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Blowdown of boilers to reduce the sludge and solid content allows heat to go down the drain. A device like the one shown below can be attached to the flue to recover a portion of the exhausted heat. You must have JavaScript enabled in your browser to utilize the functionality of this website. As energy costs rise, equipment suppliers, system designers, and operators focus increasingly on maximizing the efficiency of HVAC-system components to conserve energy and reduce operating expenses. In designing a pumping system, one needs to look beyond the pumps, if energy savings are to be achieved. Facility managers and owners must run their facilities’ operations as cost-effectively as possible.
An engineering study was completed to compare a water-cooled centrifugal chiller with a waterside economizer, to a single water-cooled magnetic bearing centrifugal chiller operating in inverted duty - the YORK YMC2 chiller.
Insulation can make or break the performance and longevity of a chilled water or variable refrigerant flow (VRF) system.
In our research, we examined publicly available documents of Fortune 500 and DAX 30 companies to develop a list of 13 themes and topic areas that companies use to position their brands. To discover how customers viewed these same themes, we surveyed more than 700 global executives across the six sectors, asking how important each theme was to the way they evaluated the brand strengths of their primary and secondary suppliers. This past summer, Josh and I had the opportunity to partner with Casa Latina by implementing a search engine optimization (SEO) solution for their website.  We were thrilled to be able to pitch in on such a crucial component of their service by helping to facilitate connections between potential employers and workers. After our SEO solution had been in place for three months, Casa Latina’s website showed dramatic advances (described in the table below) which contributed to an average increase of 240 organic visits a month – roughly a 10% surge in search engine traffic! As we come to the close of the fiscal year and move further into the holiday season, I hope the up-tick in search results will lead to an up-tick in job opportunities for our newly immigrated Latino neighbors and a competent labor supply for our community.  Working with a group as dedicated and thoughtful as Casa Latina is a distinct privilege, and we are thankful they are part of our community. While retail America might have you believe the thankful season begins in November with turkeys and pilgrim hats, it’s always started for me at the end of September when the first signs of Halloween appear.  As a candy connoisseur, a lover of active imaginations and a believer in the beauty of community, I couldn’t design a more perfect catalyst for gratitude than a holiday that encourages strangers to open their doors to little dreamers and shower them with candy. As the second oldest in a family of four kids, Kelly's spent 34 years actively navigating, analyzing and managing team dynamics. You sit down for a meeting with an important client feeling excited to hear what your colleagues will contribute and confident in their ability to build real solutions. During working sessions with colleagues, you lose track of time developing each other’s ideas and creating something new and better than either one of you first proposed.
You feel motivated to work harder and do more in order to help out a colleague or make a coworker look good because that person has done the same for you.  Just being with them inspires you to do a better job. When you’re stuck on a problem or doing final review of a project, you routinely ask a couple of colleagues for feedback and vice versa. Laughter, across-the-table high-fives, and shouts of “that’s a great idea” are standard behaviors in team work meetings.
You spend working sessions focusing on the problem, listening to colleagues and spit-balling ideas that come to mind rather than analyzing the politics at the table and heavily editing your contributions. In my estimation, being part of a great-full team that exhibits these behaviors is the professional career person’s equivalent to being part of the Avengers or the DC Justice League –you may be good alone, but you’re GREAT together and that is truly something to be trick-or-treat, spun-up-on-candy thankful for. Seems like everywhere I look these days someone’s talking about efficiency – from car advertisements, to business journals to laundry soap!  But how can a concept such as efficiency have so many applications and still be meaningful? Identify all activities that contribute to your key business objectives.  Which ones fall under your business’s unique value proposition?  Which ones do not? From the list of activities that do not contribute to your company’s unique value proposition, separate out the ones that have a finite time frame and an easy-to-measure return on investment from those which do not. Delegate activities with a finite time frame and easy-to-measure ROI to expert consultants. Not only was it an honor to work alongside a company that truly understands how to grow and create efficiencies in its daily business, but it was refreshing to see the practices we advocate thriving throughout their company. It’s become commonplace to hear people talk about “doing more with less.” We all want to make sure we’re getting the most out of our resources and investments which requires us to take a step back and ask not only, is this working, but is this working the best it can? Whether a business’s processes and departments have formed haphazardly through organic growth or were painstakingly crafted based on extensive research and experience, they invariably require fine tuning to ensure they’re strategically relevant, optimized for effectiveness and efficiency and contributing to organizational objectives. Like the professional designers in home remodeling shows, for certain complex projects an external team of consultants can deliver far superior results compared to those who try the DIY (do-it-yourself) approach by virtue of their outsider status and professional expertise. Take, for example, a project I worked on in which my team designed and executed a plan for improving complex application platform sales. My team brought fresh eyes and new ideas to the table, and the changes we  implemented reduced the sales cycle by half, while doubling the average sales transaction. As Senior Consultant, Rob Simpson is responsible for client engagement, project definition, strategic management and execution.
