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What would happen, in the third temperature graph, to the shaded area to the right of Emin? Why is the peak on the lower temperature graph taller than the peak on the higher temperature graph? Section 13.1 The Nature of Gases Kinetic refers to motion Kinetic refers to motion The energy an object has because of its motion is called kinetic energy The energy an object has because of its motion is called kinetic energy The kinetic theory states that the tiny particles in all forms of matter are in constant motion! Measuring Pressure The first device for measuring atmospheric pressure was developed by Evangelista Torricelli during the 17 th century.
An Early Barometer The normal pressure due to the atmosphere at sea level can support a column of mercury that is 760 mm high. Section 13.1 The Nature of Gases An increase in the average kinetic energy of particles causes the temperature to rise. Section 13.1 The Nature of Gases Solids and liquids differ in their response to temperature Solids and liquids differ in their response to temperature However, at any given temperature the particles of all substances, regardless of their physical state, have the same average kinetic energy However, at any given temperature the particles of all substances, regardless of their physical state, have the same average kinetic energy What happens to the temperature of a substance when the average kinetic energy of its particles decreases? Section 13.2 The Nature of Liquids Increasing the pressure also has little effect on the volume of a solid Increasing the pressure also has little effect on the volume of a solid For that reason, liquids and solids are known as the condensed states of matter For that reason, liquids and solids are known as the condensed states of matter Water in an open vessel or puddle eventually goes into the air Water in an open vessel or puddle eventually goes into the air Fig. Kinetic theory and phases of matter Kinetic theory – all matter is made up of tiny particles that are constantly in motion. Temperature Temperature is related to the random motion of atoms & molecules in a substance.

Heat and temperature Heat- the thermal energy transferred from one substance to another due to a temperature difference (Av.
Ionic bonds Ionic compounds are not arranged in molecules, but instead form large crystals held together by ionic bonds. Hydrogen bonds Covalent molecules form solids when intermolecular forces are great enough to hold molecules together, usually as a crystal. Van der waals forces Other molecules are attracted by weaker dipole and London dispersion forces. Liquids Intermolecular forces hold particles together, but particles are not locked in place. Liquids and Kinetic Theory Liquids have three properties that relate to the Kinetic Theory: 1. Vapor pressure The vapor pressure is a measure of how much gas there is at a given temperature.
Heat of vaporization Energy required to go from a liquid to a solid at the same temperature.
Heat of vaporization How many Joules are required to convert 150 g of water at 100°C to steam? Collisions are perfectly elastic- meaning kinetic energy is transferred without loss from one particle to another- the total kinetic energy remains constant #3.

Then there cannot be any collisions, and thus no pressure – called a vacuum No particles present? Do Now: Sketch a graph showing the relationship between Temperature and Kinetic Energy of Particles. Strongest intermolecular force is hydrogen bonding, between the H of one molecule, and an N, O or F of another.
These forces are also between positive and negative ends of a molecule, but the charges are usually much smaller than in hydrogen bonds. Liquid particles are free to slide past one another Liquid particles are free to slide past one another Gases and liquids can both FLOW, as seen in Fig.
What do you think this did to the temperature needed to turn from a solid liquid or liquid gas?