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We did our own research into the lexical world of VAGINA, and this produced some interesting results. The fact that Republicans are trying to legislate something they are unwilling to even say adds extra layers of hilarity to VAGINAgate.
In a world conspicuously devoid of adverts for wiener cleaner, it’s a bit disconcerting to see ‘Woo hoo for my froo froo!’ posted on the side of telephone boxes throughout the country. Such terms are perhaps just about acceptable when you have a little girl with a tricycle injury and don’t want her uttering the C-bomb. The problem with euphemising the term ‘VAGINA’ is that it takes serious discussion of them off to the menu.
Of course, the implication that you can’t really love your VAGINA unless you use a certain product is deeply impertinent. Until they finally realised that it annihilated everything good inside your flange, douching that made you smell detergent-like was an incredibly popular activity, promoted mostly by VAGINA-haters in the US.
In light of this, it’s of utmost importance that you learn to call your VAGINA what it is, and furthermore, accept it in its natural state. Rhiannon Lucy Cosslett and Holly Baxter are co-founders and editors of online magazine, The Vagenda.
While they aren’t in every home, the costs associated with sustainable technologies continue to decrease and in very little time, these innovations will go from cutting edge to mainstream. From generating your own power sources in your home, to having control over when your appliances consume the most energy, sustainable energy innovation is on its way to a home near you, and it will give you more control than ever before in how your home uses energy and contributes to your carbon footprint. In our new world, electric cars can actually feed energy back into the power grid—and one man’s trash can truly become another’s treasure, as waste-to-energy technology allows trash to be repurposed into fuel for power generation. President Obama has made creating a more sustainable future a top priority, recognizing that innovative technologies are the key to success. As the Federal Chief Sustainability Officer at the White House Council on Environmental Quality, I have a unique charge—reduce the federal government’s greenhouse gas emissions by 40 percent by 2025.
In order to deliver on that promise, we work to make the federal government a leader in sustainable action by promoting energy efficiency across our agency buildings, fleet and purchased goods and services. As we look forward to the next chapter in our global environmental story, the goal of a sustainable energy future is one that is best realized when government, industry and everyday people work together. Christine Harada is the Federal Chief Sustainability Officer for the White House Council on Environmental Quality. An enormous range of infections is recognized; many are prevalent in the tropics and developing countries, and some are fatal. Bacteria, viruses and fungi are common in the external and internal environment, however, and most cause problems only if they secrete noxious substances, become invasive or elicit inappropriate host defence responses. Notification of a number of specified infectious diseases is required in UK under the Public Health (Infectious Diseases) 1988 Act and the Public Health (Control of Diseases) 1984 Act. Notification requires completion of the appropriate form, but urgent cases should be notified by telephone as well (certainly within 24 hours of any suspicions arising).
Diseases that are notifiable to the local authorities in the UK and USA are shown in Box 21.2.
Bacterial infections are often diagnosed on clinical grounds, supported by smears, culture, testing for immune responses (serology) and, increasingly, examining for nucleic acids. Antibacterial drugs can often be effective therapy (see Appendix 21.3) but drainage of pus is often more important. Diphtheria is a serious disease that can cause death through airway obstruction, heart failure, paralysis of the muscles used for swallowing and pneumonia. In the 1920s, before the diphtheria vaccine, there were 100,000 to 200,000 reported cases in the United States each year. The diphtheria toxoid (inactivated toxin) vaccine offers the greatest protection against this disease.
Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is a bacterium that can infect the outer lining of the brain causing meningitis. Hib can cause a wide variety of serious infections, including pneumonia, severe throat swelling that makes breathing difficult (epiglottitis), and infections of blood, bones, joints, and the covering of the heart. When infected by hepatitis A virus, adolescents and adults are more likely than young children to develop signs and symptoms of disease, including fever, weakness, nausea, abdominal pain, dark urine, and yellow eyes and skin, and are more likely to experience severe disease. Symptoms usually last less than two months, but 10% to 15% of those infected will have prolonged or relapsing disease lasting up to six months. Prior to the introduction of hepatitis A vaccine, about one-third of the hepatitis A cases in the U.S. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is transmitted from one person to another through blood and body fluids, and primarily infects the liver. More than half of those infected with the disease show no signs or symptoms, although they may become chronic carriers of the disease and may develop liver disease or liver cancer later in life (usually by age 40).
Worldwide, over 350 million people have chronic HBV infection, and approximately 1 million HBV patients die annually. Approximately 90% of infants who are infected from their mothers at birth, and between 30 and 50% of those infected before age five, become chronic HBV carriers, while people who are newly infected as adults have only a 6 to 10% risk of chronic infection. Approximately 40 HPV types are primarily sexually transmitted from person to person (for example, genital-genital contact, oral-genital contact and sexual intercourse), infecting the oral, anal or genital areas of both men and women. Most genital HPV infections cause no symptoms and are cleared by the immune system within a few weeks or months.