The more I reflected on the similarities, the more I realized that it’s probably easier to place in the top three in an Olympic event than in the top three on a search engine page. While these improvements may go a long way towards improving rankings, one thing that has deeply concerned me about these updates is that they appear reactive in nature and short sighted with respect to potential consequences. While an industrial enterprise may realize its pumping system could be more effective, what may not be obvious is that energy-efficient pumps can help reduce utility expenses. So, you may ask … if improving the energy efficiency of a pumping system can result in significant savings, why do operations teams find it difficult to initiate changes?
Monitor the operating point of a pump and its efficiency to observe trends as a basis for efficiency actions.
Establish preventive maintenance plans for systematic inspection to detect potential failures. Enable condition-based maintenance by monitoring pumping system data for an accurate status and risk assessment.
Deploy corrective maintenance measures as needed in response to an unanticipated problem or emergency. By adopting energy-efficient technologies, implementing reliable maintenance practices, and optimizing cost control of the utility bill, industries that operate pumping systems can establish an effective energy management plan, reduce TCO by 20%, and achieve their operational sustainability goals. For details and further discussion, you can read “Three Steps for Reducing Total Cost of Ownership in Pumping Systems,” a white paper that I co-authored with Arnaud Savreux , or leave a comment below.
With the dwindling supply of energy resources and new efficiency demands placed on the existing building stock, many owners of historic buildings and their architects are assessing the ability of these buildings to conserve energy with an eye to improving thermal performance. In historic buildings, many measures can result in the inappropriate alteration of important architectural features, or, perhaps even worse, cause serious damage to the historic building materials through unwanted chemical reactions or moisture caused deterioration.
Front porches and wide overhangs were common in homes of the early 1900s, like this Takoma Park, Maryland, bungalow.
Many historic buildings have energy saving physical features and devices that contribute to good thermal performance. Studies by the Energy Research and Development Administration (see bibliography) show that the buildings with the poorest energy efficiency are actually those built between 1940 and 1975. The most obvious (and almost universal) inherent energy saving characteristic was the use of operable windows to provide natural ventilation and light. Shutters can be used to minimize the problem of summer heat gain by shading the windows.
Early builders and architects dealt with the poor thermal properties of windows in two ways.
There are other physical characteristics that enable historic buildings to be energy efficient.
Winter heat loss from buildings in the northern climates was reduced by using heavy masonry walls, minimizing the number and size of windows, and often using dark paint colors for the exterior walls. Although these characteristics may not typify all historic buildings, the point is that historic buildings often have thermal properties that need little improvement. To reduce heating and cooling expenditures there are two broad courses of action that may be taken. The first passive measures to use are operational controls; that is, controlling how and when a building is used.
The passive measures outlined above can save as much as 30% of the energy used in a building.
In addition to passive measures, building owners may undertake certain retrofitting measures that will not jeopardize the historic character of the building and can be accomplished at a reasonable cost. When considering retrofitting measures, historic building owners should keep in mind that there are no permanent solutions.
The preservation retrofitting measures presented here, were developed to address the three most common problems in historic structures caused by some retrofitting actions. The second problem area is to assure that retrofitting measures do not create moisture-related deterioration problems.
In northern climates, the moisture may be a problem during the winter when it condenses on cold surfaces such as windows.
In southern climates, insulation and vapor barriers are handled quite differently because moisture problems occur in the summer when the moist outside air is migrating to the interior of the building. The third problem area involves the avoidance of those materials that are chemically or physically incompatible with existing materials, or that are improperly installed. Before a building owner or architect can plan retrofitting measures, some of the existing physical conditions of the building should be investigated. The recommended measures to preservation retrofitting begin with those at the top of the list. Air infiltration: Substantial heat loss occurs because cold outside air infiltrates the building through loose windows, doors, and cracks in the outside shell of the building.
Attic insulation: Heat rising through the attic and roof is a major source of heat loss, and reducing this heat loss should be one of the highest priorities in preservation retrofitting.
If the attic floor is inaccessible, or if it is impossible to add insulation along the roof rafters, consider attaching insulation to the ceilings of the rooms immediately below the attic.
