bernie and I got along well because I knew when not to bother him, and this was definitely one of those times. HOWEVER, THE LATTER WOULD PROVE TO BECOME MUCH MORE EXACTING THAN I COULD HAVE EVER IMAGINED. BUT FOR MY GOOD LOOKS AND SENSE OF HUMOR, I WOULD HAVE HAD A MUCH MORE DIFFICULT TIME ATMAKING FRIENDS, AND LOVERS.
He bought a blood-pressure-measuring gadget and began taking his blood pressure every 15 minutes.
WITH THAT BEING UNDERSTOOD, I REALIZED VERY QUICKLY THAT EVEN AMONG A SOCIETY OF YOUTHFULLY ABANDONED TEENS, I LACKED THE MENTAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT NECESSARY TO OVERCOME MY HAUNTINGLY, ACUTE DISPOSITION.
EVEN MORE PETRIFYING, THE MORE I PRACTICED THE ART OF SOCIAL INTERCOURSE , BECOMING THE SOCIAL BUTTERFLY WAS NOT AN EASY UNDERTAKING.
He complained of back pain and would just lie on the floor with his arms outstretched and close his eyes. IN ADDITION TO ATTENDING COLLEGE WITH SEVERAL OF MY CLASSMATES FROM HAMMOND HIGH, I MANAGED TO ATTEND MANY INTEGRITY MEETINGS AND LAMBDA PARTIES OFF CAMPUS,AFTER HOURS. People passing by would ask, a€?Is Bernie all right?a€?a€?No,a€? I would respond, a€?but hea€™s not dead,a€? and they would just shake their heads and walk away. I CAME TOIDENTIFY AND BECOME ACCEPTEDAMONG THE PREPPY INDIVIDUALS THE MOST; PURELY FORAESTHETICAL REASONS. HOWEVER, AFTER A FEW YEARS, EVEN ON A CAMPUS OF MORE THAN 40,000 STUDENTS, MY WORLDSBEGAN TO OVERLAP, AND ULTIMATELY COLLIDE: I WAS ABOUT TO BE OUTED ONE WAY OR ANOTHER. BEFORE THIS TIME, I FOUND MYSELF TO BE VERY HAPPY AND CONTENT AND, SUDDENLY, THAT HAPPINESS TURNED INTO FEAR AGAIN. I CAN REMEMBER ONE SUMMER DAY I WAS WORKING AT THE COLLEGE MALL, FOR SEARS PARTS AND SERVICE, AND ONE OF MY FRIENDS SHOWED UP ON MY JOB WITH A DOZEN ROSES IN RECOGNITION OF MY BIRTHDAY. I COMPLETELY CAVED IN AND PANICKED UNDER THE PRESSUREDUE TO THE DISCOMFORT I FELT EMOTIONALLY AND MENTALLY.
I WOULDN'T HAVE KNOWN HOW TO HANDLE SUCH A BENEVOLENT GESTURE IN PRIVATE LET ALONE ASTORE FULL OF ONLOOKERS.
I CAN ONLY EXPLAIN MY SEGREGATED SOCIAL INTERCOURSE AS SUCH: I SAW A PART OF MYSELF IN EVERY GROUP I ENCOUNTERED AND I GENUINELY GREW TO LOVE EACH ANDEVERY ONE THEM ON A PRIMITIVE LEVEL, AT BEST.
BUT CLEARLY, NO EXPERIENCE WAS STRONG ENOUGH TO SATISFY MY INSATIABLE DESIRE FOR SALVATION.
OVER TIME, I WAS BEGINNING TO FORM OPINIONS ABOUT WHAT WORKED FOR OTHER PEOPLE AS I HAD LISTENED TOTHE GENESIS OF SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT FROM EVERY MALE AND FEMALE I ENCOUNTERED, SOCIALLY AND SEXUALLY, BUTINEEDED A PANACEAFOR MYMENTAL, EMOTIONAL, ANDSOCIAL DISABILITY.I WONDERED WHY SO MUCH ATTENTION AND CLASSIFICATION WAS GIVENTO A PERSON'S SEXUALITY? MANY INFLUENCES AND OBSERVANCES (MORAL AND IMMORAL) WILL HAVE A DIRECT IMPACT ON WHOM OR WHAT WE CHOOSE OR WILLINGLY DEFINE TO BEOUR CUSTOM, NORM, OR BELIEF SYSTEM.