Types 16 and 18 and others, known collectively as a€?high-riska€? HPV types, may cause abnormal Pap tests and cervical cancer in women. In both men and women, a€?high-riska€? HPV infections are also thought to cause 85% of anal cancers, 50% of other anogenital cancers, 20% of cancers of the throat and mouth and 10% of cancers of the larynx (voice box) and esophagus. Influenza Viruses.Influenza viruses are grouped into 3 major types (A, B, and C), and strains are further divided into multiple subtypes depending on the source of the virus and the types of proteins on the outside of the virus particle. Although influenza B causes many children to be absent from school, influenza A viruses cause much of the severe illness during epidemics.
Influenza A viruses also have a remarkable potential for variation, mutating rapidly and also by being able to mix genetic material with influenza viruses from other species of birds and animals. Seasonal influenza.Influenza viruses can affect anyone, but rates of infection are highest among children. Uncomplicated influenza generally comes on suddenly, and symptoms include muscle aches, fever, chills, headache, cough, and runny nose; it lasts for 3-7 days although cough can persist for about 2 weeks. Influenza viruses can cause viral pneumonia, can make underlying medical conditions worse, and can lead to bacterial pneumonia, sinusitis and ear infections. On average, influenza virus infections cause approximately 36,000 deaths and 148,000 hospitalizations each year in the United States. Pandemic influenza.An influenza pandemic can occur when a new influenza A virus appears against which the human population has no immunity and when the new virus can spread from person to person.
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne disease due to a virus similar to the virus that causes yellow fever. JE occurs primarily in rural areas where pigs are intensively raised, particularly in regions with rice production. During the first half of the 20th century, JE occurred primarily in Japan, Korea, Taiwan and China.
Lyme disease is caused by infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, a spiral-shaped (spirochetal) bacterium carried by deer ticks and western black-legged ticks.
Most (80% to 90%) of people infected with Lyme disease develop one or more red, slowly expanding a€?bulls-eyea€? skin rashes at the tick bite sites (these are called erythema migrans), often accompanied by fatigue, fever, headache, stiff neck, muscle aches, and joint pain. Measles is a serious disease caused by a highly contagious virus, which spreads when people touMeasles is a serious disease caused by a highly contagious virus, which spreads when people touch or breathe in infectious droplets passed by coughing and sneezing. Death is more common in infants, in malnourished children, and among immunocompromised persons, including those with leukemia and HIV infection.
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare fatal illness caused by ongoing measles virus infection of the brain.
Prior to licensure of the first measles vaccine in 1963, virtually every person in the U.S. Because of intense misinformation about MMR in the United Kingdom, MMR vaccine coverage has declined across Europe, resulting in outbreaks of measles and mumps in multiple countries, including the United States and Canada, and congenital rubella in the Netherlands and Canada. Neisseria meningitidis, or the meningococcus, is a bacterium that can cause a life-threatening infection of the bloodstream, meningitis (infection of the brain and spinal cord coverings), or both. Mumps is a viral infection spread from person to person by secretions sneezed or coughed from the nose or throat.
The mumps virus has not been associated with problems during pregnancy, although there are some reports of an increase in fetal loss associated with mumps during the first trimester. Before widespread vaccination, there were about 200,000 cases of mumps and 20 to 30 deaths reported each year in the United States. Children with pertussis have decreased ability to cough up respiratory secretions and develop thick, glue-like mucus in the windpipe. The majority of pertussis-related deaths are in young infants which may occur when other bacteria take the opportunity to invade the sick infanta€™s lungs. Pertussis is one of the most contagious human diseases, so it is a great risk to those who are unvaccinated.
Between 1940-1945, before widespread vaccination, as many as 147,000 cases of pertussis were reported in the United States each year, with approximately 8,000 deaths caused by the disease. In 2004, adolescents 11-18 years of age and adults 19-64 years of age accounted for 34% and 27% of the cases of pertussis in the US. A heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7 vaccine), containing the 7 most common pneumococcal serotypes causing invasive infections in children in North America was licensed in the US and Europe and recommended for routine use in infants in 2000. Polio is caused by intestinal viruses that spread from person to person in stool and saliva. Before the polio vaccine, 13,000 to 20,000 people were paralyzed by polio, and about 1,000 people died from it each year in the United States. Rabies is an acute and deadly disease caused by a viral infection of the central nervous system.
Although less than ten human rabies fatalities occur in the United States annually, as many as 40,000 Americans receive the vaccine each year after contact with animals suspected of being rabid. Prompt wound care and the administration of rabies immune globulin (RIG) plus vaccine are highly effective in preventing human rabies following exposure. Rotaviruses are intestinal viruses that infect virtually all children by three years of age. Rubella is caused by a virus that is transmitted from person to person in mucus droplets coughed or sneezed into the environment. Rubella in expectant women often leads to congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in their fetuses. The World Health Organization estimated that, in 1999, 110,000 infants were born with CRS worldwide. Zoster (shingles) is an infection caused by the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the cause of chickenpox. Though the disease was eradicated over 20 years ago, several samples of the live virus were preserved, mainly for research purposes. Due to the events of September 11, 2001, and the subsequent spread of anthrax in October, public health officials regard the use of biological weapons by terrorists as a real possibility. Of all the disease-causing agents that might be used as weapons, smallpox has the potential to cause the greatest harm, since, prior to its eradication, it was considered the most devastating of all infectious diseases.