Triple-track metal storm windows are recommended because they are readily available, in numerous sizes, and at a reasonable cost. Interior storm window installations can be as thermally effective as exterior storm windows; however, there is high potential for damage to the historic window and sill from condensation. In most cases, interior storm windows of either metal frames or of plastic sheets are not recommended for preservation retrofitting because of the potential for damage to the historic window. In heated basements, or where the basement contains the heating plant (furnace), or where there are exposed water and sewer pipes, insulation should be installed against foundation walls.
Installing insulation in the basement or crawl space should be a high priority of a preservation retrofitting plan, as long as adequate provision is made to ventilate the unheated space, perhaps even by installing an exhaust fan.
Storm doors have been added on the inside of this historic building as an energy-conserving device. Doors and storm doors: Most historic wooden doors, if they are solid wood or paneled, have fairly good thermal properties and should not be replaced, especially if they are important architectural features. A storm door would improve the thermal performance of the historic door; however, recent studies indicate that installing a storm door is not normally cost effective in residential settings.
The installation of wall insulation in historic frame buildings can result in serious technical and preservation problems. If adding wall insulation to frame buildings is determined to be absolutely necessary, the first approach should be to consider the careful removal of the exterior siding so that it may later be reinstalled. If it is feasible, introducing insulation in this fashion provides the best possible solution to insulating a wall, and provides an excellent opportunity to view most of the structural system for possible hidden structural problems or insect infestations.
The second possible approach for wall insulation involves injecting or blowing insulation into the wall cavity.
In addition to providing a vapor barrier, make provisions for some air to circulate in the wall cavity to help ventilate the insulation and the wall materials.
With provisions for a vapor barrier (interior paint layer) and wall ventilation (exterior vents) satisfied, the appropriate type of wall insulation may then be selected. Blown cellulose (with boric acid as the fire retardant) Cellulose is the preferred wall insulation because of its higher R factor and its capability to flow well into the various spaces within a wall cavity. Two insulation types that are not recommended for wall insulation: ureaformaldehyde foams, and cellulose which uses aluminum or ammonium sulfate instead of boric acid as a fire retardant.
Although ureaformaldehyde foams appear to have potential as retrofit materials (they flow into any wall cavity space and have a high R factor) their use is not recommended for preservation retrofitting until some serious problems are corrected. Adding insulation to this cavity alters the vapor barrier and thermal cushion functions of the air space and will likely clog the weep holes, causing the moisture to puddle at the base of the wall.
New siding covers from view existing or potential deterioration problems or insect infestations. Additionally, installation often results in damage or alteration to existing decorative features such as beaded weatherboarding, window and door trim, corner boards, cornices, or roof trim. The cost of installing the artificial sidings compared with the modest increase, if any, in the thermal performance of the wall does not add up to an effective energy-saving measure. Good preservation practice would assure regular maintenance of the existing siding through periodic painting and caulking. In cases where exterior brick is painted, consider continued periodic painting and maintenance, since paints are an excellent preservation treatment for brick. A detailed treatise of recommended or not recommended heating or air conditioning equipment, or of alternative energy sources such as solar energy or wind power, is beyond the scope of this brief. The primary focus of this brief has been to describe ways to achieve the maximum energy savings in historic buildings without jeopardizing the architectural, cultural and historical qualities for which the properties have been recognized. Lastly, and perhaps most important, we must recognize that the technologies of retrofitting and weatherization are relatively new.
This publication has been prepared pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended, which directs the Secretary of the Interior to develop and make available information concerning historic properties. In this webinar the results of the study will be presented, summarizing the differences between the two options in terms of chiller plant design, first costs, operating costs, and ownership (maintenance, footprint, and controls).
Business customers, like consumers, engage with companies through search, online communities, and Web-based video, so these are potentially powerful tools for delivering B2B brand messages and amplifying their impact. These were broad ranging, from the extremely practical (low prices) to the more elevated (corporate social responsibility). We used multiple regression analysis to determine the extent to which a theme influenced the correlation.

Themes such as social responsibility, sustainability, and global reach, which many B2B companies cast in a leading role for brand imaging, appeared to have a minimal influence on buyers’ perceptions of brand strength.