FURTHER, WE MAY CHOOSE TO EXPRESS,CONSUMMATEOR AFFIRM THAT STYLE OF LIVINGOR BELIEF SYSTEM IN THE VARIOUS AND DIVERSE TYPES OF SOCIAL, POLITICAL, ECONOMICAL,AND SEXUALAFFILIATIONS WE ASSOCIATE OR DISASSOCIATE WITH THROUGHOUT THE EXISTENCE OFOUR LIVING YEARS ON EARTH. INDEED, IN TIMES OF TROUBLE AND DESPAIR, DREAMS ARE, INEVITABLY,NOTHING MORE THAN A PROLONGED NIGHTMARE. WELL, BECAUSE ITWAS OBVIOUS TO ME, EVEN AT THAT YOUNG AGE, THAT IT MADE THEM HAPPY, NAY,IT MADE ME FEELGOOD INSIDE KNOWING THATI DID SOMETHING THAT MADE THEM PROUD. WITH THAT BEING SAID, I WOULD LIKE TO DRAW ATTENTION TO ANOTHER REALM OF THOUGHT: OUR EARTHLY PLEASURES. THEY ARE APART OF LIFE, APART OF GROWING UP; GROWING INTO YOUR OWN PERSON OR COMING OF AGE MENTALLY, EMOTIONALLY, AND SEXUALLY.
WHAT I'VE DESCRIBED BEFORE YOU ISAN EXAMPLE FORM OF AMORAL DILEMMA:TWO SITUATIONS, EQUALLY IMPORTANT IN VALUE, BUT ONLY ONE CHOICE WILLSUFFICE.
HISTORICALLY, IT IS NO SECRET THATOUT OF ALL THE IMMIGRANTSTHAT SET FOOT UPON AMERICAN SOILIN THE LAST FOUR CENTURIES, NONE HAVEBEEN CRUCIFIED AND DISINTEGRATED LIKE THEAFRICAN-AMERICANDESCENDANT AND HIS ANCESTOR: THE AFRICAN-NEGRO SLAVE. TO BE CERTAIN, THE NEGROES WERE THE HUMAN CHATTEL, PROPERTY, AND SUBJUGATED POPULOUSTHAT AMASSED THE FORTUNES AND WEALTH OF MANY KINGDOMS. THE GENESIS OF AMERICAN HISTORY CANNOT BEGIN WITHOUT THE RECITAL OF HOW THE NEGROES COLOR WAS THEIR BADGE OF SERVITUDE TO BE USED, BURNED,LYNCHED, AND RECYCLEDAT THE WILL OF THE ENGLISH IMPERIALISTSAND THE AMERICAN COLONIALISTS. THE HUMILIATION AND DEGRADATION OF THE NEGROE RACE WAS, TO BE SURE,THE EPITOME OF LOCAL AND NATIONAL NEWS (NORTH, EAST, WEST, AND SOUTH).HOW DOES THIS RELATE TOTHEMODERN-DAY CIVIL, SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, AND POLITICAL STRUGGLE OF THE RENAISSANCE AFRICAN-AMERICAN? TO HELP ANSWER THAT QUESTION, ONE WOULD ONLY NEED TO TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION THE POLITICAL CLIMATE THAT IS STILL PREVALENT AND PERMEATES THROUGHOUT AND WITHIN AMERICAN REPUBLICANSOCIETY: THE PATERNAL ORDER OF INDIVIDUALISM AND ENTITLEMENTS BY VIRTUE OF A SEPARATIST MENTALITY WITH REGARD TO THE UNEQUALDISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH AND CAPITAL. DU BOIS, WHOM I CONSIDER TO BE THE GREATEST PROLIFIC BLACK SCHOLAR IN OUR NATION'S HISTORY, "FOR GENERATIONS THE POWERS THAT BE HAVE BEEN REARED AND TRAINED UNDER THE INDIVIDUALISTIC PHILOSPHY OF THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE AND THE LAISSEZ-FAIRE PHILOSOPHY OF ADAM SMITH AND, WHAT'S MORE, THEY ARE LOATH TO SEE AND LOATH TO ACKNOWLEDGE THIS PATENT FACT OF HUMAN HISTORY." INDEED, ONE WOULD ONLY NEED TO LOOK AT THE MANY CONGLOMERATIVE PRIVATE FINANCIAL INVESTORS AND INVESTMENTS THAT ARE COMMERCIALLYENACTED UNDER THE GUISE OF CORPORATIONS AND VARIOUSOTHER BUREAUCRATIC STRUCTURES OF SOCIAL INEQUALITY. TO BE SURE, IS IT NOT TRUE THAT PRIVATE INVESTORS AND CORPORATIONS ARE MORE WILLING TO RISK THEIR MONEY TO CAPTIVATENEGROES IN PRISONS AS OPPOSED TOLIBERATING THEM IN AN IVY LEAGUE SCHOOL?OR PERHAPS COMPROMISING THEIRPRIME-REAL ESTATE TODEVELOPMENT ADEQUATE HOUSING ANDWHOLE FOOD MARKETS RATHER THAN LIQUOR STORES ANDADULT SEX SHOPS.