Smallpox is caused by the variola virus, which can be spread from person to person via respiratory droplets produced in the nose, mouth, and throat of someone who is infected and has begun to show signs of illness. In the first two to three days of the rash, smallpox can be confused with chickenpox (varicella).
The smallpox patient is most contagious during the first week of the rash, when the virus is most abundant in the saliva. Historically, the two most prevalent forms of smallpox were variola major, which caused severe illness and killed about 30% of unvaccinated persons, and variola minor, which caused a much milder form of illness and had about a 1% death rate.
Tetanus (Lockjaw) is caused by toxin-producing spores of a bacterium Clostridium tetani that inhabit the soil and the bowels of animals and humans. Between 40-60 cases of tetanus are reported in the United States each year, and 30% of those infected with tetanus in the US die. Typhoid fever is a serious disease caused by the bacterium called Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S.
Typhoid symptoms include high fever, weakness, stomach pains, headache, loss of appetite, and sometimes a rash. According to the World Health Organization, 16 million people get typhoid every year around the world and about 600,000 die from the disease. Varicella is generally a mild disease, but it is highly contagious and can be severe and even fatal in otherwise healthy children (less than 1 out of every 10,000 cases).
The virus which causes chickenpox remains in the body for life and may reappear as shingles, particularly in the elderly.
A woman who contracts chickenpox in early pregnancy can pass the virus to her fetus, causing abnormalities in 2% of cases.
Prior to the introduction of the varicella vaccine, there were 3 to 4 million cases of varicella in the United States each year.
Although national figures demonstrating the decline in varicella are not yet available, smaller-scale studies show that the vaccine is effective in reducing the number and severity of chickenpox cases.
Epidemic yellow fever used to occur in the United States but now the disease occurs only in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America, where it is endemic and intermittently epidemic. Such an infection can cause problems not only with the baby’s eyes and skin, but with his brain and central nervous system as well. Herpes infection can be passed from you to your unborn child and cause a potentially deadly infection (neonatal herpes). Babies born with herpes may be premature or may die, or they may have brain damage, severe rashes, or eye problems. Perhaps because our VAGINAS, especially those of our American sisters are, much like Stalingrad, increasingly under siege (Stalingrad is another euphemism for VAGINA). The feminist backlash to the suggestion of transvaginal probes involved women inundating Senator Ryan McDoogle’s Facebook page with detailed information about their lady bits.
From the Inga Muscio classic Cunt: A Declaration of Independence to Dr Catherine Blackledge’s The Story of V, to Caitlin Moran’s How to Be a Woman, women have been trying to wrestle their vaginas out of male hands and away from male terms which don’t belong to us for ages now.
Half the population carry them around in their pants without freaking out, yet if VAGINAS were supposed to complement the saccharine, flower-gathering view of everyday women by smelling like a lavender patch, they would.
VAGINAS are a wonderful arrangement of flaps capable of the most magnificent things, just as God, in Her infinite wisdom, intended.
This is an exciting time for technological innovation, as the products we use every day become our own personal tools for saving energy, saving money and preventing climate change. We also work to promote clean energy, increasing federal use of renewable and alternative energy sources, in order to cut carbon pollution.
There is no one person, organization or country that can create the change and this needs to be tackled worldwide.


Working in step with those who are developing this technology, and with those who are charged to deliver it to consumers, is invaluable in this fight to prevent climate change. This week, I am working with hundreds of young leaders from across the globe at the first One Young World expert event on the environment to find innovative solutions to tackling climate change issues. Global travel and global warming increasingly bring contact with these infections to the rest of the world.
Protection against most bacteria involves largely B cells and plasma cell production of antibodies, together with phagocytes (neutrophils and macrophages). New (amended) regulations for clinical notifications came into force on 6 April 2010 (Box 21.2). This chapter discusses odontogenic and orofacial bacterial infections; most cause lesions of limited duration but some are life-threatening.
A lateral periodontal abscess (parodontal abscess) is seen almost exclusively in patients with chronic periodontitis but may follow impaction of a foreign body or, rarely, can be related to a lateral root canal on a non-vital tooth. Lateral periodontal abscesses may be painful and eventually may discharge – either through the pocket or buccally, but more coronally than a periapical abscess. It is caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which produces toxins that cause cell death both at the site of infection and elsewhere in the body.