While management can often recognize areas that aren’t performing as efficiently as they think they should, they need the unbiased insights from trusted outsiders to provide truly transformative recommendations. In theory, this kind of evaluation work may seem ideal for an internal team to perform, but in practice a trusted third party oftentimes delivers better results. Biases toward particular ideas based on “what has already been tried,” the opinions of influential employees, and office politics can impose artificial boundaries on the discovery process. It’s important not to make assumptions or rely on inferences about how and why things work the way they do; rather the team must approach the situation with fresh eyes and ask probing questions. Participants cannot be afraid of “breaking” something in the short run to create a better long-term solution.
Our client knew the investment in new sales resources could provide  competitive advantage if utilized correctly.
Maybe tomorrow we’ll hear about a new reality series “Extreme Makeover: Business Edition” that follows professional consultants as they evaluate the effectiveness of a business and make radical improvements.
Prior to joining Audienz, Rob worked in a variety of consulting roles with several leading technology companies, including Doble Engineering, MCK Communications, Akamai, Symbol Technologies and Meridian Technology Marketing. Thousands of competent athletes compete, but only the top three receive any real recognition. These updates, which Google began rolling out in 2011, are an attempt to improve search and better combat ever more technically advanced spammers from dominating their rankings. Imagine your desktop to be like a phone where with simple sweep of your fingers you can browse and purchase apps, very clean and simple. Typically, pumping system performance ratings aren’t tied to energy efficiency, making it difficult to justify resources for energy improvements. This brief has been developed to assist those persons attempting energy conservation measures and weatherization improvements such as adding insulation and storm windows or caulking of exterior building joints. This brief recommends measures that will achieve the greatest energy savings with the least alteration to the historic buildings, while using materials that do not cause damage and that represent sound economic investments. Older buildings were found to use less energy for heating and cooling and hence probably require fewer weatherization improvements.
First, the number of windows in a building was kept to only those necessary to provide adequate light and ventilation. For instance, in the warmer climates of the United States, buildings were often built to minimize the heat gain from the summer sun. The heavy masonry walls used so typically in the late 19th century and early 20th century, exhibit characteristics that improve their thermal performance beyond that formerly recognized.
One must understand the inherent energy saving qualities of a building, and assure, by reopening the windows for instance, that the building functions as it was intended. First, begin passive measures to assure that a building and its existing components function as efficiently as possible without the necessity of making alterations or adding new materials.
These controls incorporate programmatic planning and scheduling efforts by the owner to minimize usage of energy-consuming equipment.
They should be the first undertakings to save energy in any existing building and are particularly appropriate for historic buildings because they do not necessitate building alterations or the introduction of new materials that may cause damage.
Preservation retrofitting improves the thermal performance of the building, resulting in another 20 to 30 percent reduction in energy.
The first problem concerns retrofitting actions that necessitated inappropriate building alterations, such as the wholesale removal of historic windows, or the addition of insulating aluminum siding, or installing dropped ceilings in significant interior spaces.
One must recognize that large quantities of moisture are present on the interior of buildings. As the moisture passes through the walls and roof it may condense within these materials, creating the potential for deterioration.
In these cases, the insulation is installed with the vapor barrier facing out (opposite the treatment of northern climates). A serious problem exists with certain cellulose insulations that use ammonium or aluminum sulfate as a fire retardant, rather than boric acid which causes no problems. The basic building components (attic, roof, walls and basement) should be checked to determine the methods of construction used and the presence of insulation. The first ones are the simplest, least expensive, and offer the highest potential for saving energy. Adding weather-stripping to doors and windows, and caulking of open cracks and joints will substantially reduce this infiltration. Adding insulation in accessible attic spaces is very effective in saving energy and is generally accomplished at a reasonable cost, requiring little skill to install. This lack of ventilation will cause the insulation to become saturated and lose its thermal effectiveness. Some insulations are manufactured specifically for these cases and include a durable surface which becomes the new ceiling. Windows are a primary source of heat loss because they are both a poor thermal barrier (R factor of only 0.89) and often a source of air infiltration. If a preassembled storm window is not available for a particular window size, and a custom-made storm window is required, the cost can be very high. With storm windows on the interior, the outer sash (in this case the historic sash) will be cold in the winter, and hence moisture may condense there. If interior storm windows are in place, the potential for moisture deterioration can be lessened by opening (or removing, depending on the type) the storm windows during the mild months allowing the historic window to dry thoroughly. Begin the insulation within the first floor joists, and proceed down the wall to a point at least 3 feet below the exterior ground level if possible, with the vapor barrier facing in. Wrapping insulation around heating and cooling ducts and hot water pipes, is a recommended preservation retrofitting measure.
In the past, awnings and trees were used extensively to provide shade to keep buildings cooler in the summer. Assure that the frames and doors have proper maintenance, regular painting, and that caulking and weather-stripping is applied as necessary.