MOREOVER,IS IT NOT ALSO TRUE THAT OUR REPUBLICAN AND CONSERVATIVELAWMAKERS WOULD RATHER PAY FOR A NEGRO TO HAVE KIDNEY DIALYSIS THREE TO FOUR TIMES A WEEK AS OPPOSED TO ADEQUATE AFFORDABLE HEALTH CARE TO PREVENT SUCH DISEASE AND FINANCIAL BURDEN? IT IS ALSO NO SECRET THAT HYPERTENSION, HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE, AND DIABETES ARE EASILY PREVENTABLE DISEASES BROUGHT UPONBYA MARKED LACK OF ADEQUATE, AFFORDABLE AND ROUTINE HEALTH-CARE. FURTHER, IS IT NOT ALSO TRUETHEIR ISADISPROPORTIONATE LACK OF NUTRITION COUNSELING AND OTHER MUCH NEEDEDSOCIAL AND REHABILITATIVE RESOURCES AVAILABLE FORMINORITIES PERPETUALLYSUBSISTING ON MEAGER ECONOMIC AND SOCIALRESOURCES?IS IT NOT ALSO TRUE THAT THERE ARE CERTAIN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES AND TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES GIVEN TO CERTAIN INDIVIDUALS BY VIRTUE OF BIRTH, CLASS, AND WEALTH AND, CONVERSELY, THE SAME PRIVILEGES ARE DENIED TO THOSEWHOSELIVES ARE MARKED BY HARDSHIP, POVERTY, AND IGNORANCE? TO BE SURE, THE STRENGTH OF SUCHREPUBLICAN IDEALS ANDPATERNAL PHILOSOPHIES AREREFLECTIVE OF THE AFRICAN SLAVE-TRADE AND THELAISSEZ FAIRE LAWS THAT SUPPORTED IT.
IN OTHER WORDS, THE VERYCAPITALIST SYSTEM THAT ISSERVING AS THE CHIEF CORNERSTONE OF THE U.S. CONSTITUTION TODAY ISTHEDESCENDANTOF A RUTHLESS ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL THEOLOGY WHOSESOLE IDENTITY RESTS UPON AN ALL TOO FAMILIAR FOOTSTOOL: THE NEGRO. TO BE CERTAIN, WHAT MAKES ONE RACE BETTER THAN THE OTHER BUT ONE'S PERCEPTION OF THEMSELVES OR THE OTHER. SUCHEDUCATIONAL POLICY WAS PREMEDITATED BY THE POWERS-THAT-BE ANDSUCHA CRIME IS ETERNALLY INJURIOUS TOA NEGRO'S SELF-ESTEEM,IDENTITY, ANDNATIONAL HERITAGE.
ARE WE TO BELIEVE THAT OUR RACE HAS NOTHING BETTER TO OFFER THAN THE ATTRIBUTES OF AN ENGLISHMAN OR CAUCASOID?
EUROPE HASN'T PRODUCED ANYTHING, WITH REGARD TO HUMAN ACCOMPLISHMENTS OR ENDEAVORS, THAT ASIA OR AFRICA HASN'T PRODUCED MORE PROFICIENTLY. TO BE CERTAIN, IN THE WORDS OF DU BOIS, " RUN THE GAMUT IF YOU WILL, AND LET US HAVE THE EUROPEANS WHO IN SOBER TRUTH OVER-MATCHNEFERTARI, MOHAMMED, RAMESES, AND ASKIA, CONFUCIUS, BUDDHA, AND JESUS CHRIST. IF WE COULD SCAN THE CALENDAR OF THOUSANDS OF LESSER MEN , IN LIKE COMPARISON, THE RESULT WOULD BE THE SAME; BUT WE CANNOT DO THIS BECAUSE OF THE DELIBERATELY EDUCATED IGNORANCE OF WHITE SCHOOLS BY WHICH THEY REMEMBER NAPOLEON AND SONNI ALI.
THERE ARE NO POSSIBILITIES OF MAINTAININGBOTH YOUR SOUL AND THAT WHICH YOU DESIRE MOST IN LIFE: FAME, FORTUNE, SEX, WOMEN, MEN, IDOLS, MONEY, CARS, DRUGS, ETC. AND IF YOUHAD COME UP TO ME AND ASKEDME IF I THOUGHT I WOULD GO TO HEAVENIF I WERE TO DIE I WOULD HAVE SAID YES! MAINLY, BECAUSE IFELT I WAS A GOOD PERSONWITH A GOOD HEART AND ALSO I CONSIDERED MYSELF TO BEA KIND PERSON, FOR THE MOST PART.