Because of the high level of immunization, only about one case of diphtheria each year in the United States. The fully immunized person who is exposed can become a carrier of the bacterium but may only develop a mild case, or may not get sick at all. Hib is transmitted from person to person through mucus droplets that are spread by coughing or sneezing. Complications of Hib meningitis include blindness, deafness, mental retardation, learning disabilities, and death. This virus is most commonly spread in stool, although it can be spread through contact with infected blood. In the United States, it is most commonly spread through sexual contact or injection drug use. Symptoms of HBV infection vary and may include loss of appetite, fatigue, nausea, and jaundice (yellow eyes and skin), joint pain, and skin rashes. For these reasons, hepatitis B immunizations are recommended for routine administration at birth. Genital HPV infections are very common: acquisition shortly after starting to have sex occurs commonly. Together types 16 and 18 cause approximately 70% of the cases of cervical cancer in the United States. All influenza viruses quickly change as people become immune to the strains circulating in the population so that immunity acquired one year will only partially protect for subsequent outbreaks.
Serious illnesses and death also occur in all age groups but rates are greatest in persons over the age of 65 years and those who have chronic health problems. The respiratory illnesses caused by influenza viruses are clinically difficult to distinguish from the illnesses caused by other respiratory infections.
Influenza virus infections have also been associated with inflammation of the heart and, brain swelling with liver failure. Although influenza-related deaths are much less common in children than the elderly, fatal cases have been increasingly recognized. Depending on the virulence of the new virusa€”the degree of disease severity it causesa€”the numbers of deaths, hospitalizations, work that cannot be performed, and school absenteeism can differ a great deal from pandemic to pandemic. While not as severe during the first season as had been feared, this strain caused a disproportinate amount of illness and deaths in children, pregnant women and among those with underlying health problems such as asthma and obesity.
JE in pigs does not cause illness but pregnant sows that are infected often have still births so farmers immunize sows. Japan has greatly reduced JE as a result of widespread immunization of children and the protection of herds of pigs.
The ticks are often infected by feeding on the blood of the white-footed mouse, the white-tailed deer, and various species of birds, though these animals do not spread the disease to humans. If the disease is left untreated, some people will develop more serious health problems such as arthritis, problems with the nervous system, pain in the large joints, and rarely, heart problems. Measles begins with fever followed by cough, runny nose, and conjunctivitis (a€?pink eyea€?). Symptoms may include fever, stiff neck, sore throat, headache, muscle aches, joint pain and swelling, shock, and seizures. It is recommended that travelers to certain areas, particularly sub-Saharan Africa during the dry season (December through June) and travelers to Mecca during Hajj receive the vaccine. This causes severe coughing spells that make it difficult for them to eat, drink, or breathe. Pertussis will develop in 90% of unvaccinated children living with someone with pertussis, and in 50% to 80% of unvaccinated children who attend school or daycare with someone with pertussis.
In 1976, there were 1,010 case of pertussis in the US, the lowest number of cases ever reported. The true numbers are probably much higher in these age ranges because pertussis is often not recognized in adults.
The PCV7 vaccine has dramatically reduced the rates of invasive pneumococcal disease, otitis media and nasal carriage of the vaccine serotypes among all age groups, including the immunocompromised and older individuals.
PCV13, will protect against the same seven strains that were in PCV7 but also has the potential to further reduce the amount of invasive pneumococcal disease caused by 6 additional strains, including 3, 7F and 19A. Rabies illness includes rapidly progressing central nervous system symptoms such as anxiety, difficulty swallowing, and seizures.
The number of deaths that rabies causes each year is estimated to be at least 40,000, and as high as 70,000 if higher case estimates are used for densely populated countries in Africa and Asia where rabies is epidemic. It is the most common cause of diarrhea in children, including hospital-acquired diarrhea; childcare center outbreaks are common. This is a devastating disease characterized by deafness, mental retardation, cataracts and other eye defects, heart defects, and diseases of the liver and spleen that may result in a low platelet count with bleeding under the skin.
There were 42 cases of rubella among pregnant women with two fetal deaths and 12 affected infants. The VZV virusa€”which remains in the nerve cells for life after chickenpox or after the chickenpox vaccinea€”may reappear as shingles in later life, particularly in the elderly and those who are immunocompromised. Pain can last for months after the rash has healed and can be very severea€”this is called post herpetic neuralgia or PHN. Today the only verified repositories of the virus are held in secure laboratories at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, and the State Center for Research on Virology and Biotechnology in Koltsovo, Russia. The Congressional testimony of former Soviet scientist, Kenneth Alibek, supports this view. After a person has been exposed to the virus, there is an incubation period of between 7 and 17 days prior to the onset of symptoms, which include high fever, severe headache and backache, and often vomiting and tremors.
However, chickenpox lesions generally develop in crops over a period of several days and are much more superficial than smallpox lesions. People who develop symptoms usually do so within one to six months after the start of the infection. People who are immunocompromised (have weakened immunity), especially those who are HIV-positive, are at increased risk of developing TB if they are exposed to the disease. That means that people get typhoid from food or water contaminated with the feces of infected people.
