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Attachment of the viral fiber glycoproteins to host receptors mediates endocytosis of the virus into the host cell and fiber shedding. Vaccine for hydropericardium syndrome (HPS), made from inactivated fowl adenovirus C serotype 4.
The viral RNA dependent RNA polymerase binds the encapsidated genome at the leader region, then sequentially transcribes each genes by recognizing start and stop signals flanking viral genes.
The primary product of the unedited transcript of GP gene yields a smaller non-structural glycoprotein sGP which is efficiently secreted from infected cells. Cellular receptor like HAVCR1(TIM1) binds phosphatidyl serine on virion membrane and a signal is transduced into the cell that trigger the macropinocytosis program by apoptotic mimicry. GP1 interacts with host NPC1, in late macropinosome and promotes Fusion of virus membrane with the vesicle membrane. Sequential transcription, viral mRNAs are capped and polyadenylated by polymerase stuttering in the cytoplasm.
Replication presumably starts when enough nucleoprotein is present to encapsidate neo-synthetized antigenomes and genomes. The ribonucleocapsid interacts with the matrix protein, and buds via the host ESCRT complexes from the plasma membrane, releasing the virion . C-type lectins DC-SIGN and L-SIGN mediate cellular entry by Ebola virus in cis and in transCarmen P. Ebola virus entry requires the host?programmed recognition of an intracellular receptorEmily Happy Miller, Gregor Obernosterer, Matthijs Raaben, Andrew S. A PPxY motif within the VP40 protein of Ebola virus interacts physically and functionally with a ubiquitin ligase: implications for filovirus buddingR. Overlapping motifs (PTAP and PPEY) within the Ebola virus VP40 protein function independently as late budding domains: involvement of host proteins TSG101 and VPS-4Jillian M. Small Glycoprotein (sGP) is a secreted truncated version of GP that prevent host antibodies anti-GP to effectively neutralize it .
Ebolavirus may encode for a superantigen, thereby inhibiting Vbeta t cells Evidence for Ebola virus superantigen activityEric M Leroy, Pierre Becquart, Nadia Wauquier, Sylvain BaizeJ.
In addition to genomic DNA, up to 4 satellite-like DNAs are commonly found, usually encoding for accessory Rep proteins (para-Rep).
Bidirectional dsDNA transcription from the IR promoter produces viral mRNAs and translation of viral proteins. Replication is initiated by cleavage of the (+)strand by REP, and occurs by rolling circle producing ssDNA genomes.
Nanovirus Clink protein is responsible for inhibiting host retinoblastoma protein and inducing transition from the G1 to S phase in preparation for virus replication since the virus targets differentiated non-dividing cells.
The integrated provirus utilizes the promoter elements in the 5’ LTR to drive transcription.
Nuclear entry of the viral dsDNA which is covalently and randomly integrated into the cell’s genome by the viral integrase (=provirus integration). Assembly of the virion at the host cellular membrane and packaging of the viral RNA genome.
Proteolytic processing of the precursors polyproteins by viral protease and maturation of the virions.