MOREOVER, IREFUSED TO BELIEVE THAT GOD WOULD ONLY PERMIT ONE WAY TO HEAVEN FORSUCH DOGMA SEEMED IRRATIONALAND UNSEEMLYAND THUS, I CONSIDERED SUCH DOCTRINE TANTAMOUNT TO THAT WHICH DEFIES EVERYLAW IN THE UNIVERSE:IT JUST DIDN'T ADD UP! NOW IF YOU ARE LIKE ME WHEN I WAS COMING OF AGE, YOU PROBABLY FEEL THAT, IN LIGHT OF YOURCIRCUMSTANCES,GOD DOESN'T WANT YOU TO SUFFER ALL OF YOUR LIFE AND ESPECIALLY NOT AS A RESULT OF THE WAY YOU WERE BORN. FURTHER, IF GOD DIDN'T APPROVE OF YOUR LIFESTYLE THEN HE WOULDN'T HAVE MADE YOU THE WAY YOU ARE. I MEAN, EVERYRATIONAL HUMAN BEING KNOWS, FOOL OR OTHERWISE, THAT GOD DOES NOT MAKE ANYTHING WITHOUT A PURPOSE. WITH THAT BEING SAID, WE MUST CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING: TO WHAT END DOES THAT PURPOSE BELONG?
I MEAN, IS IT FOR THE LIFE WE ARE LIVING NOW OR THE ONE THAT IS TO COME (YOU KNOW, THE ONE THATWE HAVE BEEN FOREWARNED ABOUT IN THE BIBLE )?
GOD REVEALS THROUGH HIS HOLY WORD IN THE BOOK OF MATTHEW 25:31-46 (KJV) THATALL NATIONSWILL STAND BEFORE HIM ON JUDGEMENT DAY.
SUCHA PROCLAMATION SHOULD GIVE ALL OF GOD'S CREATION REASON TO PAUSE AND REFLECT AS TOITS MANNER OF INTENT.
FORIT IS A GIVEN THAT ALLHUMANS ARE CREATED AS RATIONAL BEINGSAND THUS, ABLE TO USE REASON AND UNDERSTANDING AS METHODS OF INSTRUCTION.THEREFORE, WE ARE ABLE TO DECIDE BETWEEN WHAT IS RIGHT AND WHAT IS WRONG GIVEN THE APPROPRIATE AMOUNT OF INFORMATION OR KNOWLEDGE TO HELP US MAKE A RATIONAL DECISION OR, IN OTHER WORDS, A DECISION THAT IS AGREEABLE TO REASON, OR ONE THAT MAKES SENSE. FOR EXAMPLE, IF YOU WERE BORN DURING AN ERA WHEN IT WASN'T COOL TO BE BLACK, GAY, OR EVEN A WOMEN THENIT WOULD BE PERFECTLY LOGICALTO SAY THAT SUCH A LIFE WOULD NOT BE GOVERNEDBY OR ACCORDING TO REASON.
AND IT ISMY ESTIMATION THAT THE REASON THERE EXISTS SO MUCH INJUSTICE AND INEQUALITY IN THESE UNITED STATES, AND THROUGHOUT THE WORLD, IS BECAUSE OF LAWS AND GOVERNANCE THAT ARE CONTRARY TO GOD'S REASON OR LAWS OFLIBERTY AND JUSTICE.YOU SEE, DESPITE WHAT MANY OF US ARE TOLD OR LED TO BELIEVE, MANY OF THE POLICIES AND LAWS ENACTED IN THESE UNITED STATES AND, MOREOVER, THROUGHOUT THE REST OF THE WORLD ARE CONTRARY TOGOD'S LAW. I AM HAPPY TO SHARE WITH YOU THAT GOD DOES NOT WANT YOU TO PERISH FOR SOMETHING YOU DO NOTKNOW! HE LITERALLY WANTS TO REDEEM YOUR LIFE FROM DESTRUCTION (DEATH AND ETERNAL DAMNATION) AND, ON TOP OF THAT, CROWN YOU WITH LOVING KINDNESS AND TENDER MERCIES.
GOD LOVES EVERYONE AND NOTHING PLEASES HIM MORE THAN TO RESCUE US FROM OUR DESPAIR AND DELIVER US INTO HIS MARVELOUS LIGHT OF REVELATION. IN THESECOND CHAPTER OF GENESIS, ADAM (THE FIRST MAN GOD CREATED WITH A LIVING SOUL) WAS GIVEN A PURPOSE BY GOD THAT WAS CLEARLY DEFINED: TO DRESS AND TEND TO THE GARDEN OF EDEN.