Infection can spread to many other places in the body (such as bones) and can cause rupture of the intestine. Although 356 cases of typhoid fever were reported in the US in 2003, most of these infections are acquired during travel to other parts of the world or by contact with someone who is a carriera€”either someone who has recently traveled or is a chronic carrier of S.Typhi. Chickenpox can cause pneumonia (23 out of every 10,000 cases), and is an important risk factor for developing severe invasive a€?strepa€? (group A streptococcal disease), commonly referred to as a€?flesh-eating disease.a€? Treatment of this deep infection requires antibiotics and surgery to remove the infected tissue. The fetus can develop scarring of the skin and affected limb(s), limb deformities (hypoplesia), eye damage, low birth weight, brain atrophy, and mental retardation. About 10,000 people were hospitalized with complications, and approximately 100 patients died. A number of studies have demonstrated that varicella-containing vaccines are effective in preventing disease in large populations of students.
Most cases of yellow fever are mild and similar to influenza, consisting of fever, headache, nausea, muscle pain and prominent backache. The sexually transmitted disease, genital herpes, not only can have devastating effects on a woman, but if she is pregnant, it can profoundly affect her baby. Doctors may do a cesarean delivery if the mother has herpes sores near the birth canal to lower the risk of passing the virus.
State representative Lisa Brown hilariously offended some Republicans last week when she had the temerity to utter the word during a ridiculously euphemistic debate about female contraception and abortion. The fact that ‘VAGINA’ is back with a vengeance can only be good in the face of patronising advertising such as the below, from a well-known feminine hygiene brand that we don’t care to publicise here. Celebrating because you got the right product to make your natural VAGINA less disgusting: not exactly the passive aggressive message we relish. The potential for hilarity (pastrami curtains, anyone?) has been eschewed in favour of prudishness. How on earth are we supposed to retain possession of them if we can’t even call them what they are?
Lisa Brown being banned from saying "vagina", it's no wonder America were at the forefront (pun intended) of fanny denial.
Once you do that, you’ll realise that anyone who says otherwise is most likely a DOUCHEBAG.
This work is an incredible opportunity to lead by example, as the federal government’s sustainability efforts serve to showcase how innovation and environmental stewardship go hand-in-hand.
That’s why we are committed to working directly with manufacturers, business leaders, NGOs and other stakeholders, to support the development of sustainability-focused innovation. The collective impact of our actions will lead to a game-changing effect on the climate for generations to come. Concern has been expressed about more than a dozen potentially fatal infections that appear to be increasing in their geographical range (Box 21.1).
Registered general medical practitioners (GMPs) in England and Wales have ‘a statutory duty to notify a “proper officer” of the Local Authority of suspected cases of certain infectious diseases’ – usually the consultant in communicable disease control (CCDC). Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile, Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and is encouraged by unwarranted use of antibiotics.
Nosocomial infections (health-care associated infections; HCAIs), tetanus, puncture wounds and bites, and other infections not discussed elsewhere are then summarized.
However, in areas where the immunization rate has fallen (such as Eastern Europe and the Russian Federation), tens of thousands of people suffered from diphtheria in recent years.
Invasive Hib disease occurs most often at three months to three years of age, peaking at six to seven months of age. Health care workers and others exposed to infected blood or body fluids are also at high risk for infection.
There are specific protocols to identify infected expectant mothers, for managing children born to infected mothers, and to manage children born to mothers with unknown HBV infection status.
One quarter of females 15-19 years of age and 45% of those who are 20-24 years of age have evidence of genital HPV infection. Although there are a number of other risk factors for cervical cancer, being infected with a a€?high-riska€? type HPV appears to be necessary to develop cervical cancer. These types may also spread from mother to infant during pregnancy or delivery and rarely can cause warts in the upper respiratory tract (throat, larynx) of the child. Epidemics of influenza occur during the winter months nearly every year but the peak of influenza epidemics can occur as late as April or May and is not predictable from year to year.
Young infants may have symptoms that mimic invasive bacterial infections with high fevers and fussiness, leading to hospitalization. These virus strains may result from exchange of gene segments between human and avian or swine influenza viruses or from direct transmission of nonhuman viruses to humans. Only a small fraction of people infected with JEV develop encephalitis but it is estimated that there are 35,000-50,000 cases each year.
JE is spread by mosquitoes which breed in pools of water: a single rice paddy, for example, can generate about 30,000 mosquitoes per day. The military has estimated that among the unimmunized between one and two people in 100,000 per week is infected with JEV. Since the vaccine became available, there has been a 99% reduction in the incidence of measles. Complicationsa€”in 11-19% of survivorsa€”may include deafness and other neurologic impairment, and impaired circulation leading to gangrene and amputation of limbs. Vaccine against serogroup C in the United Kingdom has proven highly efficacious and to serogroup B in New Zealand.
Children younger than two years old have the highest incidence, with a second peak incidence between 15 to 24 years of age.