Vestibules create a secondary air space at a doorway to reduce air infiltration occurring while the primary door is open. Unfortunately, a common weatherization measure, especially in larger buildings, has been the replacement of historic windows with modern double paned windows. The addition of wall insulation in a wood frame building is generally not recommended as a preservation retrofitting measure because the costs are high, and the potential for damage to historic building materials is even higher. As discussed before, insulation must be kept dry to function properly, and requires a vapor barrier and some provision for air movement. Then introduce batt insulation with the vapor barrier facing in into the now accessible wall cavity. A building owner should not consider this approach if it would result in substantial damage to or loss of historic wooden siding.
The common insulations are the loose fill types that can be blown into the cavity, the poured types, or the injected types such as foam.
The cellulose treated with the sulfates reacts with moisture in the air and forms sulfuric acid which corrodes many metals and causes building stones to slowly disintegrate.
The major problem is that the injected material carries large quantities of moisture into the wall system.
This process has caused interior and exterior paint to blister, and caused water to actually puddle at the base of a wall, creating the likelihood of serious deterioration to the historic building materials. Some owners of historic buildings with masonry cavity wall construction have attempted to introduce insulation into the cavity. Also, the addition of insulation creates a situation where the moisture dew point (where moisture condenses) moves from the inner face of the outer wythe, into the outer wythe itself. Insulation could be added to a wall whether it be wooden or masonry, by attaching the insulation to furring strips mounted on the interior wall faces. There is a growing use of aluminum or vinyl siding installed directly over historic wooden sidings, supposedly to reduce long-term maintenance and to improve the thermal performance of the wall. Where deterioration is present, individual pieces of siding should be removed and replaced with matching new ones.
Some owners of historic buildings use waterproof coatings on masonry believing it will improve the thermal performance of the wall by keeping it dry (dry masonry would have a better R factor than when wet).
When repainting, a building owner might consider choosing a light paint color in warm climates, or a dark color in cold climates, to gain some advantage over the summer heat gain or winter heat loss, whichever the case may be. The best advice concerning mechanical equipment in historic buildings is to assure that the existing equipment works as efficiently as possible. This can be accomplished through undertaking the passive measures and the "recommended" preservation retrofitting. Unfortunately, most current research and product development is directed toward new construction. Retrofitting Existing Housing for Energy Conservation: An Economic Analysis, Building Science Series 64. UreaFormaldehyde Based Foam Insulations: An Assessment of Their Properties and Performance. Technical Preservation Services (TPS), Heritage Preservation Services Division, National Park Service prepares standards, guidelines, and other educational materials on responsible historic preservation treatments for a broad public. Our research suggests a potential stumbling block, though: a marked apparent divergence between the core messages companies communicate about their brands and the characteristics their customers value most. We then selected the top 90 global B2B companies by market capitalization across six surveyed sectors. The inverse was true, as well: two of the most important themes for customer perceptions of brand strength—effective supply chain management and specialist market knowledge—were among those least mentioned by B2B suppliers. I can’t bring myself to look away when a team of professionals take control of a project and unlock the potential.
After years of lagging the competition, management decided it was time to invest and regain the position as market leader. In the home improvement world, this would be something like doubling the property value for half the standard cost and then using the blueprints to build more houses.
Some people won’t find the before and after pictures of business remodels as sexy as bathroom remodels (think spreadsheets versus Jacuzzi tubs), but don’t worry if you can’t bring yourself to change the channel.
In the same way, hundreds of thousands of businesses with smart, competent employees build websites to attract new customers via web search, yet only the first few get many visitors.
Google’s Penguin update specifically focused on unnatural backlinks, such as thousands of comment signature links on blogs, or site-wide links all pointing to the same web page. The summary of it is how Windows 8 plus devices will allow MSFT to compete more effectively given the consumerization of IT.
By following energy management best practices, a manufacturer can decrease the electrical consumption of its pumping system by at least 30%, yielding a 20% reduction in TCO and a return on investment within 24 months.
But with a limited investment, following three basic energy management steps can help industries meet their sustainability objectives and reduce ownership costs. They use less energy because they were built with a well-developed sense of physical comfort and because they maximized the natural sources of heating, lighting and ventilation. These features provide energy efficient fresh air and light, assuring that energy consuming mechanical devices may be needed only to supplement the natural energy sources.
This differs from the approach in many modern buildings where the percentage of windows in a wall can be nearly 100%.