HE HAD POWER AND AUTONOMY OVER EVERY BEAST OF THE FIELD AND FOWL OF THE AIR THAT GOD BROUGHT BEFORE HIM. IF WE ARE TO BE HONEST, BY COMPARISON, NOT MUCH HAS CHANGED TODAY WITH REGARD TO THE PLETHORA OF AFFLICTIONS THAT PLAGUE EVERY NATION GREAT OR SMALL, CIVILIZED OR UNCIVILIZED, DEVELOPED OR UNDEVELOPED. I'D LIKE TO REFERONCE AGAIN TOTHE SECOND CHAPTER OF GENESIS, BEFORELIFE AND DEATH WERE CONSUMMATED. THEREFORE, WE CAN ASCERTAIN THAT GOD GAVE ADAM NECESSARY PROVISIONS TO ENDURE THAT WHICH COULD HARM HIM OR UTTERLY DESTROY LIFE AS HE KNEW IT.ADAM HAD PURPOSE, AFFIRMATION, KNOWLEDGE, POWER,AND AUTHORITY OVEREVERYTHING GOD CREATED BEFORE HIM.
HOWEVER, WHEN ADAM AND EVE WERE INTRODUCED TO DEATH, WHICHCAME BY WAY OF SEDUCTION EMPLOYED BY THE SERPENT, THEY NO LONGER HAD THE POWER TO ENDUREAN ENTITY THAT WAS DETERMINED TO KILL, STEAL, AND DESTROY: SATAN, THE DEVIL. IT IS THIS SAME AFFLICTED STATE OF CONSCIOUSNESS THAT ALL OF HUMANITY (INCLUDING YOU AND I)ARE BORN INTO AND THAT IS BASICALLY WHAT IS DESCRIBED AS BEING BORN IN SIN.THEREFORE, WE AREBORN INTO A PHYSICAL STATE OF EXISTENCE THAT IS CONTRARY TO WHAT WEWERE CREATED FOR. NOW,I REALIZE HOW ARBITRARY THAT MAY SOUND AND I DON'T MEAN FOR THIS TEXT TO COME ACROSSAS SUCH WHICH IS WHY I AM SOWILLING TO USE MY LIFE AND LIFEEXPERIENCES AS LIVING TESTIMONY AND PROOF THAT GOD CAN BE TRUSTED AND HE IS NOT SOMEONE TO RUN FROM, RATHER HE IS THE VERYSOURCE WE ALL SHOULD RUN TO.AN ASTUTE OBSERVER MAY ASK AT THIS POINT, HOW DO I BEGIN TO APPROACH GOD? HOWEVER, BEFORE I BROACH THAT SUBJECT, I THINK IT IS EVEN MORE IMPRESSIVETO REVEAL HOW GOD MADE IT POSSIBLE AGAINFOR US TO BE ABLE TO APPROACH HIM.
FURTHER, I THINK IT IS IMPORTANT THAT YOU CONSIDER THE CONCEPT THAT EVERY HUMANVESSEL HAS THREEPARTS:SPIRIT , SOUL, AND BODY. 5:23) BECAUSE IF YOU CANNOT CONCEDE OR COME TO TERMS WITH THE FACTTHAT YOUR BODY CONTAINS A SPIRIT AND A SOULTHENTHE LIKELIHOOD OF YOU UNDERSTANDING THE FOLLOWING DEMONSTRATION IS IMPROBABLE. AS WELL, I WOULD LIKE TOREFLECT, FOR A MOMENT, ON THE POSSIBILITY OF WHAT LIFE WOULD HAVE BEEN LIKE FOR ADAM, EVE, AND THEIR OFFSPRING HAD THEY NOT BEEN DEBAUCHED.WE KNOW FROM THE THIRD CHAPTERINTHE BOOK OF GENESIS THAT THEY WERE NO LONGER ALLOWED TO EAT OFTHE SPIRITUAL FOOD PROVIDEDIN THE GARDEN OF EDEN. CLEARLY, THERE WERE CERTAIN FOODS BLESSED BY GOD AND CERTAIN FOODS THAT WERE NOTIN THEIR BEST INTERESTAND THUS, NOT BLESSED BY GOD.THEREFORE, WE CAN SURMIZE THAT THE FOOD THAT GOD PROVIDED FOR THEM TO EAT PROTECTED THEIR HEALTH. IN THE SAME VEIN, WE CAN ALSO DETERMINE THAT BECAUSE THEY HAD NO NEED FOR CLOTHES THEY WERE NOT SUBJECTED TO ANY ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS SUCH AS TORNADOES, EARTHQUAKES, FLOODS,STORMS, ETC. CONTRARILY,THEIR OFFSPRING, CAIN ANDABEL, WOULD NEVER HAVE THE CHANCE OF BEING BORN WITHOUT SIN AS DEMONSTRATEDWHEN ONE BROTHERSPITEFULLYKILLS THE OTHER AS A RESULT OF THEIR PARENT'S SPIRITUAL SEPARATION (OR DEATH) AND PUNISHMENT FROM GOD.