Complications can include inflamed testicles (20% to 50% of post-pubertal males infected), brain involvement including aseptic meningitis (15% of cases), and inflammation of the pancreas (2% to 5% of cases) and ovaries (5% of post-pubertal females). In 1997, adolescents and adults accounted for 46% of reported cases of pertussis, and they are often the ones who spread this disease to infants and children. Over the past few years the number of reported cases of pertussis has increased, reaching 25, 827 in 2004.
These cases are very important because teenagers and adults with pertussis can transmit the infection to other people, including infants who are at greatest risk for complications and death. Pneumococci can infect many different sites, some commona€”like the middle ear and the sinusesa€”and some less common but more serious, including the lungs (pneumonia), central nervous system (meningitis), and blood stream (bacteremia).a€?Serious pneumococcal infections are most common in infants, toddlers, smokers, and the elderly. The vaccine has also reduced the racial disparities in pneumococcal disease.a€?PCV7 has proven to be a cost effective vaccine because of the disease it prevents in young children. It contains polysaccharides derived from 10 different strains of pneumococcal bacteria most of which are conjugated to protein D from non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi). Following licensure of the Salk (inactivated) polio vaccine in 1955, the incidence of the disease fell dramatically. The World Health Organization set up an initiative to eradicate polio from the planet by the end of 2005. India, with a very large population of stray, ownerless dogs, has about half of all cases of rabies worldwide. The illness often also includes fever and vomiting, lasts a week or longer, and can cause persistent infection in immunocompromised people. Symptoms include low-grade fever and swollen lymph nodes in the back of the neck followed by a generalized rash. The incidence and severity of congenital defects are greater if infection occurs during the first month of gestation. Because many of those infected were expectant mothers, 11,000 fetuses died and 20,000 babies were born with permanent disabilities as a result of exposure to the virus.


Ironically, one of the few known causes of autism was the congenital rubella syndrome, autism having occurred in 20% of rubella-affected babies prior to the licensure of rubella vaccine.
Shingles occurs most commonly in older individuals and PHN is a more common complication of shingles in older individuals. However, it is believed that clandestine stocks of smallpox exist in 10 or more other countries. Alibek said that as recently as the early 1990s, dozens of tons of smallpox were being stockpiled in the former Soviet Union annually for use as weapons. Chickenpox lesions in one area may be in different stages of development (macule, papule, and pustule). Malignant smallpox, noted by its abrupt onset and by its flat, velvety lesions that never became pustular, caused death in more than 96% of people affected. Spasms of the vocal cords or the muscles of respiration can interfere with breathing, and pneumonia is common.
Malnourished people as well as those with diabetes or kidney failure are also more likely to develop the disease if exposed.
Typhi has acquired resistance to many of the antibiotics most widely available for its treatment. Complications of varicella include bacterial infections (up to 5% of cases), decreased platelets, arthritis, hepatitis, and brain inflammation (1 in 10,000 cases), which may cause a failure of muscular coordination.
The virus sometimes leads to fetal demise or spontaneous abortion, while some infected fetuses die in infancy. While only 5% of reported cases of varicella are in adults, adults account for 35% of the deaths from the disease.
However, when chickenpox exposure occurs, breakthrough chickenpox (that is chickenpox lesions in an immunized person) can occur.
A mosquito that is capable of transmitting yellow fever virus is present in southern parts of the United States.
HSV can cause neonatal herpes (babies up to 28 days old, infected by herpes) , a rare but life-threatening disease. Newborn infants can become infected with herpes virus during pregnancy, during labor or delivery, or after birth.
Brain damage, breathing problems, and seizures are among infants with systemic birth-acquired herpes.
We encountered two Italian exchange students who told us that the standard slang term for down there in Italy is ‘potato’ - a visual we’re finding it slightly difficult to get our heads around.
They suggest a variety of terms, ranging from ‘mini’ to ‘twinkle’ to ‘hoo ha’, before uttering the immortal tagline ‘whatever you call it, make sure you love it.’ VOM. The whole ‘froo froo’ shebang has led to an internet-wide speculation on how you should refer to your lady parts - with equally cutesy results. Fundamentalist Christians are no better, as the online post ’51 Christian Friendly Terms For VAGINA’, which jokingly suggests such legends as ‘sin bucket’, ‘devil sponge’ and ‘neighbour of anus’, goes to show. Which is why it is of utmost importance that, if you can bring yourself to do it, you stop referring to your ‘la-la’ and start using the proper anatomical terminology. Pussy polishers that claim to say woo woo to your frou frou are just the natural extension of douching, which should have died a death before we even knew they did more harm than good.
At one time these technologies sounded like something out of a futuristic movie, but today, these innovations are common in many of our homes and workplaces. The GMP should fill out a notification certificate immediately on diagnosis without waiting for laboratory confirmation and ensure that it reaches the officer within 3 days (telephone if urgent). Outbreaks sometimes occur when many people have eaten from the same hepatitis A-infected food source but almost half of people have no identified risk factor. The rates of infection and disease were much greater in some areas of the country than others. Each year, approximately 4,000 to 5,000 children are infected with HBV in the United States.