This was accomplished by introducing exterior balconies, porches, wide roof overhangs, awnings and shade trees.
It has been determined that walls of large mass and weight (thick brick or stone) have the advantage of high thermal inertia, also known as the "M factor." This inertia modifies the thermal resistance (R factor) (1) of the wall by lengthening the time scale of heat transmission. The second course of action is preservation retrofitting, which includes altering the building by making appropriate weatherization measures to improve thermal performance.
A building should survey and quantify all aspects of energy usage, by evaluating the monies expended for electricity, gas, and fuel oil for a year. In the future, it is likely that the standards and the technologies will change and a whole new retrofitting plan may be necessary. To avoid such alterations, refer to the Secretary of the Interior's "Standards for Historic Preservation Projects" which provide the philosophical and practical basis for all preservation retrofitting measures (see last page). Expert advice should be sought to avoid moisture-related problems to insulation and building materials in southern climates. The sulfates react with moisture in the air forming sulfuric acid which can cause damage to most metals (including plumbing and wiring), building stones, brick and wood. The remaining measures are not recommended for general use either because of potential technical and preservation problems, or because of the costs outweighing the anticipated energy savings. Care should be taken not to reduce infiltration to the point where the building is completely sealed and moisture migration is prevented.
The most common attic insulations include blankets of fiberglass and mineral wool, blown-in cellulose (treated with boric acid only), blowing wool, vermiculite, and blown fiberglass. This option should not be considered if it causes irreparable damage to historic or architectural spaces or features; however, in other cases, it could be a recommended measure of a preservation retrofitting plan.
In this case, compare the cost of manufacture and installation with the expected cost savings resulting from the increased thermal efficiency.
This condensation often collects on the flat surface of the sash or window sill causing paint to blister and the wood to begin to deteriorate.
Adding insulation in these locations is an effective preservation retrofitting measure and should be a high priority action. Use insulation which is intended for this use and install it according to manufacturer's recommendations. If awnings or trees are in place, keep them in good condition, and take advantage of their energy-saving contribution. Therefore, storm doors should only be added to buildings in cold climates, and added in such a way to minimize the visual impact on the building's appearance.
The intention was to improve the thermal performance of the existing windows and to reduce longterm maintenance costs.

Also, wall insulation is not particularly effective for small frame buildings (one story) because the heat loss from the uninsulated walls is a relatively small percentage of the total, and part of that can be attributed to infiltration. Introducing insulation in wall cavities, without a vapor barrier and some ventilation can be disastrous.
The first step in this approach is an investigation to determine if the siding can be removed without causing serious damage.
Most siding, however, would probably withstand this method if reasonable care is exercised. One method is to install small screened vents (about 2 inches in diameter) at the base of each stud cavity. This is not good practice because it ignores the fact that masonry cavity walls normally have acceptable thermal performance, needing no improvement. Thus, during a freeze, this condensation will freeze, causing spalling and severe deterioration. Refer to the earlier sections of this brief for recommended retrofitting measures to improve the thermal performance of wood frame walls.
Application of waterproof coatings is not recommended because the coatings actually trap moisture within the masonry, and can cause spalling and severe deterioration during a freezing cycle. These colors should match those used historically on the building or should match colors available historically.
If the best professional advice recommends replacement of existing equipment, a building owner should keep the following considerations in mind. Secondly, this brief has emphasized the benefits of undertaking the retrofitting measures in phases so that the actual energy savings anticipated from each retrofitting measure can be realized.
It is hoped that reports such as this, and the realization that fully 30% of all construction in the United States now involves work on existing buildings, will stimulate the development of new products that can be used with little hesitation in historic buildings. We reviewed the public documents of the companies to verify how many of their brand messages were clearly linked to the 13 themes that emerged from the broader sample (3 of them didn’t appear among the 90 companies).
Honest and open dialogue, which customers considered most important, was one of the three themes not emphasized at all by the 90 companies in our sample.
It’s not that the owners don’t know the potential exists or can’t articulate what’s missing; rather they need an outside expert to help prioritize the changes and lend a fresh perspective. The  notion is that the Windows 8 will be the predominant choice for enterprise tablets but with cool features for consumers as well. Any time the mechanical heating and air conditioning equipment can be turned off and the windows opened, energy will be saved. Historic buildings where the ratio of glass to wall is often less than 20%, are better energy conservers than most new buildings. In addition, many of these buildings were designed with the living spaces on the second floor to catch breezes and to escape the radiant heat from the earth's surface.