TO BE CLEAR, WE CAN AGREE THAT LIFE WOULD SEEM MOST UNNATURAL TO US TODAY IF THERE WERE NO SORROW, DEATH, ORDISEASEIN THE WORLD BECAUSE THAT'S ALL WE HAVE BEEN EXPOSED TO SINCEBIRTH. I MEAN,SUCHMALEVOLENCE IS NOT RESPECTIVE OF ANY ONE GROUP OR CLASS OF INDIVIDUALS, WOULDN'T YOU AGREE? CONTRARILY, FOR THE PAST TWO- THOUSAND YEARS GOD'S GRACE HAS NOT BEEN RESPECTIVE OF ANY ONE GROUP OR CLASS OF PEOPLE EITHER AND THAT'S WHAT MAKES HIS LOVE FOR USSO MAGNIFICENT. NOW I KNOW THAT MANY OF YOU MAY HAVE A HARD TIME UNDERSTANDING THE HOLY TRINITY: GOD THE FATHER, JESUS THE SON, AND THE HOLY SPIRITY. GOD IS UNIVERSALLY PROFESSED IN EVERY FORM OF CIVILIZATION THROUGH SOME TYPE OF RITUAL OR BELIEF SYSTEM.
I MEAN PEOPLE WILL DO PRACTICALLY ANYTHING IN THE NAME OF GOD WHETHER IT'S COMMITTING ACTS OF MURDER OR STANDING UP FOR WHAT THEIR RIGHTS AND BELIEFS (BIRTH CONTROL, SAME-SEX MARRIAGE, AND HOMOSEXUALITY). AND AS I HAVE DISCLOSED MANY TIMES BEFORE, I SPEAK FOR MYSELF FIRST, WHEN I SAY THAT I USED GOD TO DEFEND MY LIFESTYLE AND MY SEXUALPROCLIVITIES. CONVERSELY, THERE ARE MANY ORGANIZATIONS, FAITHS, AND CULTURES WHO PROCLAIM TO BE COMMISSIONED BY GOD TO COMMIT ACTS OF VIOLENCE.
NONETHELESS, I'D LIKE TO EXPLORE SUCH AN ANOMALY,BRIEFLY, AS AN ATTEMPTTO FURTHER REVEAL THE SEVERITY OF GOD'S PLAN AND PURPOSE FOR REDEEMING MANKIND TO HIMSELF ONCE AGAIN.YOU SEE, JUST LIKE IN THE GARDEN OF EDEN, GOD HAS MADE IT POSSIBLE TODAYFOR EVERYONE (AND NOT JUST SOME)TO COMMUNICATE WITH HIM WITHOUT FEAR OF RETRIBUTION. SIMPLY PUT, WHAT WAS CONSIDERED THE NORM IN THE OLD TESTAMENT NO LONGER APPLIES TO US TODAY AND, IN CASE YOU HAVEN'T BEEN TOLD, IT'S BEEN THAT WAY FOR THE PAST TWO-THOUSAND YEARS!
HAVE YOU EVER HEARD OF THE EXPRESSION "IF YOU WANT SOMETHING DONE RIGHT YOU HAVE TO DO IT YOURSELF?" WELL, GOD DID JUST THAT. HE SACRIFICED HIS ONE AND ONLY SON (FROM HEAVEN) SO THAT YOU AND I COULD INHERIT ETERNAL LIFE. HE COULD NOT USE ADAM AS AN APPROPRIATE PROPITIATION BECAUSE ADAM WAS NO LONGER PURE AND WITHOUT GUILE. AS WE HAVE EXAMINED IN THE AFOREMENTIONED TEXT, DEATH HAD ALREADY CONQUEREDIN THE GARDEN OF EDEN AND, CONSEQUENTLY, FORCED MAN TO BE CAST AWAY FROM THE PROTECTION AND PRESENCE OF GOD.
THEREFORE, GODDEVISED A PLAN TOCONQUER DEATH AND,INDOING SO, RECONCILE ALL OFMANKINDTO HIMSELF.IN THE BEGINNING OF THE BOOK OF GENESIS GOD MAKES IT VERY CLEAR THAT MAN WAS CREATED IN THE IMAGE OF GODAND INHIS IMAGE ALONE.
THIS IS WHY IT IS SO VERY IMPORTANT THAT YOU UNDERSTAND WHY SALVATION IS SO CRITICAL, AND VERY PERSONAL. IT IS A ONE-ON-ONE RELATIONSHIP THAT IS INTIMATE AND TRANSFORMATIVE AND IT'S TOTALLY BETWEEN YOU AND GOD. IT DOESN'T MATTER WHAT SOMEONE ELSE SAYS ABOUT YOU, GOD DOES NOT FEEL THAT WAY AND HE HAS NEVER FELT THAT WAY. HE LOVES YOU AND HE WANTS WHAT IS BEST FOR YOU AND THE PLANS THAT HE IS WAITING TO REVEAL TO YOU ARE NOT TO HARM YOU AT ALL.