By 50 years of age, 70-80% of women and a similar percentage of men will have acquired genital HPV infection. Influenza is spread through coughing and sneezing, and is highly contagious, especially in childcare centers, schools, and nursing homes. Although most young children who are hospitalized with influenza virus infections are only in the hospital for a few days, some require treatment in an intensive care unit.
Of those who develop encephalitis as many as 20-30% will die, and about half (50%) of the survivors will have permanent brain damage.
In recent decades, however, JE has spread to Southeast Asia, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Saipan and Australia. Scandinavian tourists to these regions have been estimated to be infected at a rate of one in 275,000 with half developing encephalitis. Measles encephalitis (an infection of the brain) occurs in 1 per 1,000 cases of natural measles, frequently resulting in permanent brain damage in the survivors. Death occurs in 10% to 14% of people with meningococcal disease, and is highest in infants and adolescents. Close contacts of a person with meningococcal disease have a higher rate of infection and are at greatest risk in the first week of contact.
Sometimes the child coughs several times before breathing in; when the child finally does breathe in there is often a loud gasp or a€?whoopinga€? sound. Recommendations for the use of newly licensed vaccines for adolescents and adults have recently been published. Vaccinating children against pneumococcus also has provided protection to their family members and the communities where they live, making it a cost saving vaccine when its effects on community immunity are considered.
This paediatric pneumococcal vaccine protects against life-threatening diseases such as meningitis and bacteraemic pneumonia, as well as middle ear infections.
Some infected persons (1 to 2%) will have stiffness in the neck, back, or legs without paralysis. However, there have been rare cases in which laboratory workers and explorers in caves inhabited by millions of bats were infected by rabies virus in the air. Complications may include joint pain, a temporary decrease in platelets, and encephalitis (inflammation of the brain). Up to 85% of expectant mothers infected in the first trimester will have a miscarriage or a baby with CRS. Thus, anyone who has had chicken pox or the chickenpox live virus vaccine is at risk for developing shingles.
When the World Health Organization (WHO) certified that smallpox had been eradicated from the planet in 1980, this was the first time in history that medical scientists and public health workers had completely purged the world of a devastating infectious disease. He also reported that some of the more than 60,000 people involved in biological weapons research for the former Soviet government may be employed by governments wishing to develop biological weapons.
It begins as flat, round lesions, primarily on the face and forearms, and evolves into deep, pus-filled blisters that may cover the entire body, including the palms and soles of the feet. In contrast, smallpox lesions in any area are all at the same stage in development and, in addition, smallpox lesions may have a small dimple in their center.
Hemorrhagic-type smallpox caused bleeding into the skin and other body parts and was almost always fatal within less than a week of the appearance of a rash. Tetanus infection is most often the result of wound contamination in an unimmunized person or someone who has not had vaccine boosters in many years. A child will often get 300 to 500 blisters during the infection, which crust over and fall off in one to two weeks. Complications are more common among adolescents and adults, and in immunocompromised persons of all ages, than in children. A pregnant woman who has never had chickenpox, but has been exposed, should contact her physician immediately. Most children who are immunized but later develop chickenpox have mild disease, although some may have more typical illness with fever and many lesions. However, in about 15% of patients, fever reappears after 24 hours with severe illness which includes hepatitis and hemorrhagic fever. Neonatal herpes can cause eye or throat infections, damage to the central nervous system, mental retardation, or death.
Herpes the baby gets in the uterus can cause: In the rare situation that a baby is infected with herpes, the most common problems, like skin or mouth sores or eye infections, can be treated safely with antiviral drugs. On the one hand, such concern is understandable, because herpes can have devastating consequences for a newborn. Although both herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1, also known as HHV1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2, also known as HHV2) can both cause neonatal herpes, most cases are caused by HSV2. A schoolgirl, meanwhile, insisted that her mother referred to it as her ‘fairy’, which is just begging for years of psychoanalysis later in life when she realises that at the same age, she believed that a fairy took her teeth in exchange for money. The same happened to Texas Governor Rick Perry, who since deleting the posts became the lucky recipient of oodles of hand-knitted and crocheted VAGINAS.
We wouldn’t go so far as to suggest that you inundate the Facebook page of that ‘feminine hygiene product’ (read: vagina perfume) with ‘VULVA’ posts, but here’s the link and a labelled diagram of the general area.
The proper officers are required weekly to inform the Health Protection Agency (HPA) Centre for Infections (CfI) of the details of each case of each disease that has been notified. The bacteria can release a toxin that spreads through the bloodstream and may cause muscle paralysis, heart and kidney failure, and death. Infected people are most likely to spread hepatitis A virus during the two-week period before they know they are infected. The younger the patient is when the disease is acquired, the more likely it is that he or she will develop chronic liver disease or liver cancer.