For instance, a wall with high thermal inertia, subjected to solar radiation for an hour, will absorb the heat at its outside surface, but transfer it to the interior over a period as long as 6 hours.
Undertaking the passive measures and the preservation retrofitting recommended here could result in a 50% decrease in energy expenditures in historic buildings.
Thus, owners of historic buildings should limit retrofitting measures to those that achieve reasonable energy savings, at reasonable costs, with the least intrusion or impact on the character of the building. In one instance, a metal building insulated with cellulose of this type collapsed when the sulfuric acid weakened the structural connections! This inspection will aid in determining the need for additional insulation, what type of insulation to use (batt, blown-in, or poured), and where to install it.
Specific solutions must be determined based on the facts and circumstances of the particular problem; therefore, advice from professionals experienced in historic preservation, such as, architects, engineers and mechanical contractors should be solicited.
If the attic is unheated (not used for habitation), then the insulation is placed between the floor joists with the vapor barrier facing down. With adequate attic ventilation, the addition of attic insulation should be one of the highest priorities of a preservation retrofitting plan.
If a building has existing storm windows (either wood or metal framed), they should be retained.
Generally, custom-made storm windows, of either wood or metal frames, are not cost effective, and would not be recommended in a preservation retrofitting plan. Rigid plastic sheets are used as interior storm windows by attaching them directly to the historic sash. Note that air conditioning ducts will be cold in the summer, and hence moisture will condense there. Building owners may consider adding awnings or trees if the summer cooling load is substantial.
The storm door design should be compatible with the architectural character of the building and may be painted to match the colors of the historic door. If not, adding a vestibule, either on the exterior or interior, should be carefully considered to determine the possible visual impact on the character of the building. The evidence is clear that adding exterior storm windows is a viable alternative to replacing the historic windows and it is the recommended approach in preservation retrofitting. If, however, the historic building is two or more stories, and is located in a cold climate, wall insulation may be considered if extreme care (as explained later) is exercised with its installation.
The insulation would become saturated, losing its thermal properties, and in fact, actually increasing the heat loss through the wall.
However, an equivalent vapor barrier can be created by assuring that the interior wall surfaces are covered with an impermeable paint layer. Additionally, introducing insulation into the cavity will most likely result in condensation problems and alter the intended function of the cavity. The evidence is clear that introducing insulation, of any type, into a masonry cavity wall is not recommended in a preservation retrofitting plan. Extra caution must be exercised if rigid plastic foam insulation is used because it can give off dense smoke and rapidly spreading flame when burned. First, as technology advances in the coming years, the equipment installed now will be outdated rapidly relative to the life of the historic building. Thus, the "not recommended" retrofitting measures, with potential for damage or alteration of historic building materials, would not have to be undertaken, because the maximum feasible savings would have already been accomplished. Until that time, owners of historic buildings can undertake the preservation retrofitting measures recommended here and greatly reduce the energy used for heating and cooling, without destroying those historic and architectural qualities that make the building worthy of preservation. Then we assessed the degree to which the companies aligned their brand messages with the remaining 10 themes. In addition to these disconnects, our analysis showed a surprising similarity among the brand themes that leading B2B companies emphasized, suggesting a tendency to follow the herd rather than create strongly differentiated brand messages. Secondly, to minimize the heat gain or loss from windows, historic buildings often include interior or exterior shutters, interior Venetian blinds, curtains and drapes, or exterior awnings. Also, exterior walls were often painted light colors to reflect the hot summer sun, resulting in cooler interior living spaces. Conversely, a wall having the same R factor, but low thermal inertia, will transfer the heat in perhaps 2 hours.
Overzealous retrofitting, which introduces the risk of damage to historic building materials, should not be undertaken.
To avoid problems such as these, refer to the recommendations provided here, and consult with local officials, such as a building inspector, the better business bureau, or a consumer protection agency.
In addition, sources of air infiltration should be checked at doors, windows, or where floor and ceiling systems meet the walls.
Avoid caulking and weather-stripping materials that, when applied, introduce inappropriate colors or otherwise visually impair the architectural character of the building.
If flooring is present, or if the attic is heated, the insulation is generally placed between the roof rafters with the vapor barrier facing in.
They are not quite as effective as the storm windows described previously because of the possibility of air infiltration around the historic sash. One must be aware of this and assure that insulation is properly installed for the specific location.
If awnings are added, assure that they are installed without damaging the building or visually impairing its architectural character. However, if the historic windows are severely deteriorated and their repair would be impractical, or economically infeasible, then replacement windows may be warranted.