REMEMBER, IT WAS NOT GOD WHO HARMED ADAM AND EVE BUT SATAN, DISGUISED AS A SERPENT, WHO SEDUCED THEM WITHOUT THEM EVEN KNOWING THEY WERE BEING TAKEN TO THE CLEANERS.
AND WHILE MANY OF US MAY KNOW HOW MUCH GOD LOVEDAND PROTECTED THE ISRAELITES THROUGHOUT HISTORY, NOT MANY OF US SEEM TO KNOW THAT HE HAS MADE A NEW COVENANT WITH ALL MANKIND, THROUGH HIS SON, JESUS CHRIST.THERE ARE MANY PEOPLE WHO DO NOT BELIEVE IN GOD AND, FURTHER, MANY MORE WHO DEFINITELY CONSIDER THE CRUCIFIXION OF THE CHRIST AS JUST ANOTHER FABLE. I ADMIT THAT I USED TO BE ONE OF THOSE PEOPLE AND IF IT HADNOT BEEN FOR THEINCORRUPTIBLE,UNDENIABLEWORD OF GOD, I WOULD HAVE DIED AS ONE OF THOSE PEOPLE; UNSAVED AND THUS, RESIGNED TO HELL FOR ALL ETERNITY. THERE AREN'T EXACTLY AN OVERFLOW OF HIV POSITIVE EVANGELISTS, PREACHERS, TEACHERS, PASTORS, AND PROPHETS SPREADING THE "GOOD NEWS" GOSPEL. MOREOVER, IT HAS BEEN MY EXPERIENCE THAT THERE AREN'T ENOUGH SINNERS SAVED BY GRACE WHO ARE FORTHRIGHT AND WILLING TO NOT BE ASHAMED TO STAND UP AND TELL SINNERS HOW THEY CAME TO RECEIVE GOD'S GRACE. THIS IS WHY IT IS MY FERVENT PRAYERTHAT YOU TAKE ADVANTAGE OF THISOPPORTUNITY TO LEARN OF GOD'S GOODNESS AND HIS GRACE, MERCY, AND THEREDEMPTIVE BLOOD OF HIS SON, JESUS CHRIST, THAT WAS SHED FOR SOMEONE LIKE YOU TOO! CONTRARY TO POPULAR OPINION,THE SECOND COMING OF CHRIST IS GOING TO HAPPEN AND THE ONLY REASON IT HAS NOT THUS FAR IS BECAUSE THE GOSPEL HAS NOT BEENTOTALLY PREACHEDIN EVERY CORNER OF THEWORLD.CONSIDER THIS:HAVE YOU EVER WONDERED WHY, ALL OVER THE WORLD, IT IS SOEASY TO ACQUIRE A GUN OR MAKE A BOMB AND HOW EASY IT IS TO USE THEM BOTH AT YOUR OWN DISCRETION? WHILE,ON THE OTHER HAND, DID YOU KNOW THERE ARE ANTI-CHRISTIAN LAWS( AND COUNTRIES) THATCONTRIBUTE TO THE HARASSMENT, GENOCIDE, KILLINGS, AND IMPRISONMENT OF CHRISTIANS; PRECLUDING THEIR LIBERTIES ANDRIGHTS TO HAVE BIBLES OR ANY CHRISTIAN LITERATUREAT ALL?
SOUNDS LIKE THERE'S ALOT MORE POWER IN THE BIBLE THANCOULD EVER BE CONTAINED INSIDE OF A FIREARM, EXPLOSIVE DEVICE, ORANUCLEARBOMB. BY SWEARING,AND LYING, AND KILLING, AND STEALING, AND COMMITTING ADULTERY, THEY BREAKOUT, AND BLOOD TOUCHETH BLOOD." IT WAS A PERILOUS TIME IN THE LAND AS MAYHEM AND FOOLISHNESS WAS RUNNING AMUCK:FOR EXAMPLE, ISREAL FAILED TO OBEY, THE NATIONAL LEADERS FAILED TO TEACH GOD'S LAW TO THE PEOPLE, AND MANY OF GOD'S CHOSEN PEOPLE BEGAN SELLING THEIR BODIES IN PROSTITUTION! UNFORTUNATELY, I ALSO KNOW THAT MANY OF YOU HAVE TRIED TO TAKE YOUR OWN LIVES AS A RESULT OF THE GUILT, SHAME, AND TURMOIL YOUR SEXUALITY OR HIV STATUS MAY HAVE CAUSED YOU.