The majority of children who are hospitalized for influenza infection are less than 5 years of age and a quarter of them are less than 6 months old. The reasons for the spread are not certain but scientists think it may be due to increased pig farming near rural rice paddies in these areas, or the virus may be spread by migrating birds and wind-blown mosquitoes.
The risk for travelers acquiring JE infection depends on the season of travel, destination (rural areas being much higher risk than urban areas), duration of stay, and likelihood of mosquito exposure (dusk and night time are the preferred times for biting mosquitoes). Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne (spread from one host to another through a carrier such as a mosquito, fly, louse, or tick) disease in the U.S. Depending on the type of exposure some of these persons may be given antibiotics to prevent infection. The disease is most severe when it occurs early in life; it often requires hospitalization. Children from African-American and Native American populations also have higher rates of invasive (serious) pneumococcal disease than white children. However, while the PCV7 vaccine has reduced pneumococcal disease caused by the seven most common types causing infection in children, there are other pneumococcal types which can also cause serious infections in children. Each year in the United States, rotavirus infections resulted in 22.5 hospitalizations and 301 emergency room visits per 10,000 children less than 3 years of age. Some patients have a fever throughout the course of the rash (two to four weeks), and often the blisters cause significant pain. Chickenpox lesions generally occur on the torso, while the smallpox rash is most prominent on the face and extremities. The virus can be spread in the fluid from the blisters or droplets from an infected persona€™s nose or throat.
Since the highest risk to an infant comes when the mother contracts HSV-1 or 2 during pregnancy, you can take steps to ensure that you don’t transmit herpes during this crucial time.
Shout it from your office cubicle, your freelancer’s Starbucks table, your library cubby hole (also a euphemism for VAGINA). Finally - the mystery of where those milk teeth disappear to is solved (and with it, the origins of the possibly mythological disease ‘VAGINA dentata').
Then there was the viral video, ‘Republicans, Get in my VAGINA.’ VAGINAS are back, and they mean business.
As well as notifications of the infectious diseases specified below, the 2010 regulations also require GMPs to notify cases of ‘other infections or of contamination which they believe present, or could present, a significant risk to human health’, e.g. Approximately 5% of people who develop diphtheria (500 out of every 10,000) die from the disease and many more suffer permanent damage. Since most infected pre-school children show no symptoms of hepatitis A infection, they often unknowingly spread the hepatitis A virus to others. In addition, 1 to 3 of every 1,000 children who get measles in the United States dies from the disease. Studies report that first-year college students living in dormitories have a somewhat elevated risk for meningococcal disease when compared with other undergraduate students (See Related Issues).
Surveillance suggests an increase in disease in children aged < 5 years due to these nonvaccine serotypes, especially serotypes 3, 7F, and 19A, some of which are antibiotic resistant. In some cases, the poliovirus will paralyze the muscles used to breathe, leaving the victim unable to breathe on his or her own. That is, 1 in 150 children were hospitalized because of rotavirus infection and another 1 in 11 visited an emergency room or visited an outpatient clinic for rotavirus infection. When shingles develop, a rash or blisters appear on the skin, generally on one side of the body.
Most recently, a CIA intelligence review concluded that Iraq, France, North Korea, and Russia have covert stocks of smallpox virus, although the French government has denied the allegation. As a consequence, in June 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended a second dose of varicella-containing vaccine for all children.
The second argument for vaginal delivery is that there is no practical way to detect viral shedding quickly enough to affect a delivery decision. If a previously diagnosed herpes infection flares up during pregnancy, this should not affect your baby. Because children are the reservoir for the serotypes that cause invasive disease in older people, broadening the coverage of serotypes in the vaccine is desirable. The skin blisters in shingles contain the VZV virus so chickenpox-susceptible children can develop chickenpox when exposed to shingles.
Primary infection with HSV-2 is more likely to affect the central nervous system causing seizures, meningitis, developmental delay, and death. Diagnostic laboratories also have a requirement to notify the HPA of specified causative agents they identify in tests on human samples.
Those who do recover from paralytic polio may be affected 30 to 40 years later, with muscle pain and progressive weakness. This virus can be spread by sexual contact or from an infected mother to her baby during childbirth. HSV-1 more commonly affects the area around the mouth, while HSV-2 is more likely to affected the genital area, but both viruses can affect either region.



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Comments
  1. Desant016 09.02.2015 at 15:10:28
    Who has been lively the symptoms of oral herpes immune system and in case you get.
  2. DeHWeT 09.02.2015 at 11:11:14
    Could be irritating, the Mayo Clinic and use to deal with.
  3. LOVE_SEVGI 09.02.2015 at 21:29:41
    Arginine is a favorite nutrient of herpes and.
  4. Biohazard15 09.02.2015 at 16:50:54
    Also known as HSV-1 and Herpes Simplex professor of Virology and Chair of the.