Additionally, the moisture (in vapor form) may condense into water droplets and begin serious deterioration of adjacent building materials such as sills, window frames, framing and bracing.
Two layers of oil base paint or one layer of impermeable latex paint constitute an acceptable vapor barrier.
To obtain the exact proportion of the two parts, the foam must be mixed and installed under controlled conditions of temperature and humidity. The air cavity acts as a vapor barrier in that moist air passing through the inner wythe of masonry meets the cold face of the outer wythe and condenses. Therefore, it may be best to wait and watch, until new technologies (such as solar energy) become more feasible, efficient, and inexpensive. High thermal inertia is the reason many older public and commercial buildings, without modern air conditioning, still feel cool on the inside throughout the summer.
Lastly, it is important to check the condition of the exterior wall materials, such as painted wooden siding or brick, and the condition of the roof, to determine the weather tightness of the building.
Reducing air infiltration should be the first priority of a preservation retrofitting plan. If they are not in place, it is a recommended measure of a preservation retrofitting plan to add new metal framed windows on the exterior.
If the rigid plastic sheets are used, assure that they are installed with minimum damage to the historic sash, removed periodically to allow the historic sash to dry, and that the historic frame and sash are completely caulked and weather-stripped. For instance, in crawl spaces and certain unheated basements, the insulation is generally placed between the first floor joists (the ceiling of the basement) with the vapor barrier facing up. These measures are inexpensive and have little potential for damage to the historic building. If trees are added, select deciduous trees that provide shade in the summer but, after dropping their leaves, would allow the sun to warm the building in the winter. Adding a vestibule should be considered in very cold climates, or where door use is very high, but in either case, the additional question of visual intrusion must be resolved before it is added. The new windows, of either wood or metal, should closely match the historic windows in size, number of panes, muntin shape, frame, color and reflective qualities of the glass.
The situation is greatly complicated, because correcting such problems could necessitate the complete (and costly) dismantling of the exterior or interior wall surfaces. Assure that each piece of siding is separated from the other, allowing some air to pass between them. There are cases where the controls were not followed and the foam either cured improperly, not attaining the desired R factor, or the foam continued to emit a formaldehyde smell.
Water droplets form and fall to the bottom of the wall cavity where they are channeled to the outside through weep holes.
Insulation should not be installed on the inside if it necessitates relocation or destruction of important architectural decoration, such as cornices, chair rails, or window trims, or causes the destruction of historic plaster or other wall finishes.
Secondly, do not install new equipment and ductwork in such a way that its installation, or possible later removal, will cause irreversible damage to significant historic building materials.
The heat from the midday sun does not penetrate the buildings until late afternoon and evening, when it is unoccupied. A building owner must assure that rain and snow are kept out of the building before expending money for weatherization improvements.
When planting trees, assure that they are no closer than 10 feet to the building to avoid damage to the foundations. It should be clear that adding wall insulation has the potential for causing serious damage to historic building materials. Special attention should be given to rooms that are major sources of interior moisture--the laundry room, the bathrooms and the kitchen. In addition, the advertised maximum shrinkage after curing (3%) has been tested and found to be twice as high. The air cavity also improves the thermal performance of the wall because it slows the transfer of heat or cold between the two wythes, causing the two wall masses to function independently with a thermal cushion between them.
Insulation installed in this fashion would be expensive and could only be a recommended preservation retrofitting measure if it is a large building, located in a cold climate, and if the interior spaces and features have little or no architectural significance.
The concept of complete invisibility, which necessitates hiding piping and ductwork within wall and floor systems, may not always be appropriate for historic buildings because of the damage that often results. Adding either awnings or shade trees may be expensive, but in hot climates, the benefits can justify the costs.
Break the paint seal (carefully insert a chisel and twist) between the sections of exterior siding to provide the necessary ventilation for the insulation and wall materials. Until this material is further developed and the risks eliminated, it is clearly not an appropriate material for preservation retrofitting. Every effort should be made to select a mechanical system that will require the least intrusion into the historic fabric of the building and that can be updated or altered without major intervention into the wall and floor systems. If the metal frames visually impair the appearance of the building, it may be necessary to paint them to match the color of the historic frame . These points should be considered when weighing the decision to replace a less than efficient exiting system with a costly new system, which may cause substantial damage to the historic building materials and in turn may prove inefficient in the future.
The manual also recommends the amount of attic insulation used in various parts of the country. If the attic has some insulation, add more (but without a vapor barrier) to reach the total depth recommended.

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