BUT I WANT YOU TO KNOW THAT YOU HAVE DONE NOTHING WRONG !GOD CARES FOR YOU AND HE IS GENUINELY CONCERNED ABOUT WHAT YOU ARE GOING THROUGH!
WELL, IT'S TRUE AND I KNOW FROM EXPERIENCE THAT WHAT HE'S DONE FOR ME HE IS WAITING TO DO FOR YOU.
NOW AS I'VE STATED EARLIER, I AM GOING TO HELP DEMONSTRATE THE PROCESS OFBECOMING A CHRISTIAN:(1)HOW TO APPROACH GOD?
OF COURSE, NOT EVERY ONE IS MEANT TO RECEIVE EVERYTHING AT THE SAME TIME SO, IF YOU DO NOT GRASP SOMETHING AT FIRST GLANCE, DO NOT WORRY THERE WILL BE PLENTY OF ROOM FOR REVIEW. TO BE CLEAR, TO BE CHRISTIAN MEANS TO BE A SINNER SAVED BY THE GRACE OF GOD AND NONE OTHER. WHAT I AM TRYING TO GET YOU TO SEE IS THAT WE ARE ALL BORN INTO SIN AND SIN IS NO RESPECTOR OF PERSON, WEALTH, STATUS, SEXUALITY,GENDER, ETC.
IF YOU HAVE NOT CONFESSED JESUS AS YOUR LORD AND SAVIOR, THEN YOU ARE A SINNER.THUS, YOU ARE NOT A SINNER BECAUSE OF WHAT YOU'VE DONE OR WHO YOU ARE NOW, YOU ARE A SINNER BECAUSE THAT'S HOW YOU ANDIWERE BORN!
WITH THAT SAID, I AM VERY GRATEFUL TO KNOW THAT MYSELF,MY PARENTS,AND MY SISTER HAVE A PERSONAL RELATIONSHIP WITH JESUS CHRIST. AND I HAVE FAITH THATMY BROTHER ANDOTHERS IN THE FAMILY, THAT ARE NOT SAVED YET, WILL COME AROUND BECAUSE GOD IS PATIENT AND HE IS KIND.
IT DOESN'T MATTER WHO IS RIGHT AND WHO ISWRONG, WE ARE ALL BORN INTO SIN AND, MORE IMPORTANTLY, WE ARE ALL REDEEMABLE IN GOD'S EYES, THROUGH HIS SON THE CHRIST. BELIEVE ME, EVEN SATANKNOWS WHAT IS COMING AND IF YOU ARE NOT SAVED, SATAN'S GLORY IS IN THE FACT THATYOU DO NOT KNOWTHE WRATH THAT IS COMING! TAKE MY YOKE UPON YOU, AND LEARN OF ME,FOR I AM MEEK AND LOWLY IN HEART: ANDYE SHALL FIND REST UNTO YOUR SOULS.
WELL, BECAUSE NOT EVERYONE WOULD BE RICH ENOUGH,PERFECT ENOUGH, MASCULINE ENOUGH, BUTCH ENOUGH, CLEAN ENOUGH, DESERVING ENOUGH, BEAUTIFUL ENOUGH, SMART ENOUGH, POWERFUL ENOUGH, INFLUENTIAL ENOUGH, SEXY ENOUGH, WHITE ENOUGH, BLACK ENOUGH, ETC. IN RETROSPECT, I'MCERTAIN I WOULD HAVE FARED MUCH BETTER, ACADEMICALLY, AT AMUCH SMALLER UNIVERSITY HADI TAKEN THE FULL SCHOLARSHIP I WAS OFFERED AT ST. I WOULDN'T HAVE KNOWN HOW TO HANDLE SUCH A BENEVOLENT GESTURE IN PRIVATE LET ALONE ASTORE FULL OF ONLOOKERS.
OVER TIME, I WAS BEGINNING TO FORM OPINIONS ABOUT WHAT WORKED FOR OTHER PEOPLE AS I HAD LISTENED TOTHE GENESIS OF SEXUAL DEVELOPMENT FROM EVERY MALE AND FEMALE I ENCOUNTERED, SOCIALLY AND SEXUALLY, BUTINEEDED A PANACEAFOR MYMENTAL, EMOTIONAL, ANDSOCIAL DISABILITY.I WONDERED WHY SO MUCH ATTENTION AND CLASSIFICATION WAS GIVENTO A PERSON'S SEXUALITY?



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  1. 18.08.2013 at 23:55:21
    K_r_a_L writes:
    Can be measurable below scientific scrutiny beth Elohim, and Congregation Beit Simchat Torah.
  2. 18.08.2013 at 13:38:21
    BIG_BOSS writes:
    Have a car, I took a train in from New York State after which fact, I decided to write down this.