Non enveloped, icosahedral virion with a double capsid structure (except for cypoviruses and dinovernaviruses which have only the equivalent of the inner capsid). The dsRNA genome is never completely uncoated to prevent activation of antiviral state by the cell in response to dsRNA. Particles are partially uncoated in endolysosomes, but not entirely, and penetrate in the cytoplasm. Early transcription of the dsRNA genome by viral polymerase occurs inside this sub-viral particle (naked core), so that dsRNA is never exposed to the cytoplasm.
Mature virions are released presumably following cell death and associated breakdown of host plasma membrane. Bluetongue virus also mediates host cell apoptosis via caspases activaton (caspases-8, caspases-9, caspase-3, and caspase-7) .
Two distinct infectious virus particles exists: the intracellular mature virus (IMV) and the extracellular enveloped virus (EEV).
Attachment of the viral proteins to host glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) mediates endocytosis of the virus into the host cell. Core is completely uncoated as early expression ends, viral genome is now free in the cytoplasm.
Intermediate phase: Intermediate genes are expressed, triggering genomic DNA replication at approximately 100 minutes post-infection. Late phase: Late genes are expressed from 140 min to 48 hours post-infection, producing all structural proteins. Assembly of progeny virions starts in cytoplasmic viral factories, producing an spherical immature particle.
IMV virion can be released upon cell lysis, or can acquire a second double membrane from trans-Golgi and bud as external enveloped virion (EEV). Enveloped virion of which the membrane is surrounded by a capsid with an icosahedral symmetry (T=169), 104-118 nm in diameter. Monopartite, linear ssRNA(+) genome of 27-32kb in size (the largest of all RNA virus genomes).
Attachment of the viral S protein (maybe also HE if present) to host receptors mediates endocytosis of the virus into the host cell.
Fusion of virus membrane with the endosomal membrane (probably mediated by S2), ssRNA(+) genome is released into the cytoplasm.
Human coronavirus induces neuronal apoptosis via mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor and cyclophilin D . Virus attaches to host receptors through major surface antigen and enters the cell by an unknown mechanism. Relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) and capsid are transported via microtubules to the nucleus where DNA is released through the nuclear pore, and repaired to form covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA).
Transcription by RNA polymerase II of the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA) and subgenomic mRNAs, inducing synthesis of all the viral proteins. Transport to the nucleus of new RC-DNA leads to cccDNA amplification; alternatively, the RC-DNA containing nucleocapsids are enveloped at the ER, and new virions are released by exocytosis. The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses has updated Virus Taxonomy in 2014, voted and accepted it in 2015 .


A HIV home page have been developed to describe the molecular biology of HIV and the effect of antiretroviral drugs on it. TWIV:This Week in Virology is a weekly podcast animated by professors Vincent Racaniello and Dick Despommier from the Columbia University, USA. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Ratification vote on taxonomic proposals to the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (2015)M. The genome has terminally redundant sequences which have inverted terminal repetitions (ITR). All genes are transcribed by host RNA pol II except virus-associated (VA) gene(s) of some fowl adenoviruses transcribed by RNA pol III. In some culture cells, GP glycoprotein can be processed by host Cathepsin L and Cathepsin B into 19kDa GP1. Each ssDNA segment have a common stem-loop region and are encapsidated in a separate particle. These satellite-rep proteins are only able to initiate replication of their genomic DNA, unlike genomic encoded Master-Rep (M-Rep) which promotes replication of all 6-8 viral genomic ssDNAs (trans-replication). This gives rise to the unspliced full length mRNA that will serve as genomic RNA to be packaged into virions or used as a template for translation of gag(pro) and gag(pro)-pol (1 ribosomal frameshift) polyproteins.
The outer capsid has a T=13 icosahedral symmetry, the inner capsid a T=2 icosahedral symmetry. The linear genome is flanked by inverted terminal repeat (ITR) sequences which are covalently-closed at their extremities.
The RNA genome is associated with the N protein to form the nucleocapsid (helical for the genus coronavirus, and tubular for the genus torovirus) see Neuman BW et al. Resulting proteins pp1a and pp1ab are processed into the viral polymerase (RdRp) and other non-structural proteins involved in RNA synthesis. This page includes basic information on the epidemiology of the Zika virus and links to its proteome and genome. Viralzone taxonomy has been updated accordingly, new taxonomic pages are marked by the logo.
The capsid shell consists of 720 hexon subunits arranged as 240 trimers and 12 vertex penton capsomers each with a fiber protruding from the surface.
Genes transcribed by RNA pol II give rise to multiple mRNA that are produced by alternative splicing and use of different poly(A) sites.
Each RNA (genomic and subgenomic) is translated to yield only the protein encoded by the 5’-most ORF.



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